Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: interferometer

12 Cellulose Nanocrystals Suspensions as Water-Based Lubricants for Slurry Pump Gland Seals

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shariatzadeh, Dana Grecov

Abstract:

The tribological tests were performed on a new tribometer, in order to measure the coefficient of friction of a gland seal packing material on stainless steel shafts in presence of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) suspension as a sustainable, environmentally friendly, water-based lubricant. To simulate the real situation from the slurry pumps, silica sands were used as slurry particles. The surface profiles after tests were measured by interferometer microscope to characterize the surface wear. Moreover, the coefficient of friction and surface wear were measured between stainless steel shaft and chrome steel ball to investigate the tribological effects of CNC in boundary lubrication region. Alignment of nanoparticles in the CNC suspensions are the main reason for friction and wear reduction. The homogeneous concentrated suspensions showed fingerprint patterns of a chiral nematic liquid crystal. These properties made CNC a very good lubricant additive in water.

Keywords: gland seal, lubricant additives, water-based lubricants, nanocrystalline cellulose

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11 Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets Based on Transmission Holographic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: B. Zare-Farsani, M. Valieghbal, M. Tarkashvand, A. H. Farahbod

Abstract:

To provide the conditions for nuclear fusion by high energy and powerful laser beams, it is required to have a high degree of symmetry and surface uniformity of the spherical capsules to reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities. In this paper, we have used the digital microscopic holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer to study the quality of targets for inertial fusion. The interferometric pattern of the target has been registered by a CCD camera and analyzed by Holovision software. The uniformity of the surface and shell thickness are investigated and measured in reconstructed image. We measured shell thickness in different zone where obtained non uniformity 22.82 percent.  

Keywords: Digital Holographic Microscopy, Mach-Zehnder interferometer, inertial confinement fusion

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10 Application of Interferometric Techniques for Quality Control of Oils Used in the Food Industry

Authors: Andres Piña, Amy Meléndez, Pablo Cano, Tomas Cahuich

Abstract:

The purpose of this project is to propose a quick and environmentally friendly alternative to measure the quality of oils used in food industry. There is evidence that repeated and indiscriminate use of oils in food processing cause physicochemical changes with formation of potentially toxic compounds that can affect the health of consumers and cause organoleptic changes. In order to assess the quality of oils, non-destructive optical techniques such as Interferometry offer a rapid alternative to the use of reagents, using only the interaction of light on the oil. Through this project, we used interferograms of samples of oil placed under different heating conditions to establish the changes in their quality. These interferograms were obtained by means of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer using a beam of light from a HeNe laser of 10mW at 632.8nm. Each interferogram was captured, analyzed and measured full width at half-maximum (FWHM) using the software from Amcap and ImageJ. The total of FWHMs was organized in three groups. It was observed that the average obtained from each of the FWHMs of group A shows a behavior that is almost linear, therefore it is probable that the exposure time is not relevant when the oil is kept under constant temperature. Group B exhibits a slight exponential model when temperature raises between 373 K and 393 K. Results of the t-Student show a probability of 95% (0.05) of the existence of variation in the molecular composition of both samples. Furthermore, we found a correlation between the Iodine Indexes (Physicochemical Analysis) and the Interferograms (Optical Analysis) of group C. Based on these results, this project highlights the importance of the quality of the oils used in food industry and shows how Interferometry can be a useful tool for this purpose.

Keywords: Quality Control, Food industry, Interferometric, Oils

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9 Measurement of Convective Heat Transfer from a Vertical Flat Plate Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with Wedge Fringe Setting

Authors: Divya Haridas, C. B. Sobhan

Abstract:

Laser interferometric methods have been utilized for the measurement of natural convection heat transfer from a heated vertical flat plate, in the investigation presented here. The study mainly aims at comparing two different fringe orientations in the wedge fringe setting of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), used for the measurements. The interference fringes are set in horizontal and vertical orientations with respect to the heated surface, and two different fringe analysis methods, namely the stepping method and the method proposed by Naylor and Duarte, are used to obtain the heat transfer coefficients. The experimental system is benchmarked with theoretical results, thus validating its reliability in heat transfer measurements. The interference fringe patterns are analyzed digitally using MATLAB 7 and MOTIC Plus softwares, which ensure improved efficiency in fringe analysis, hence reducing the errors associated with conventional fringe tracing. The work also discuss the relative merits and limitations of the two methods used.

Keywords: natural convection, Naylor method, Vertical Flat Plate, MZI

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8 Bayesian Inference for Phase Unwrapping Using Conjugate Gradient Method in One and Two Dimensions

Authors: Yohei Saika, Hiroki Sakaematsu, Shota Akiyama

Abstract:

We investigated statistical performance of Bayesian inference using maximum entropy and MAP estimation for several models which approximated wave-fronts in remote sensing using SAR interferometry. Using Monte Carlo simulation for a set of wave-fronts generated by assumed true prior, we found that the method of maximum entropy realized the optimal performance around the Bayes-optimal conditions by using model of the true prior and the likelihood representing optical measurement due to the interferometer. Also, we found that the MAP estimation regarded as a deterministic limit of maximum entropy almost achieved the same performance as the Bayes-optimal solution for the set of wave-fronts. Then, we clarified that the MAP estimation perfectly carried out phase unwrapping without using prior information, and also that the MAP estimation realized accurate phase unwrapping using conjugate gradient (CG) method, if we assumed the model of the true prior appropriately.

Keywords: Bayesian inference using maximum entropy, MAP estimation using conjugate gradient method, SAR interferometry

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7 A Novel Single-Wavelength All-Optical Flip-Flop Employing Single SOA-MZI

Authors: H. Kaatuzian, M. Sedghi, S. Khatami

Abstract:

In this paper, by exploiting a single semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach Zehnder Interferometer (SOA-MZI), an integratable all-optical flip-flop (AOFF) is proposed. It is composed of a SOA-MZI with a bidirectional coupler at the output. Output signals of both bar and crossbar of the SOA-MZI is fed back to SOAs located in the arms of the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI). The injected photon-rates to the SOAs are modulated by feedback signals in order to form optical flip-flop. According to numerical analysis, Gaussian optical pulses with the energy of 15.2 fJ and 20 ps duration with the full width at half-maximum criterion, can switch the states of the SR-AOFF. Also simulation results show that the SR-AOFF has the contrast ratio of 8.5 dB between two states with the transition time of nearly 20 ps.

Keywords: flip-flop, All Optical, Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI), Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA)

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6 Holografic Interferometry used for Measurement of Temperature Field in Fluid

Authors: Vít Lédl, Tomáš Vít, Pavel Psota, Roman Doleček

Abstract:

The presented paper shows the possibility of using holographic interferometry for measurement of temperature field in moving fluids. There are a few methods for identification of velocity fields in fluids, such us LDA, PIV, hot wire anemometry. It is very difficult to measure the temperature field in moving fluids. One of the often used methods is Constant Current Anemometry (CCA), which is a point temperature measurement method. Data are possibly acquired at frequencies up to 1000Hz. This frequency should be limiting factor for using of CCA in fluid when fast change of temperature occurs. This shortcoming of CCA measurements should be overcome by using of optical methods such as holographic interferometry. It is necessary to employ a special holographic setup with double sensitivity instead of the commonly used Mach-Zehnder type of holographic interferometer in order to attain the parameters sufficient for the studied case. This setup is not light efficient like the Mach-Zehnder type but has double sensitivity. The special technique of acquiring and phase averaging of results from holographic interferometry is also presented. The results from the holographic interferometry experiments will be compared with the temperature field achieved by methods CCA method.

Keywords: Temperature Measurement, hot-wire anemometry, pulsatile flow, Holographic interferometry

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5 Hair Mechanical Properties Depending on Age and Origin

Authors: Meriem Benzarti, Mohamed Ben Tkaya, Cyril Pailler Mattei, Hassan Zahouani

Abstract:

Hair is a non homogenous complex material which can be associated with a polymer. It is made up 95% of Keratin. Hair has a great social significance for human beings. In the High Middle Ages, for example, long hairs have been reserved for kings and nobles. Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth, hair types and hair care, but hair is also an important biomaterial which can vary depending on ethnic origin or on age, hair colour for example can be a sign of ethnic ancestry or age (dark hair for Asiatic, blond hair for Caucasian and white hair for old people in general). In this context, different approaches have been conducted to determine the differences in mechanical properties and characterize the fracture topography at the surface of hair depending on its type and its age. A tensile testing machine was especially designed to achieve tensile tests on hair. This device is composed of a microdisplacement system and a force sensor whose peak load is limited to 3N. The curves and the values extracted from each experiment, allow us to compare the evolution of the mechanical properties from one hair to another. Observations with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and with an interferometer were made on different hairs. Thus, it is possible to access the cuticle state and the fracture topography for each category.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, SEM, hair, relaxation test, interferometer

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4 Development of a Fiber based Interferometric Sensor for Non-contact Displacement Measurement

Authors: S. Pullteap

Abstract:

In this paper, a fiber based Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed and demonstrated for a non-contact displacement measurement. A piece of micro-prism which attached to the mechanical vibrator is served as the target reflector. Interference signal is generated from the superposition between the sensing beam and the reference beam within the sensing arm of the fiber sensor. This signal is then converted to the displacement value by using a developed program written in visual Cµ programming with a resolution of λ/8. A classical function generator is operated for controlling the vibrator. By fixing an excitation frequency of 100 Hz and varying the excitation amplitude range of 0.1 – 3 Volts, the output displacements measured by the fiber sensor are obtained from 1.55 μm to 30.225 μm. A reference displacement sensor with a sensitivity of ~0.4 μm is also employed for comparing the displacement errors between both sensors. We found that over the entire displacement range, a maximum and average measurement error are obtained of 0.977% and 0.44% respectively.

Keywords: Non-contact displacement measurement, extrinsicfiber based Fabry-Perot interferometer, interference signal, zerocrossingfringe counting technique

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3 An Evaluation Method for Two-Dimensional Position Errors and Assembly Errors of a Rotational Table on a 4 Axis Machine Tool

Authors: Jooho Hwang, Chang-Kyu Song, Chun-Hong Park

Abstract:

This paper describes a method to measure and compensate a 4 axes ultra-precision machine tool that generates micro patterns on the large surfaces. The grooving machine is usually used for making a micro mold for many electrical parts such as a light guide plate for LCD and fuel cells. The ultra precision machine tool has three linear axes and one rotational table. Shaping is usually used to generate micro patterns. In the case of 50 μm pitch and 25 μm height pyramid pattern machining with a 90° wedge angle bite, one of linear axis is used for long stroke motion for high cutting speed and other linear axis are used for feeding. The triangular patterns can be generated with many times of long stroke of one axis. Then 90° rotation of work piece is needed to make pyramid patterns with superposition of machined two triangular patterns. To make a two dimensional positioning error, straightness of two axes in out of plane, squareness between the each axis are important. Positioning errors, straightness and squarness were measured by laser interferometer system. Those were compensated and confirmed by ISO230-6. One of difficult problem to measure the error motions is squareness or parallelism of axis between the rotational table and linear axis. It was investigated by simultaneous moving of rotary table and XY axes. This compensation method is introduced in this paper.

Keywords: Ultra-precision machine tool, muti-axis errors, squraness, positioning errors

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2 Plug and Play Interferometer Configuration using Single Modulator Technique

Authors: Norshamsuri Ali, Hafizulfika, Salim Ali Al-Kathiri, Abdulla Al-Attas, Suhairi Saharudin, Mohamed Ridza Wahiddin

Abstract:

We demonstrate single-photon interference over 10 km using a plug and play system for quantum key distribution. The quality of the interferometer is measured by using the interferometer visibility. The coding of the signal is based on the phase coding and the value of visibility is based on the interference effect, which result a number of count. The setup gives full control of polarization inside the interferometer. The quality measurement of the interferometer is based on number of count per second and the system produces 94 % visibility in one of the detectors.

Keywords: Quantum Key Distribution, single photon, interferometer

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1 A Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensor for Dynamic Measurement

Authors: N. Sathitanon, S. Pullteap

Abstract:

An optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) is proposed and demonstrated for dynamic measurements in a mechanical vibrating target. A polishing metal with a low reflectance value adhered to a mechanical vibrator was excited via a function generator at various excitation frequencies. Output interference fringes were generated by modulating the reference and sensing signal at the output arm. A fringe-counting technique was used for interpreting the displacement information on the dedicated computer. The fiber interferometer has been found the capability of the displacement measurements of 1.28 μm – 96.01 μm. A commercial displacement sensor was employed as a reference sensor for investigating the measurement errors from the fiber sensor. A maximum percentage measurement error of approximately 1.59 % was obtained.

Keywords: Optical fiber sensors, dynamic displacement, fringe counting, reference displacement sensor

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