Flowability and Strength Development Characteristics of Bottom Ash Based Geopolymer
Despite of the preponderant role played by cement among the construction materials, it is today considered as a material destructing the environment due to the large quantities of carbon dioxide exhausted during its manufacture. Besides, global warming is now recognized worldwide as the new threat to the humankind against which advanced countries are investigating measures to reduce the current amount of exhausted gases to the half by 2050. Accordingly, efforts to reduce green gases are exerted in all industrial fields. Especially, the cement industry strives to reduce the consumption of cement through the development of alkali-activated geopolymer mortars using industrial byproducts like bottom ash. This study intends to gather basic data on the flowability and strength development characteristics of alkali-activated geopolymer mortar by examining its FT-IT features with respect to the effects and strength of the alkali-activator in order to develop bottom ash-based alkali-activated geopolymer mortar. The results show that the 35:65 mass ratio of sodium hydroxide to sodium silicate is appropriate and that a molarity of 9M for sodium hydroxide is advantageous. The ratio of the alkali-activators to bottom ash is seen to have poor effect on the strength. Moreover, the FT-IR analysis reveals that larger improvement of the strength shifts the peak from 1060 cm–1 (T-O, T=Si or Al) toward shorter wavenumber.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1075180Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 A. Fernandez-Jimenez, A. Palomo and M. Criad, "Microstructure develo pment of alkali-activated fly ash cement: a descriptive model", Cement a nd Concrete Research, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 1204-1209, 2005.
 A. Sathonsaowaphak, P. Chindaprasirt and K. Pimraksa, "Workability an d Strength of Lignite Bottom ash Geopolymer Mortar," Journal of Hazar dous Materials, Vol. 168, No. 1, pp. 44-50, 2009.
 B.C. Lee, S.H. Jung, H.J. Kwon, J.S. Kim and J.H. Kim, "The properties of mortar used coal-based bottom ash(CBBA) ", Journal of the Korean S ociety of Waste Management, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 515-525, 2009.
 B.W. Jo, J. Koo and S.K. Park, "Hardening characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash paste by alkaline activation", Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 2A, pp. 289-294, 2005.
 B.W. Jo, M.S. Park and S.K. Park, "Strength development and hardening mechanism of alkali activated fly ash mortar", Journal of the Korea Conc rete Institute, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 449-458, 2006.
 D. Hardjito and B.V. Rangan, "Development and properties of low-calci um fly ash-based geopolymer concrete, Research Report CC-1, Faculty o f Engineering", Curtin University of Technology, 2005.
 D.U. Oh, B.J. Kim, C.K. Yi and K.I. Kang, "The experimental study on hardening characteristics of bottom ash by alkali activation", Journal of t he Korea Institute of Building Construction, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 103-106, 2008.
 G. Kovalchuk, A. Fernandez-Jimenez and A Palomo, "Alkali-activated fl y ash: Effect of thermal curing conditions on mechanical and microstruct ural development - Part II", Fuel, Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 315-322, 2007.
 H.J. Kang, G.S. Ryu, K.T. Koh, S.T. Kang, J.J. Park, S.W. Kim and J.H. Lee, "Effect of Alkaline Activator and Curing Condition on the Compres sive Strength of Cementless Fly Ash Based Alkali-Activated Mortar", Jo urnal of the Korea Institute of Resources Recycling, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 3 9-50, 2009.
 J. Davidovits, "Geopolymers and geopolymeric materials", Thermal Anal ysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1989.
 J. Duchesne, L. Duong, T. Bostrom and R. Frost, "Microstructure study of early in situ reaction of fly ash geopolymer observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) ", Waste and Biomass Valorizati on, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 367-377, 2010.
 K.T. Koh, G.S. Ryu, J.H. Lee, "Properties of cement zero concrete", PIC LS 2010, pp. 113-122, 2010.
 M. Criado, A. Palomo and A. Fernandez-Jimenez, "Alkali activation of fl y ashes. Part 1: Effect of curing conditions on the carbonation of the react ion products", Fuel, Vol. 84, No. 16, pp. 2048-2054, 2005.
 P. Chindaprasirt, C. Jaturapitakkul, W. Chalee and U. Rattanasak, "Comp arative Study on the Characteristics of Fly ash and Bottom ash Geopolym ers", Waste Management, Vol. 29, pp. 539-543, 2009.
 R. Slavik, V. Bednarik, M. Vondruska and A. Nemec, "Preparation of Ge opolymer from Fluidized Bed Combustion Bottom ash", Journal of Mater ials Processing Technology, Vol. 200, pp. 265-270, 2008.
 S.S. Lee, H.Y. Song and S.M. Lee, "An experimental study on the influe nce of high fineness fly ash and water-binder ratio on properties of concr ete", Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 29-35, 2 009.
 Y. Zhang, W. Sun, Z. Li, X. Zhou, Eddie and C. Chau, "Impact propertie s of geopolymer based extrudates incorporated with fly ash and PVA sho rt fiber", Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 370-38 3, 2008.