Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: flaring

7 Energy Loss Reduction in Oil Refineries through Flare Gas Recovery Approaches

Authors: Majid Amidpour, Parisa Karimi, Marzieh Joda

Abstract:

For the last few years, release of burned undesirable by-products has become a challenging issue in oil industries. Flaring, as one of the main sources of air contamination, involves detrimental and long-lasting effects on human health and is considered a substantial reason for energy losses worldwide. This research involves studying the implications of two main flare gas recovery methods at three oil refineries, all in Iran as the case I, case II, and case III in which the production capacities are increasing respectively. In the proposed methods, flare gases are converted into more valuable products, before combustion by the flare networks. The first approach involves collecting, compressing and converting the flare gas to smokeless fuel which can be used in the fuel gas system of the refineries. The other scenario includes utilizing the flare gas as a feed into liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) production unit already established in the refineries. The processes of these scenarios are simulated, and the capital investment is calculated for each procedure. The cumulative profits of the scenarios are evaluated using Net Present Value method. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis based on total propane and butane mole fraction is carried out to make a rational comparison for LPG production approach, and the results are illustrated for different mole fractions of propane and butane. As the mole fraction of propane and butane contained in LPG differs in summer and winter seasons, the results corresponding to LPG scenario are demonstrated for each season. The results of the simulations show that cumulative profit in fuel gas production scenario and LPG production rate increase with the capacity of the refineries. Moreover, the investment return time in LPG production method experiences a decline, followed by a rising trend with an increase in C3 and C4 content. The minimum value of time return occurs at propane and butane sum concentration values of 0.7, 0.6, and 0.7 in case I, II, and III, respectively. Based on comparison of the time of investment return and cumulative profit, fuel gas production is the superior scenario for three case studies.

Keywords: Flare gas reduction, liquefied petroleum gas, fuel gas, net present value method, sensitivity analysis.

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6 Computer Modeling and Plant-Wide Dynamic Simulation for Industrial Flare Minimization

Authors: Sujing Wang, Song Wang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Xu

Abstract:

Flaring emissions during abnormal operating conditions such as plant start-ups, shut-downs, and upsets in chemical process industries (CPI) are usually significant. Flare minimization can help to save raw material and energy for CPI plants, and to improve local environmental sustainability. In this paper, a systematic methodology based on plant-wide dynamic simulation is presented for CPI plant flare minimizations under abnormal operating conditions. Since off-specification emission sources are inevitable during abnormal operating conditions, to significantly reduce flaring emission in a CPI plant, they must be either recycled to the upstream process for online reuse, or stored somewhere temporarily for future reprocessing, when the CPI plant manufacturing returns to stable operation. Thus, the off-spec products could be reused instead of being flared. This can be achieved through the identification of viable design and operational strategies during normal and abnormal operations through plant-wide dynamic scheduling, simulation, and optimization. The proposed study includes three stages of simulation works: (i) developing and validating a steady-state model of a CPI plant; (ii) transiting the obtained steady-state plant model to the dynamic modeling environment; and refining and validating the plant dynamic model; and (iii) developing flare minimization strategies for abnormal operating conditions of a CPI plant via a validated plant-wide dynamic model. This cost-effective methodology has two main merits: (i) employing large-scale dynamic modeling and simulations for industrial flare minimization, which involves various unit models for modeling hundreds of CPI plant facilities; (ii) dealing with critical abnormal operating conditions of CPI plants such as plant start-up and shut-down. Two virtual case studies on flare minimizations for start-up operation (over 50% of emission savings) and shut-down operation (over 70% of emission savings) of an ethylene plant have been employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study.

Keywords: Flare minimization, large-scale modeling and simulation, plant shut-down, plant start-up.

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5 Analysis of Control by Flattening of the Welded Tubes

Authors: Hannachi Med Tahar, H. Djebaili, B. Daheche

Abstract:

In this approach, we have tried to describe the flattening of welded tubes, and its experimental application. The test is carried out at the (National product processing company dishes and tubes production). Usually, the final products (tubes) undergo a series of non-destructive inspection online and offline welding, and obviously destructive mechanical testing (bending, flattening, flaring, etc.). For this and for the purpose of implementing the flattening test, which applies to the processing of round tubes in other forms, it took four sections of welded tubes draft (before stretching hot) and welded tubes finished (after drawing hot and annealing), it was also noted the report 'health' flattened tubes must not show or crack or tear. The test is considered poor if it reveals a lack of ductility of the metal.

Keywords: Flattening, destructive testing, tube drafts, finished tube, Castem 2001.

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4 Reducing Energy Consumption and GHG Emission by Integration of Flare Gas with Fuel Gas Network in Refinery

Authors: N. Tahouni, M. Gholami, M. H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

Gas flaring is one of the most GHG emitting sources in the oil and gas industries. It is also a major way for wasting such an energy that could be better utilized and even generates revenue. Minimize flaring is an effective approach for reducing GHG emissions and also conserving energy in flaring systems. Integrating waste and flared gases into the fuel gas networks (FGN) of refineries is an efficient tool. A fuel gas network collects fuel gases from various source streams and mixes them in an optimal manner, and supplies them to different fuel sinks such as furnaces, boilers, turbines, etc. In this article we use fuel gas network model proposed by Hasan et al. as a base model and modify some of its features and add constraints on emission pollution by gas flaring to reduce GHG emissions as possible. Results for a refinery case study showed that integration of flare gas stream with waste and natural gas streams to construct an optimal FGN can significantly reduce total annualized cost and flaring emissions.

Keywords: Flaring, Fuel gas network, GHG emissions.

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3 Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta Nigeria: An Act of Inhumanity to Man and His Environment

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up 7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and health implication associated with the practice, the role of Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.

Keywords: Combustion, Emission, Environment, Flaring, Gas, Health, Niger Delta.

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2 Natural Gas Dehydration Process Simulation and Optimization: A Case Study of Khurmala Field in Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Authors: R. Abdulrahman, I. Sebastine

Abstract:

Natural gas is the most popular fossil fuel in the current era and future as well. Natural gas is existed in underground reservoirs so it may contain many of non-hydrocarbon components for instance, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and water vapor. These impurities are undesirable compounds and cause several technical problems for example, corrosion and environment pollution. Therefore, these impurities should be reduce or removed from natural gas stream. Khurmala dome is located in southwest Erbil-Kurdistan region. The Kurdistan region government has paid great attention for this dome to provide the fuel for Kurdistan region. However, the Khurmala associated natural gas is currently flaring at the field. Moreover, nowadays there is a plan to recover and trade this gas and to use it either as feedstock to power station or to sell it in global market. However, the laboratory analysis has showed that the Khurmala sour gas has huge quantities of H2S about (5.3%) and CO2 about (4.4%). Indeed, Khurmala gas sweetening process has been removed in previous study by using Aspen HYSYS. However, Khurmala sweet gas still contents some quintets of water about 23 ppm in sweet gas stream. This amount of water should be removed or reduced. Indeed, water content in natural gas cause several technical problems such as hydrates and corrosion. Therefore, this study aims to simulate the prospective Khurmala gas dehydration process by using Aspen HYSYS V. 7.3 program. Moreover, the simulation process succeeded in reducing the water content to less than 0.1ppm. In addition, the simulation work is also achieved process optimization by using several desiccant types for example, TEG and DEG and it also study the relationship between absorbents type and its circulation rate with HCs losses from glycol regenerator tower.

Keywords: Aspen Hysys, Process simulation, gas dehydration, process optimization.

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1 Methane and Other Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions Resulting from Flaring in Kuwait Oilfields

Authors: Khaireyah Kh. Al-Hamad, V. Nassehi, A. R. Khan

Abstract:

Air pollution is a major environmental health problem, affecting developed and developing countries around the world. Increasing amounts of potentially harmful gases and particulate matter are being emitted into the atmosphere on a global scale, resulting in damage to human health and the environment. Petroleum-related air pollutants can have a wide variety of adverse environmental impacts. In the crude oil production sectors, there is a strong need for a thorough knowledge of gaseous emissions resulting from the flaring of associated gas of known composition on daily basis through combustion activities under several operating conditions. This can help in the control of gaseous emission from flares and thus in the protection of their immediate and distant surrounding against environmental degradation. The impacts of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons emissions from flaring activities at oil production facilities at Kuwait Oilfields have been assessed through a screening study using records of flaring operations taken at the gas and oil production sites, and by analyzing available meteorological and air quality data measured at stations located near anthropogenic sources. In the present study the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3) Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons emitted due to flaring in all over Kuwait Oilfields. The simulation of real hourly air quality in and around oil production facilities in the State of Kuwait for the year 2006, inserting the respective source emission data into the ISCST3 software indicates that the levels of non-methane hydrocarbons from the flaring activities exceed the allowable ambient air standard set by Kuwait EPA. So, there is a strong need to address this acute problem to minimize the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons released from flaring activities over the urban area of Kuwait.

Keywords: Kuwait Oilfields, ISCST3 model, flaring, Airpollution, Methane and Non-methane.

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