Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 676

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Transport and Vehicle Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

676 Deep Learning Framework for Predicting Bus Travel Times with Multiple Bus Routes: A Single-Step Multi-Station Forecasting Approach

Authors: Muhammad Ahnaf Zahin, Yaw Adu-Gyamfi

Abstract:

Bus transit is a crucial component of transportation networks, especially in urban areas. Any intelligent transportation system must have accurate real-time information on bus travel times since it minimizes waiting times for passengers at different stations along a route, improves service reliability, and significantly optimizes travel patterns. Bus agencies must enhance the quality of their information service to serve their passengers better and draw in more travelers since people waiting at bus stops are frequently anxious about when the bus will arrive at their starting point and when it will reach their destination. For solving this issue, different models have been developed for predicting bus travel times recently, but most of them are focused on smaller road networks due to their relatively subpar performance in high-density urban areas on a vast network. This paper develops a deep learning-based architecture using a single-step multi-station forecasting approach to predict average bus travel times for numerous routes, stops, and trips on a large-scale network using heterogeneous bus transit data collected from the GTFS database. Over one week, data was gathered from multiple bus routes in Saint Louis, Missouri. In this study, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) neural network was followed to predict the mean vehicle travel times for different hours of the day for multiple stations along multiple routes. Historical time steps and prediction horizon were set up to 5 and 1, respectively, which means that five hours of historical average travel time data were used to predict average travel time for the following hour. The spatial and temporal information and the historical average travel times were captured from the dataset for model input parameters. As adjacency matrices for the spatial input parameters, the station distances and sequence numbers were used, and the time of day (hour) was considered for the temporal inputs. Other inputs, including volatility information such as standard deviation and variance of journey durations, were also included in the model to make it more robust. The model's performance was evaluated based on a metric called mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The observed prediction errors for various routes, trips, and stations remained consistent throughout the day. The results showed that the developed model could predict travel times more accurately during peak traffic hours, having a MAPE of around 14%, and performed less accurately during the latter part of the day. In the context of a complicated transportation network in high-density urban areas, the model showed its applicability for real-time travel time prediction of public transportation and ensured the high quality of the predictions generated by the model.

Keywords: gated recurrent unit, mean absolute percentage error, single-step forecasting, travel time prediction.

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675 Long-Term Modal Changes in International Traffic - Modelling Exercise

Authors: Tomasz Komornicki

Abstract:

The primary aim of the presentation is to try to model border traffic and, at the same time to explain on which economic variables the intensity of border traffic depended in the long term. For this purpose, long series of traffic data on the Polish borders were used. Models were estimated for three variants of explanatory variables: a) for total arrivals and departures (total movement of Poles and foreigners), b) for arrivals and departures of Poles, and c) for arrivals and departures of foreigners. Each of the defined explanatory variables in the models appeared as the logarithm of the natural number of persons. Data from 1994-2017 were used for modeling (for internal Schengen borders for the years 1994-2007). Information on the number of people arriving in and leaving Poland was collected for a total of 303 border crossings. On the basis of the analyses carried out, it was found that one of the main factors determining border traffic is generally differences in the level of economic development (GDP) and the condition of the economy (level of unemployment) and the degree of border permeability. Also statistically significant for border traffic are differences in the prices of goods (fuels, tobacco, and alcohol products) and services (mainly basic ones, e.g., hairdressing services). Such a relationship exists mainly on the eastern border (border traffic determined largely by differences in the prices of goods) and on the border with Germany (in the first analysed period, border traffic was determined mainly by the prices of goods, later - after Poland's accession to the EU and the Schengen area - also by the prices of services). The models also confirmed differences in the set of factors shaping the volume and structure of border traffic on the Polish borders resulting from general geopolitical conditions, with the year 2007 being an important caesura, after which the classical population mobility factors became visible. The results obtained were additionally related to changes in traffic that occurred as a result of the CPOVID-19 pandemic and as a result of the Russian aggression against Ukraine.

Keywords: border, modal structure, transport, Ukraine

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674 Slovenia Rider/Driver Gaze Behavior Comparative Analysis

Authors: Tomaž Tollazzi, Matjaž Šraml, Chiara Gruden, Marko Renčelj

Abstract:

Motorcycle riders are an increasing group of road users. The intrinsic characteristics of powered two-wheelers (PTW) allow them to be particularly flexible, both in urban and extra-urban environments. Nevertheless, crash statistics indicate that riders involved in road accidents are highly likely to suffer severe injuries, underlining the vulnerability of this group of road users. An element that can greatly affect the safety of PTW users is road design, as roads are usually designed for two-track vehicles (cars, buses, and lorries) and usually do not consider the needs of PTWs. Additionally, handling a motorcycle is quite different from driving a car; thus, the behavior of riders is different from that of drivers. The aim of this research was to compare how different road designs are perceived by riders and drivers and to preliminarily assess if riders’ behavior and attention allocation are related. For this research, an eye-tracking experiment was developed outdoors. Both drivers and riders travelled along a route comprising four different road designs and various road layouts, and the output was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Although it was not possible to carry out a statistical analysis due to the limited number of participants, the results demonstrate that there is a difference in the gaze behavior of drivers and riders, with the latter being far more focused on the left-hand side of the road and concentrating on defined elements of road design. Furthermore, the experiment demonstrated that a higher number of fixations is related to lower speeds. Finally, it was noted that both kinds of road users focus well on the carriageway, leading to the conclusion that the indications given through road markings may be much more effective than vertical signalization, which has rarely been observed.

Keywords: road safety, powered two-wheelers, eye-tracking, gaze behavior

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673 Improving Lane Detection For Autonomous Vehicles Using Deep Transfer Learning.

Authors: Richard O’Riordan, Saritha Unnikrishnan

Abstract:

Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are incorporating an increasing number of ADAS features, including automated lane-keeping systems. In recent years, many research papers into lane detection algorithms have been published, varying from computer vision techniques to deep learning methods. The transition from lower levels of autonomy defined in the SAE framework and the progression to higher autonomy levels requires increasingly complex models and algorithms that must be highly reliable in their operation and functionality capacities. Furthermore, these algorithms have no room for error when operating at high levels of autonomy. Although the current research details existing computer vision and deep learning algorithms and their methodologies and individual results, the research also details challenges faced by the algorithms and the resources needed to operate, along with shortcomings experienced during their detection of lanes in certain weather and lighting conditions. This paper will explore these shortcomings and attempt to implement a lane detection algorithm that could be used to achieve improvements in AV lane detection systems. This paper uses a pre-trained LaneNet model to detect lane or non-lane pixels using binary segmentation as the base detection method using an existing dataset BDD100k followed by a custom dataset generated locally. The selected roads will be modern well-laid roads with up-to-date infrastructure and lane markings, while the second road network will be an older road with infrastructure and lane markings reflecting the road network's age. The performance of the proposed method will be evaluated on the custom dataset to compare its performance to the BDD100k dataset. In summary, this paper will use Transfer Learning to provide a fast and robust lane detection algorithm that can handle various road conditions and provide accurate lane detection.

Keywords: ADAS, autonomous vehicles, deep learning, LaneNet, lane detection

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672 Pathway to Sustainable Shipping: Electric Ships

Authors: Wei Wang, Yannick Liu, Lu Zhen, H. Wang

Abstract:

Maritime transport plays an important role in global economic development but also inevitably faces increasing pressures from all sides, such as ship operating cost reduction and environmental protection. An ideal innovation to address these pressures is electric ships. The electric ship is in the early stage. Considering the special characteristics of electric ships, i.e., travel range limit, to guarantee the efficient operation of electric ships, the service network needs to be re-designed carefully. This research designs a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly service network for electric ships, including the location of charging stations, charging plans, route planning, ship schedule, and ship deployment. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model with the objective of minimizing the total cost comprised of charging costs, the construction cost of charging stations, and the fixed cost of ships. A case study using data from the shipping network along the Yangtze River is conducted to evaluate the performance of the model. Two operating scenarios are used: an electric ship scenario where all the transportation tasks are fulfilled by electric ships and a conventional ship scenario where all the transportation tasks are fulfilled by fuel oil ships. Results unveil that the total cost of using electric ships is only 42.8% of using conventional ships. Using electric ships can reduce 80% SOx, 93.47% NOx, 89.47% PM, and 42.62% CO2, but will consume 2.78% more time to fulfill all the transportation tasks. Extensive sensitivity analyses are also conducted for key operating factors, including battery capacity, charging speed, volume capacity, and service time limit of transportation tasks. Implications from the results are as follows: 1) it is necessary to equip the ship with a large capacity battery when the number of charging stations is low; 2) battery capacity will influence the number of ships deployed on each route; 3) increasing battery capacity will make the electric ship more cost-effective; 4) charging speed does not affect charging amount and location of charging station, but will influence the schedule of ships on each route; 5) there exists an optimal volume capacity, at which all costs and total delivery time are lowest; 6) service time limit will influence ship schedule and ship cost.

Keywords: cost reduction, electric ship, environmental protection, sustainable shipping

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671 A Resilience Process Model of Natural Gas Pipeline Systems

Authors: Zhaoming Yang, Qi Xiang, Qian He, Michael Havbro Faber, Enrico Zio, Huai Su, Jinjun Zhang

Abstract:

Resilience is one of the key factors for system safety assessment and optimization, and resilience studies of natural gas pipeline systems (NGPS), especially in terms of process descriptions, are still being explored. Based on the three main stages, which are function loss process, recovery process, and waiting process, the paper has built functions and models which are according to the practical characteristics of NGPS and mainly analyzes the characteristics of deterministic interruptions. The resilience of NGPS also considers the threshold of the system function or users' satisfaction. The outcomes, which quantify the resilience of NGPS in different evaluation views, can be combined with the max flow and shortest path methods, help with the optimization of extra gas supplies and gas routes as well as pipeline maintenance strategies, the quick analysis of disturbance effects and the improvement of NGPS resilience evaluation accuracy.

Keywords: natural gas pipeline system, resilience, process modeling, deterministic disturbance

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670 Port Miami in the Caribbean and Mesoamerica: Data, Spatial Networks and Trends

Authors: Richard Grant, Landolf Rhode-Barbarigos, Shouraseni Sen Roy, Lucas Brittan, Change Li, Aiden Rowe

Abstract:

Ports are critical for the US economy, connecting farmers, manufacturers, retailers, consumers and an array of transport and storage operators. Port facilities vary widely in terms of their productivity, footprint, specializations, and governance. In this context, Port Miami is considered as one of the busiest ports providing both cargo and cruise services in connecting the wider region of the Caribbean and Mesoamerica to the global networks. It is considered as the “Cruise Capital of the World and Global Gateway of the Americas” and “leading container port in Florida.” Furthermore, it has also been ranked as one of the top container ports in the world and the second most efficient port in North America. In this regard, Port Miami has made significant investments in the strategic and capital infrastructure of about US$1 billion, including increasing the channel depth and other onshore infrastructural enhancements. Therefore, this study involves a detailed analysis of Port Miami’s network, using publicly available multiple years of data about marine vessel traffic, cargo, and connectivity and performance indices from 2015-2021. Through the analysis of cargo and cruise vessels to and from Port Miami and its relative performance at the global scale from 2015 to 2021, this study examines the port’s long-term resilience and future growth potential. The main results of the analyses indicate that the top category for both inbound and outbound cargo is manufactured products and textiles. In addition, there are a lot of fresh fruits, vegetables, and produce for inbound and processed food for outbound cargo. Furthermore, the top ten port connections for Port Miami are all located in the Caribbean region, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Southeast USA. About half of the inbound cargo comes from Savannah, Saint Thomas, and Puerto Plata, while outbound cargo is from Puerto Corte, Freeport, and Kingston. Additionally, for cruise vessels, a significantly large number of vessels originate from Nassau, followed by Freeport. The number of passenger's vessels pre-COVID was almost 1,000 per year, which dropped substantially in 2020 and 2021 to around 300 vessels. Finally, the resilience and competitiveness of Port Miami were also assessed in terms of its network connectivity by examining the inbound and outbound maritime vessel traffic. It is noteworthy that the most frequent port connections for Port Miami were Freeport and Savannah, followed by Kingston, Nassau, and New Orleans. However, several of these ports, Puerto Corte, Veracruz, Puerto Plata, and Santo Thomas, have low resilience and are highly vulnerable, which needs to be taken into consideration for the long-term resilience of Port Miami in the future.

Keywords: port, Miami, network, cargo, cruise

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669 Proposal of Methodology Based on Technical Characterization and Quantitative Contrast of Co₂ Emissions for the Migration to Electric Mobility of the Vehicle Fleet: Case Study of Electric Companies in Ecuador

Authors: Rodrigo I. Ullauri, Santiago E. Tinajero, Omar O. Ramos, Paola R. Quintana

Abstract:

The increase of CO₂ emissions in the atmosphere and its impact on climate change is a global concern. The transportation sector is a significant consumer of fossil fuels and contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The current challenge is to find ways to reduce the use of fossil fuels in transportation. In Ecuador, where 92% of electricity is generated from clean sources, the concept of e-mobility is considered an attractive alternative to address the challenge of sustainable mobility. The proposal is to migrate from combustion-powered vehicles to electric vehicles in the electric companies of Ecuador, using a methodology to standardize criteria, determine specific requirements, contrast technical characteristics, and estimate emission reductions. The results showed that there are three categories of vehicles that have electric counterparts suitable for performing activities under certain operation parameters inherent to current technology limitations but with a significant contribution to the reduction of annual CO₂ emissions.

Keywords: climate change, electro mobility, energy, sustainable transportation

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668 A Gendered Perspective of the Influence of Public Transport Infrastructural Design on Accessibility

Authors: Ajeni Ari, Chiara Maria Leva, Lorraine D’Arcy, Mary Kinahan

Abstract:

In addressing gender and transport, considerations of mobility disparities amongst users are important. Public transport (PT) policy and design do not efficiently account for the varied mobility practices between men and women, with literature only recently showing a movement towards gender inclusion in transport. Arrantly, transport policy and designs remain gender-blind to the variation of mobility needs. The global movement towards sustainability highlights the need for expeditious strategies that could mitigate biases within the existing system. At the forefront of such a plan of action, in part, may be mandated inclusive infrastructural designs that stimulate user engagement with the transport system. Fundamentally access requires a means or an opportunity for the entity, which for PT is an establishment of its physical environment and/or infrastructural design. Its practicality may be utilised with knowledge of shortcomings in tangible or intangible aspects of the service offerings allowing access to opportunities. To inform on existing biases in PT planning and design, this study analyses qualitative data to examine the opinions and lived experiences among transport users in Ireland. Findings show that infrastructural design plays a significant role in users’ engagement with the service. Paramount to accessibility are service provisions that cater to both user interactions and those of their dependents. Apprehension to use the service is more so evident in women in comparison to men, particularly while carrying out household duties and caring responsibilities at peak times or dark hours. Furthermore, limitations are apparent with infrastructural service offerings that do not accommodate the physical (dis)ability of users, especially universal design. There are intersecting factors that impinge on accessibility, e.g., safety and security, yet essentially; the infrastructural design is an important influencing parameter to user perceptual conditioning. Additionally, data discloses the need for user intricacies to be factored in transport planning geared towards gender inclusivity, including mobility practices, travel purpose, transit time or location, and system integration.

Keywords: infrastructure design, public transport, accessibility, women, gender

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667 Quantifying the Rapid Urbanization Impact on Potential Stormwater Runoff of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Kumruzzaman, Anutosh Das, Md. Mosharraf Hossain

Abstract:

Historically, rapid urban growth activities are considered one of the main culprits behind urban floods or waterlogging. The increased unplanned urbanization of many areas of Dhaka has resulted in waterlogging, urban floods, and increasing groundwater depth. To determine potential groundwater recharge from precipitation, the study is being conducted to examine the changes in land use/land cover (LULC) and urban runoff extent based on the NRCS-CN from 2005–2021. Four kinds of land use are used to examine the LULC change: built-up, bare land, vegetation, and water body. These categories are used for the years 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2021. The built-up area is growing at a relatively fast rate: 7.43%, 17.4%, and 5.21%, respectively, between the years 2005 and 2010, 2010 and 2015, and 2015 and 2021. As the amount of impervious surface rose in Dhaka city, stormwater discharge increased from 2005 to 2021. In 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2021, heavy stormwater runoff regions made up around 24.873%, 32.616%, 49.118%, and 55.986% of the entire Dhaka city. Stormwater runoff accounted for around 53.738%, 55.092%, 63.472%, and 67.061% of the total rainfall in 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2021, respectively. Between 2005 and 2021, a significant portion of the natural land cover was altered because of the expanding impervious surface, which also harmed the natural drainage system. Due to careless growth, the potential for stormwater runoff and groundwater recharge in Dhaka city worsens every year. Concerning this situation, a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) can be the best possible solution for minimizing the stormwater runoff and groundwater recharge problem.

Keywords: LULC, impervious surface, stormwater runoff, groundwater recharge, SUDS

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666 The Elimination of Fossil Fuel Subsidies from the Road Transportation Sector and the Promotion of Electro Mobility: The Ecuadorian Case

Authors: Henry Acurio, Alvaro Corral, Juan Fonseca

Abstract:

In Ecuador, subventions on fossil fuels for the road transportation sector have always been part of its economy throughout time, mainly because of demagogy and populism from political leaders. It is clearly seen that the government cannot maintain the subsidies anymore due to its commercial balance and its general state budget; subsidies are a key barrier to implementing the use of cleaner technologies. However, during the last few months, the elimination of subsidies has been done gradually with the purpose of reaching international prices. It is expected that with this measure, the population will opt for other means of transportation, and in a certain way, it will promote the use of private electric vehicles and public, e.g., taxis and buses (urban transport). Considering the three main elements of sustainable development, an analysis of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of eliminating subsidies will be generated at the country level. To achieve this, four scenarios will be developed in order to determine how the subsidies will contribute to the promotion of electro-mobility: 1) A Business as Usual (BAU) scenario; 2) the introduction of 10 000 electric vehicles by 2025; 3) the introduction of 100 000 electric vehicles by 2030; 4) the introduction of 750 000 electric vehicles by 2040 (for all the scenarios, buses, taxis, lightweight duty vehicles, and private vehicles will be introduced, as it is established in the National Electro Mobility Strategy for Ecuador). The Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) will be used, and it will be suitable to determine the cost for the government in terms of importing derivatives for fossil fuels and the cost of electricity to power the electric fleet that can be changed. The elimination of subventions generates fiscal resources for the state that can be used to develop other kinds of projects that will benefit Ecuadorian society. It will definitely change the energy matrix, and it will provide energy security for the country; it will be an opportunity for the government to incentivize a greater introduction of renewable energies, e.g., solar, wind, and geothermal. At the same time, it will also reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from the transportation sector, considering its mitigation potential, which as a result, will ameliorate the inhabitant quality of life by improving the quality of air, therefore reducing respiratory diseases associated with exhaust emissions, consequently, achieving sustainability, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and complying with the agreements established in the Paris Agreement COP 21 in 2015. Electro-mobility in Latin America and the Caribbean can only be achieved by the implementation of the right policies by the central government, which need to be accompanied by a National Urban Mobility Policy (NUMP), and can encompass a greater vision to develop holistic, sustainable transport systems at local governments.

Keywords: electro mobility, energy, policy, sustainable transportation

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665 Platooning Method Using Dynamic Correlation of Destination Vectors in Urban Areas

Authors: Yuya Tanigami, Naoaki Yamanaka, Satoru Okamoto

Abstract:

Economic losses due to delays in traffic congestion regarding urban transportation networks have become a more serious social problem as traffic volume increases. Platooning has recently been attracting attention from many researchers to alleviate traffic jams, especially on the highway. On highways, platooning can have positive effects, such as reducing inter-vehicular distance and reducing air resistance. However, the impacts of platooning on urban roads have not been addressed in detail since traffic lights may break the platoons. In this study, we propose a platooning method using L2 norm and cosine similarity to form a platoon with highly similar routes. Also, we investigate the sorting method within a platoon according to each vehicle’s straightness. Our proposed sorting platoon method, which uses two lanes, eliminates Head of Line Blocking at the intersection and improves throughput at intersections. This paper proposes a cyber-physical system (CPS) approach to collaborative urban platoon control. We conduct simulations using the traffic simulator SUMO and the road network, which imitates Manhattan Island. Results from the SUMO confirmed that our method shortens the average travel time by 10-20%. This paper shows the validity of forming a platoon based on destination vectors and sorting vehicles within a platoon.

Keywords: CPS, platooning, connected car, vector correlation

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664 Strategic Integration of Electrified Fleets for Mutually Optimised Systems an Australian Analysis

Authors: Charlie Hargroves, Scott Dwyer, Benjamin James

Abstract:

This paper will discuss the challenges and opportunities of electric vehicle (EV) uptake, including improved resilience of transport and electricity systems, energy security and reliability, EV absorption into the urban and transnational landscape, policy affecting this transition, and EV perception and anxiety. This paper analyses and anticipates how the electrification of transport fleets will pose new challenges for electricity and logistical management. Electrification of transport will increase loads on the grid, while changes to vehicle energy systems will impact how vehicles are used and trips are planned – however, the challenges present opportunities for whole system optimisation. As electricity systems undergo a transition to renewable energy generation, smart load management (including batteries) will stabilise the increasingly fluctuating electricity generation, with EVs offering new options for ancillary service support. The difference from internal combustion to EV logistical situations will require more thorough consideration of whole transport system design, resulting in a greater focus on transportation of people and goods rather than vehicle throughput. This paper will discuss strategic EV integration, focusing on lessons from research and implementation, analysing world-leading case studies and how they inform emerging demonstrations and research. This paper makes analyses in an Australian context: uniquely operating one of the most geographically expansive grids in the world and a smaller grid around the most isolated capital city in the world, operated by a single provincial government. These different systems both anticipate an accelerating renewable generation transition – including world-leading utilisation of household solar generation – and a significant increase in grid load with the electrification of Australian transportation. This paper highlights that the timing of this transition alongside the fourth (digital) industrial revolution presents the opportunity for intensive smart load management – enabling EVs to provide grid ancillary services to fluctuating renewable generation and support Australia to achieve net zero electricity grids. This paper will present and analyse lessons from research and implementation of strategic EV integration for mutual benefits to national networks and individual owner, encouraging the acceleration of support from all stakeholders. This paper will present findings from the development from state and municipal EV strategies, particularly that of the Western Australian state and Lithgow municipality governments. This paper discusses investigations made by the authors for the Sustainable Built Environment National Research Centre identifying key factors affecting EV uptake in Australia and a range of mechanisms for increasing uptake – including green bonds, tailored government policy, and subsidy schemes. Analyses of these cases are extrapolated in this paper into informative lessons for the delivery of more resilient national transport and energy systems.

Keywords: resilient systems, grid capacity, sustainable energy, energy resilience, sustainable policy, sustainable urban development

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663 Real-World Vehicle to Grid: Case Study on School Buses in New England

Authors: Aaron Huber, Manoj Karwa

Abstract:

Floods, heat waves, drought, wildfires, tornadoes and other environmental disasters are a snapshot of looming national problems that can create increasing demands on the national grid. With nearly 500,000 school buses on the road and the environmental protection agency (EPA) providing nearly $1B for electric school buses, there is a solution for this national issue. Bidirectional batteries in electric school buses enable a future proof solution to sustain the power grid during adverse environmental conditions and other periods of high demand. School buses have larger batteries than standard electric vehicles. When they are not transporting students, these buses can spend peak solar hours parked and plugged into bi-directional direct current fast chargers (DCFC). A partnership with Highland Electric, Proterra and Rhombus enabled over 7 MWh of energy servicing Massachusetts and Vermont grids. The buses were part of a vehicle to grid (V2G) program with National Grid and Green Mountain Power that can charge an average American home for one month with a single bus. V2G infrastructure enables school systems to future proof their charging strategies, strengthen their local grids and can create additional revenue streams with their EV fleets. A bidirectional ecosystem with Highland, Proterra and Rhombus can enable grid resiliency or the ability to withstand power outages caused by excessive demands, natural disasters or rogue nation's attacks with no loss of service. A fleet of school buses is a standalone resilient asset that can be accessed across a city to keep its citizens safe without having any toxic fumes. Nearly 95% of all school buses across USA are powered by diesel internal combustion engines. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a human carcinogen, and it can lead to and exacerbate respiratory conditions. Bidirectional school buses and chargers enable energy justice by providing backup power in case of emergencies or high demand for marginalized communities and aim to make energy more accessible, affordable, clean, and democratically managed.

Keywords: V2G, vehicle to grid, electric buses, eBuses, DC fast chargers, DCFC

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662 Analog Railway Signal Object Controller Development

Authors: Ercan Kızılay, Mustafa Demi̇rel, Selçuk Coşkun

Abstract:

Railway signaling systems consist of vital products that regulate railway traffic and provide safe route arrangements and maneuvers of trains. SIL 4 signal lamps are produced by many manufacturers today. There is a need for systems that enable these signal lamps to be controlled by commands from the interlocking. These systems should act as fail-safe and give error indications to the interlocking system when an unexpected situation occurs for the safe operation of railway systems from the RAMS perspective. In the past, driving and proving the lamp in relay-based systems was typically done via signaling relays. Today, the proving of lamps is done by comparing the current values read over the return circuit, the lower and upper threshold values. The purpose is an analog electronic object controller with the possibility of easy integration with vital systems and the signal lamp itself. During the study, the EN50126 standard approach was considered, and the concept, definition, risk analysis, requirements, architecture, design, and prototyping were performed throughout this study. FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) and FTA (Fault Tree) Analysis) have been used for safety analysis in accordance with EN 50129. Concerning these analyzes, the 1oo2D reactive fail-safe hardware design of a controller has been researched. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) effects on the functional safety of equipment, insulation coordination, and over-voltage protection were discussed during hardware design according to EN 50124 and EN 50122 standards. As vital equipment for railway signaling, railway signal object controllers should be developed according to EN 50126 and EN 50129 standards which identify the steps and requirements of the development in accordance with the SIL 4(Safety Integrity Level) target. In conclusion of this study, an analog railway signal object controller, which takes command from the interlocking system, is processed in driver cards. Driver cards arrange the voltage level according to desired visibility by means of semiconductors. Additionally, prover cards evaluate the current upper and lower thresholds. Evaluated values are processed via logic gates which are composed as 1oo2D by means of analog electronic technologies. This logic evaluates the voltage level of the lamp and mitigates the risks of undue dimming.

Keywords: object controller, railway electronic, analog electronic, safety, railway signal

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661 Integrated Braking and Traction Torque Vectoring Control Based on Vehicle Yaw Rate for Stability improvement of All-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicles

Authors: Mahmoud Said Jneid, Péter Harth

Abstract:

EVs with independent wheel driving greatly improve vehicle stability in poor road conditions. Wheel torques can be precisely controlled through electric motors driven using advanced technologies. As a result, various types of advanced chassis assistance systems (ACAS) can be implemented. This paper proposes an integrated torque vectoring control based on wheel slip regulation in both braking and traction modes. For generating the corrective yaw moment, the vehicle yaw rate and sideslip angle are monitored. The corrective yaw moment is distributed into traction and braking torques based on an equal-opposite components approach. The proposed torque vectoring control scheme is validated in simulation and the results show its superiority when compared to conventional schemes.

Keywords: all-wheel-drive, electric vehicle, torque vectoring, regenerative braking, stability control, traction control, yaw rate control

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660 Satellite Connectivity for Sustainable Mobility

Authors: Roberta Mugellesi Dow

Abstract:

As the climate crisis becomes unignorable, it is imperative that new services are developed addressing not only the needs of customers but also taking into account its impact on the environment. The Telecommunication and Integrated Application (TIA) Directorate of ESA is supporting the green transition with particular attention to the sustainable mobility.“Accelerating the shift to sustainable and smart mobility” is at the core of the European Green Deal strategy, which seeks a 90% reduction in related emissions by 2050 . Transforming the way that people and goods move is essential to increasing mobility while decreasing environmental impact, and transport must be considered holistically to produce a shared vision of green intermodal mobility. The use of space technologies, integrated with terrestrial technologies, is an enabler of smarter traffic management and increased transport efficiency for automated and connected multimodal mobility. Satellite connectivity, including future 5G networks, and digital technologies such as Digital Twin, AI, Machine Learning, and cloud-based applications are key enablers of sustainable mobility.SatCom is essential to ensure that connectivity is ubiquitously available, even in remote and rural areas, or in case of a failure, by the convergence of terrestrial and SatCom connectivity networks, This is especially crucial when there are risks of network failures or cyber-attacks targeting terrestrial communication. SatCom ensures communication network robustness and resilience. The combination of terrestrial and satellite communication networks is making possible intelligent and ubiquitous V2X systems and PNT services with significantly enhanced reliability and security, hyper-fast wireless access, as well as much seamless communication coverage. SatNav is essential in providing accurate tracking and tracing capabilities for automated vehicles and in guiding them to target locations. SatNav can also enable location-based services like car sharing applications, parking assistance, and fare payment. In addition to GNSS receivers, wireless connections, radar, lidar, and other installed sensors can enable automated vehicles to monitor surroundings, to ‘talk to each other’ and with infrastructure in real-time, and to respond to changes instantaneously. SatEO can be used to provide the maps required by the traffic management, as well as evaluate the conditions on the ground, assess changes and provide key data for monitoring and forecasting air pollution and other important parameters. Earth Observation derived data are used to provide meteorological information such as wind speed and direction, humidity, and others that must be considered into models contributing to traffic management services. The paper will provide examples of services and applications that have been developed aiming to identify innovative solutions and new business models that are allowed by new digital technologies engaging space and non space ecosystem together to deliver value and providing innovative, greener solutions in the mobility sector. Examples include Connected Autonomous Vehicles, electric vehicles, green logistics, and others. For the technologies relevant are the hybrid satcom and 5G providing ubiquitous coverage, IoT integration with non space technologies, as well as navigation, PNT technology, and other space data.

Keywords: sustainability, connectivity, mobility, satellites

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659 Evaluation of the Impact of Telematics Use on Young Drivers’ Driving Behaviour: A Naturalistic Driving Study

Authors: WonSun Chen, James Boylan, Erwin Muharemovic, Denny Meyer

Abstract:

In Australia, drivers aged between 18 and 24 remained at high risk of road fatality over the last decade. Despite the successful implementation of the Graduated Licensing System (GLS) that supports young drivers in their early phases of driving, the road fatality statistics for these drivers remains high. In response to these statistics, studies conducted in Australia prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic have demonstrated the benefits of using telematics devices for improving driving behaviour, However, the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on young drivers’ driving behaviour has emerged as a global concern. Therefore, this naturalistic study aimed to evaluate and compare the driving behaviour(such as acceleration, braking, speeding, etc.) of young drivers with the adoption of in-vehicle telematics devices. Forty-two drivers aged between 18 and 30 and residing in the Australian state of Victoria participated in this study during the period of May to October 2022. All participants drove with the telematics devices during the first 30-day. At the start of the second 30-day, twenty-one participants were randomised to an intervention group where they were provided with an additional telematics ray device that provided visual feedback to the drivers, especially when they committed to aggressive driving behaviour. The remaining twenty-one participants remined their driving journeys without the extra telematics ray device (control group). Such trustworthy data enabled the assessment of changes in the driving behaviour of these young drivers using a machine learning approach in Python. Results are expected to show participants from the intervention group will show improvements in their driving behaviour compared to those from the control group.Furthermore, the telematics data enable the assessment and quantification of such improvements in driving behaviour. The findings from this study are anticipated to shed some light in guiding the development of customised campaigns and interventions to further address the high road fatality among young drivers in Australia.

Keywords: driving behaviour, naturalistic study, telematics data, young drivers

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658 Traffic Analysis and Prediction Using Closed-Circuit Television Systems

Authors: Aragorn Joaquin Pineda Dela Cruz

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Road traffic congestion is continually deteriorating in Hong Kong. The largest contributing factor is the increase in vehicle fleet size, resulting in higher competition over the utilisation of road space. This study proposes a project that can process closed-circuit television images and videos to provide real-time traffic detection and prediction capabilities. Specifically, a deep-learning model involving computer vision techniques for video and image-based vehicle counting, then a separate model to detect and predict traffic congestion levels based on said data. State-of-the-art object detection models such as You Only Look Once and Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks are tested and compared on closed-circuit television data from various major roads in Hong Kong. It is then used for training in long short-term memory networks to be able to predict traffic conditions in the near future, in an effort to provide more precise and quicker overviews of current and future traffic conditions relative to current solutions such as navigation apps.

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, vehicle detection, traffic analysis, deep learning, machine learning, computer vision, traffic prediction

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657 Special Case of Trip Distribution Model and Its Use for Estimation of Detailed Transport Demand in the Czech Republic

Authors: Jiri Dufek

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The national model of the Czech Republic has been modified in a detailed way to get detailed travel demand in the municipality level (cities, villages over 300 inhabitants). As a technique for this detailed modelling, three-dimensional procedure for calibrating gravity models, was used. Besides of zone production and attraction, which is usual in gravity models, the next additional parameter for trip distribution was introduced. Usually it is called by “third dimension”. In the model, this parameter is a demand between regions. The distribution procedure involved calculation of appropriate skim matrices and its multiplication by three coefficients obtained by iterative balancing of production, attraction and third dimension. This type of trip distribution was processed in R-project and the results were used in the Czech Republic transport model, created in PTV Vision. This process generated more precise results in local level od the model (towns, villages)

Keywords: trip distribution, three dimension, transport model, municipalities

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656 Causes of Road Crashes Among Students Attending Schools in Huye District and Kigali City

Authors: Ami Nkumbuye

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Background: Every year 1.3 million people die due to Road crashes, according to the Global status report. Road crashes remain the greatest killer aged between 15-29 years. Young people are paying an unacceptable price for their own safer mobility. 23,498 students attending class daily from home crossing the roads of 3 districts Kigali and Southern province is showing a similar trend with 40320 cross road daily. As most of them don't have any idea about the safety, they should have when they are crossing roads and traffic rules and signs as well. Despite the high number of mortality related to road crashes in Rwanda, we don't have any approved calendar to teach young people road safety as the most affected age group. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the causes of road crashes and the outcome of victims after being involved in road crashes over a period of two years, from January 2020 to December 2021, in Huye district and Kigali City. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study with open questions and then data analysis, students were identified from 15 schools in Kigali City and Southern Province and through the Local Action Project supported by Global Youth Coalition for Road Safety and Youth for Road Safety (YOURS), students asked about the cause of road crashes through open and closed question and data analyzed. Result: There were 354 students from 15 schools: 198 males and 156 females. Their age ranged from 10 to 25 years. The commonest cause of road crashes among students attending schools daily was: high speed, lack of education on safe behavior on the road, drinking and driving, and poor road infrastructures, with 47%, 32%, 13% and 8 %, respectively. The hospital admission after road crashes for the victims was 32.3%. In most scenes where road crashes occur, students report that they didn't see any person who could provide post-crash care until the ambulance came, in some cases, resulted in bad outcomes for the victims after road crashes. Conclusion: This study revealed that high speed and lack of education n road safety are the major cause of road crashes among young people in Rwanda. If local Non-Governmental Organization and Decision makers work on these issues like never before, we can see a decrease in road crash among young people and adult as well. We would like to give a recommendation to two institutions: the first is the Rwanda National Police Traffic department to set 30km/m as the maximum speed limit in City and near schools. The second is for the Ministry of Education to put Road Safety and Post Crash Care curricula in both Primary and Secondary schools.

Keywords: road safety, post-crash care, young people, students

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655 Green Ports: Innovation Adopters or Innovation Developers

Authors: Marco Ferretti, Marcello Risitano, Maria Cristina Pietronudo, Lina Ozturk

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A green port is the result of a sustainable long-term strategy adopted by an entire port infrastructure, therefore by the set of actors involved in port activities. The strategy aims to realise the development of sustainable port infrastructure focused on the reduction of negative environmental impacts without jeopardising economic growth. Green technology represents the core tool to implement sustainable solutions, however, they are not a magic bullet. Ports have always been integrated in the local territory affecting the environment in which they operate, therefore, the sustainable strategy should fit with the entire local systems. Therefore, adopting a sustainable strategy means to know how to involve and engage a wide stakeholders’ network (industries, production, markets, citizens, and public authority). The existing research on the topic has not well integrated this perspective with those of sustainability. Research on green ports have mixed the sustainability aspects with those on the maritime industry, neglecting dynamics that lead to the development of the green port phenomenon. We propose an analysis of green ports adopting the lens of ecosystem studies in the field of management. The ecosystem approach provides a way to model relations that enable green solutions and green practices in a port ecosystem. However, due to the local dimension of a port and the port trend on innovation, i.e., sustainable innovation, we draw to a specific concept of ecosystem, those on local innovation systems. More precisely, we explore if a green port is a local innovation system engaged in developing sustainable innovation with a large impact on the territory or merely an innovation adopter. To address this issue, we adopt a comparative case study selecting two innovative ports in Europe: Rotterdam and Genova. The case study is a research method focused on understanding the dynamics in a specific situation and can be used to provide a description of real circumstances. Preliminary results show two different approaches in supporting sustainable innovation: one represented by Rotterdam, a pioneer in competitiveness and sustainability, and the second one represented by Genoa, an example of technology adopter. The paper intends to provide a better understanding of how sustainable innovations are developed and in which manner a network of port and local stakeholder support this process. Furthermore, it proposes a taxonomy of green ports as developers and adopters of sustainable innovation, suggesting also best practices to model relationships that enable the port ecosystem in applying a sustainable strategy.

Keywords: green port, innovation, sustainability, local innovation systems

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654 Master in Maritime Logistics: An Industry-Driven Design

Authors: Marco Sernaglia, Augusto M. P. Carreira, Helena M. L. Carvalho, Pedro B. Água, Armindo Frias, Manuel Carrasqueira

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The mismatch between industry needs and higher education offerings, identified in EU funded project MarLEM (Maritime Logistics Engineering and Management), fostered the development of a novel master degree curriculum design under the same project and backed by industry and academic partners. The Master’s programme in Maritime Logistics has the duration of one year, comprising 60 ECTS and targeting professionals. It is jointly held by the NOVA School of Science and Technology and the Portuguese Naval Academy.

Keywords: education, maritime logistics, shipping, industrial engineering, management, soft skills

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653 Mechanic and Thermal Analysis on an 83 kW Electric Motorcycle: A First-Principles Study

Authors: Martín Felipe García Romero, Nancy Mondragón Escamilla, Ismael Araujo Vargas, Viviana Basurto Rios, Kevin Cano Pulido, Pedro Enrique Velázquez Elisondo

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This paper presents a preliminary prototype of an 83 kW all-electric motorbike since, nowadays, electric motorbikes have advanced drastically in their technology in such a way that lately, there has been a boom in the field of competition of medium power electric vehicles. The field of electric vehicle racing mainly pursues the aim of obtaining an optimal performance of all the motorbike components in order to obtain a safe racing vehicle fast enough while looking for the stability of all the systems onboard. A general description of the project is given up to date, detailing the parts of the system, integration, numerical estimations, and a rearrangement proposal of the actual prototype with the aim to mechanically and thermally improve the vehicle.

Keywords: electric motorcycle, thermal analysis, mechanic analysis, electric vehicle

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652 An Evaluation of the Use of Telematics for Improving the Driving Behaviours of Young People

Authors: James Boylan, Denny Meyer, Won Sun Chen

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Background: Globally, there is an increasing trend of road traffic deaths, reaching 1.35 million in 2016 in comparison to 1.3 million a decade ago, and overall, road traffic injuries are ranked as the eighth leading cause of death for all age groups. The reported death rate for younger drivers aged 16-19 years is almost twice the rate reported for older drivers aged 25 and above, with a rate of 3.5 road traffic fatalities per annum for every 10,000 licenses held. Telematics refers to a system with the ability to capture real-time data about vehicle usage. The data collected from telematics can be used to better assess a driver's risk. It is typically used to measure acceleration, turn, braking, and speed, as well as to provide locational information. With the Australian government creating the National Telematics Framework, there has been an increase in the government's focus on using telematics data to improve road safety outcomes. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that improvements in telematics measured driving behaviour to relate to improvements in road safety attitudes measured by the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). Methodology: 28 participants were recruited and given a telematics device to insert into their vehicles for the duration of the study. The participant's driving behaviour over the course of the first month will be compared to their driving behaviour in the second month to determine whether feedback from telematics devices improves driving behaviour. Participants completed the DBQ, evaluated using a 6-point Likert scale (0 = never, 5 = nearly all the time) at the beginning, after the first month, and after the second month of the study. This is a well-established instrument used worldwide. Trends in the telematics data will be captured and correlated with the changes in the DBQ using regression models in SAS. Results: The DBQ has provided a reliable measure (alpha = .823) of driving behaviour based on a sample of 23 participants, with an average of 50.5 and a standard deviation of 11.36, and a range of 29 to 76, with higher scores, indicating worse driving behaviours. This initial sample is well stratified in terms of gender and age (range 19-27). It is expected that in the next six weeks, a larger sample of around 40 will have completed the DBQ after experiencing in-vehicle telematics for 30 days, allowing a comparison with baseline levels. The trends in the telematics data over the first 30 days will be compared with the changes observed in the DBQ. Conclusions: It is expected that there will be a significant relationship between the improvements in the DBQ and the trends in reduced telematics measured aggressive driving behaviours supporting the hypothesis.

Keywords: telematics, driving behavior, young drivers, driving behaviour questionnaire

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651 Study of Clutch Cable Architecture and Its Influence in Efficiency of Mechanical Cable Release System

Authors: M. Devamanalan, K. Pothiraj, M. Sudhan

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In competitive market like India, there is a high demand on the equal contribution on performance and its durability aspect of any system. In General vehicle has multiple sub-systems such as powertrain, BIW, Brakes, Actuations, Suspension and Seats etc., To withstand the market challenges, the contribution of each sub-system is very vital. The malfunction of any one sub system will directly have an impact on the performance of the major system which lead to dis-satisfaction to the end user. The Powertrain system consists of several sub-systems in which clutch is one of the prime sub-systems in MT vehicles which assist for smoother gear shifts with proper clutch dis-engagement and engagement. In general, most of the vehicles will have a mechanical or semi or full hydraulic clutch release system, whereas in small Commercial Vehicles (SCV) the majorly used clutch release system is mechanical cable release system due to its lesser cost and functional requirements. The major bottle neck in the cable type clutch release system is increase in pedal effort due to hysteresis increase and Gear shifting hard due to efficiency loss / cable slackness over the mileage accumulation of the vehicle. This study is to mainly focus on how the efficiency and hysteresis change over the mileage of the vehicle occurs because of the design architecture of outer and inner cable. The study involves several cable design validation results from vehicle level and rig level through the defined cable routing and test procedures. Results are compared to evaluate the suitable cable design architecture based on better efficiency and lower hysteresis parameters at initial and end of the validation.

Keywords: clutch, clutch cable, efficiency, architecture, cable routing

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650 Delhi Metro: A Race towards Zero Emission

Authors: Pramit Garg, Vikas Kumar

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In December 2015, all the members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) unanimously adopted the historic Paris Agreement. As per the convention, 197 countries have followed the guidelines of the agreement and have agreed to reduce the use of fossil fuels and also reduce the carbon emission to reach net carbon neutrality by 2050 and reduce the global temperature by 2°C by the year 2100. Globally, transport accounts for 23% of the energy-related CO2 that feeds global warming. Decarbonization of the transport sector is an essential step towards achieving India’s nationally determined contributions and net zero emissions by 2050. Metro rail systems are playing a vital role in the decarbonization of the transport sector as they create metro cities for the “21st-century world” that could ensure “mobility, connectivity, productivity, safety and sustainability” for the populace. Metro rail was introduced in Delhi in 2002 to decarbonize Delhi-National Capital Region and to provide a sustainable mode of public transportation. Metro Rail Projects significantly contribute to pollution reduction and are thus a prerequisite for sustainable development. The Delhi Metro is the 1ˢᵗ metro system in the world to earn carbon credits from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects registered under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A good Metro Project with reasonable network coverage attracts a modal shift from various private modes and hence fewer vehicles on the road, thus restraining the pollution at the source. The absence of Greenhouse Gas emissions from the vehicle of modal shift passengers and lower emissions due to decongested roads contribute to the reduction in Green House Gas emissions and hence overall reduction in atmospheric pollution. The reduction in emission during the horizon year 2002 to 2019 has been estimated using emission standards and deterioration factor(s) for different categories of vehicles. Presently, our results indicate that the Delhi Metro system has reduced approximately 17.3% of motorized trips by road resulting in an emission reduction significantly. Overall, Delhi Metro, with an immediate catchment area of 17% of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD), is helping today to reduce 387 tonnes of emissions per day and 141.2 ktonnes of emissions yearly. The findings indicate that the Metro rail system is driving cities towards a more livable environment.

Keywords: Delhi metro, GHG emission, sustainable public transport, urban transport

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649 Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Maritime Transport Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on Nigeria’s Economy

Authors: Kehinde Peter Oyeduntan, Kayode Oshinubi

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Nigeria is referred as the ‘Giant of Africa’ due to high population, land mass and large economy. However, it still trails far behind many smaller economies in the continent in terms of maritime operations. As we have seen that the maritime industry is the spark plug for national growth, because it houses the most crucial infrastructure that generates wealth for a nation, it is worrisome that a nation with six seaports lag in maritime activities. In this research, we have studied how the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the maritime transport influences the Nigerian economy. To do this, we applied Simple Linear Regression (SLR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Polynomial Regression Model (PRM), Generalized Additive Model (GAM) and Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) to model the relationship between the nation’s Total GDP (TGDP) and the Maritime Transport GDP (MGDP) using a time series data of 20 years. The result showed that the MGDP is statistically significant to the Nigerian economy. Amongst the statistical tool applied, the PRM of order 4 describes the relationship better when compared to other methods. The recommendations presented in this study will guide policy makers and help improve the economy of Nigeria in terms of its GDP.

Keywords: maritime transport, economy, GDP, regression, port

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648 Fuzzy Decision Support System for Human-Realistic Overtaking in Railway Traffic Simulations

Authors: Tomáš Vyčítal

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In a simulation model of a railway system it is important, besides other crucial algorithms, to have correct behaviour of train overtaking in stochastic conditions. This problem is being addressed in many simulation tools focused on railway traffic, however these are not very human-realistic. The goal of this paper is to create a more human-realistic overtaking decision support system for the use in railway traffic simulations. A fuzzy system has been chosen for this task as fuzzy systems are well-suited for human-like decision making. The fuzzy system designed takes into account timetables, train positions, delays and buffer times as inputs and provides an instruction to overtake or not overtake.

Keywords: decision-making support, fuzzy systems, simulation, railway, transport

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647 A Study on Impact of Scheduled Preventive Maintenance on Overall Self-Life as Well as Reduction of Operational down Time of Critical Oil Field Mobile Equipment

Authors: Dipankar Deka

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Exploration and production of Oil & Gas is a very challenging business on which a nation’s energy security depends on. The exploration and Production of hydrocarbon is a very precise and time-bound process. The striking rate of hydrocarbon in a drilled well is so uncertain that the success rate is only 31% in 2021 as per Rigzone. Huge cost is involved in drilling as well as the production of hydrocarbon from a well. Due to this very reason, no one can effort to lose a well because of faulty machines, which increases the non-productive time (NPT). Numerous activities that include manpower and machines synchronized together works in a precise way to complete the full cycle of exploration, rig movement, drilling and production of crude oil. There are several machines, both fixed and mobile, are used in the complete cycle. Most of these machines have a tight schedule of work operating in various drilling sites that are simultaneously being drilled, providing a very narrow window for maintenance. The shutdown of any of these machines for even a small period of time delays the whole project and increases the cost of production of hydrocarbon by manifolds. Moreover, these machines are custom designed exclusively for oil field operations to be only used in Mining Exploration Licensed area (MEL) earmarked by the government and are imported and very costly in nature. The cost of some of these mobile units like Well Logging Units, Coil Tubing units, Nitrogen pumping units etc. that are used for Well stimulation and activation process exceeds more than 1 million USD per unit. So the increase of self-life of these units also generates huge revenues during the extended duration of their services. In this paper we are considering the very critical mobile oil field equipment like Well Logging Unit, Coil Tubing unit, well-killing unit, Nitrogen pumping unit, MOL Oil Field Truck, Hot Oil Circulation Unit etc., and their extensive preventive maintenance in our auto workshop. This paper is the outcome of 10 years of structured automobile maintenance and minute documentation of each associated event that allowed us to perform the comparative study between the new practices of preventive maintenance over the age-old practice of system-based corrective maintenance and its impact on the self-life of the equipment.

Keywords: automobile maintenance, preventive maintenance, symptom based maintenance, workshop technologies

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