Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 515

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Transport and Vehicle Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

515 A United Nations Safety Compliant Urban Vehicle Design

Authors: Marcilio Alves, Marcelo R. G. Duarte

Abstract:

Pedestrians are the fourth group among road traffic users that most suffer accidents. Their death rate is even higher than the motorcyclists group. This gives motivation for the development of an urban vehicle capable of complying with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe pedestrian regulations. The conceptual vehicle is capable of transporting two passengers and small parcels for 100 km at a maximum speed of 90 km/h. This paper presents the design of this vehicle using the finite element method specially in connection with frontal crash test and car to pedestrian collision. The simulation is based in a human body FE.

Keywords: Pedestrian Safety, Road Safety, Finite Element Method, Electric urban vehicle, global human body model

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514 Present and Future of Micromobility in the City of Medellin

Authors: Saul Emilio Rivero Mejia, Estefanya Marin Tabares, Carlos Andres Rodriguez Toro, Katherine Bolano Restrepo, Sarita Santa Cortes

Abstract:

Medellin is the Colombian city with the best public transportation system in the country, which is composed of two subway lines, five metro cables, two Bus Rapid Transit lines, and a streetcar. But despite the above, the Aburra Valley, the area in which the city is located, comparatively speaking, has a lower number of urban roads per inhabitant built, compared to the national average. In addition, since there is approximately one vehicle for every three inhabitants in Medellin, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution have become more acute over the years, and it has even been necessary to implement restrictive measures to the use of private vehicles on a permanent basis. In that sense, due to the limitations of physical space, the low public investment in road infrastructure, it is necessary to opt for mobility alternatives according to the above. Within the options for the city, there is what is known as micromobility. Micromobility is understood as those small and light means of transport used to travel short distances, which use electrical energy, such as skateboards and bicycles. These transport alternatives have a high potential for use by the city's young population, but this requires an adequate infrastructure and also state regulation. Taking into account the above, this paper will analyze the current state and future of micro mobility in the city of Medellin, making a prospective analysis, supported by a PEST (political, economic, social and technological) analysis. Based on the above, it is expected to identify the growth of demand for these alternative means and its impact on the mobility of the city in the medium and short term.

Keywords: Transport, Sustainable, Electric, micromobility

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513 Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithm Based Multi Objective Optimization Technique

Authors: Ashwini Gowda K. S, Archana M. R, Anjaneyappa V

Abstract:

This paper presents pavement maintenance and management system (PMMS) to obtain optimum pavement maintenance and rehabilitation strategies and maintenance scheduling for a network using a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). Optimal pavement maintenance & rehabilitation strategy is to maximize the pavement condition index of the road section in a network with minimum maintenance and rehabilitation cost during the planning period. In this paper, NSGA-II is applied to perform maintenance optimization; this maintenance approach was expected to preserve and improve the existing condition of the highway network in a cost-effective way. The proposed PMMS is applied to a network that assessed pavement based on the pavement condition index (PCI). The minimum and maximum maintenance cost for a planning period of 20 years obtained from the non-dominated solution was found to be 5.190x10¹⁰ ₹ and 4.81x10¹⁰ ₹, respectively.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Maintenance and rehabilitation, optimization technique, pavement condition index

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512 Low-Cost Image Processing System for Evaluating Pavement Surface Distress

Authors: Keerti Kembhavi, M. R. Archana, V. Anjaneyappa

Abstract:

Most asphalt pavement condition evaluation use rating frameworks in which asphalt pavement distress is estimated by type, extent, and severity. Rating is carried out by the pavement condition rating (PCR), which is tedious and expensive. This paper presents the development of a low-cost technique for image pavement distress analysis that permits the identification of pothole and cracks. The paper explores the application of image processing tools for the detection of potholes and cracks. Longitudinal cracking and pothole are detected using Fuzzy-C- Means (FCM) and proceeded with the Spectral Theory algorithm. The framework comprises three phases, including image acquisition, processing, and extraction of features. A digital camera (Gopro) with the holder is used to capture pavement distress images on a moving vehicle. FCM classifier and Spectral Theory algorithms are used to compute features and classify the longitudinal cracking and pothole. The Matlab2016Ra Image preparing tool kit utilizes performance analysis to identify the viability of pavement distress on selected urban stretches of Bengaluru city, India. The outcomes of image evaluation with the utilization semi-computerized image handling framework represented the features of longitudinal crack and pothole with an accuracy of about 80%. Further, the detected images are validated with the actual dimensions, and it is seen that dimension variability is about 0.46. The linear regression model y=1.171x-0.155 is obtained using the existing and experimental / image processing area. The R2 correlation square obtained from the best fit line is 0.807, which is considered in the linear regression model to be ‘large positive linear association’.

Keywords: Crack Detection, Spectral Clustering, pothole detection, fuzzy-c-means

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511 Finite Element Modelling of a 3D Woven Composite for Automotive Applications

Authors: Luigi Sanguigno, Ahmad R. Zamani, Angelo R. Maligno

Abstract:

A 3D woven composite, designed for automotive applications, is studied using Abaqus Finite Element (FE) software suite. Python scripts were developed to build FE models of the woven composite in Complete Abaqus Environment (CAE). They can read TexGen or WiseTex files and automatically generate consistent meshes of the fabric and the matrix. A user menu is provided to help define parameters for the FE models, such as type and size of the elements in fabric and matrix as well as the type of matrix-fabric interaction. Node-to-node constraints were imposed to guarantee periodicity of the deformed shapes at the boundaries of the representative volume element of the composite. Tensile loads in three axes and biaxial loads in x-y directions have been applied at different Fibre Volume Fractions (FVFs). A simple damage model was implemented via an Abaqus user material (UMAT) subroutine. Existing tools for homogenization were also used, including voxel mesh generation from TexGen as well as Abaqus Micromechanics plugin. Linear relations between homogenised elastic properties and the FVFs are given. The FE models of composite exhibited balanced behaviour with respect to warp and weft directions in terms of both stiffness and strength.

Keywords: meso-scale finite element model, homogenisation of elastic material properties, Abaqus Python scripting

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510 Research on Morning Commuting Behavior under Autonomous Vehicle Environment Based on Activity Method

Authors: Qing Dai, Zhengkui Lin, Jiajia Zhang, Yi Qu

Abstract:

Based on activity method, this paper focuses on morning commuting behavior when commuters travel with autonomous vehicles (AVs). Firstly, a net utility function of commuters is constructed by the activity utility of commuters at home, in car and at workplace, and the disutility of travel time cost and that of schedule delay cost. Then, this net utility function is applied to build an equilibrium model. Finally, under the assumption of constant marginal activity utility, the properties of equilibrium are analyzed. The results show that, in autonomous driving, the starting and ending time of morning peak and the number of commuters who arrive early and late at workplace are the same as those in manual driving. In automatic driving, however, the departure rate of arriving early at workplace is higher than that of manual driving, while the departure rate of arriving late is just the opposite. In addition, compared with manual driving, the departure time of arriving at workplace on time is earlier and the number of people queuing at the bottleneck is larger in automatic driving. However, the net utility of commuters and the total net utility of system in automatic driving are greater than those in manual driving.

Keywords: Autonomous Cars, user equilibrium, bottleneck model, activity utility

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509 Microsimulation of Potential Crashes as a Road Safety Indicator

Authors: Vittorio Astarita, Giuseppe Guido, Vincenzo Pasquale Giofre, Alessandro Vitale

Abstract:

Traffic microsimulation has been used extensively to evaluate consequences of different traffic planning and control policies in terms of travel time delays, queues, pollutant emissions, and every other common measured performance while at the same time traffic safety has not been considered in common traffic microsimulation packages as a measure of performance for different traffic scenarios. Vehicle conflict techniques that were introduced at intersections in the early traffic researches carried out at the General Motor laboratory in the USA and in the Swedish traffic conflict manual have been applied to vehicles trajectories simulated in microscopic traffic simulators. The concept is that microsimulation can be used as a base for calculating the number of conflicts that will define the safety level of a traffic scenario. This allows engineers to identify unsafe road traffic maneuvers and helps in finding the right countermeasures that can improve safety. Unfortunately, most commonly used indicators do not consider conflicts between single vehicles and roadside obstacles and barriers. A great number of vehicle crashes take place with roadside objects or obstacles. Only some recent proposed indicators have been trying to address this issue. This paper introduces a new procedure based on the simulation of potential crash events for the evaluation of safety levels in microsimulation traffic scenarios, which takes into account also potential crashes with roadside objects and barriers. The procedure can be used to define new conflict indicators. The proposed simulation procedure generates with the random perturbation of vehicle trajectories a set of potential crashes which can be evaluated accurately in terms of DeltaV, the energy of the impact, and/or expected number of injuries or casualties. The procedure can also be applied to real trajectories giving birth to new surrogate safety performance indicators, which can be considered as “simulation-based”. The methodology and a specific safety performance indicator are described and applied to a simulated test traffic scenario. Results indicate that the procedure is able to evaluate safety levels both at the intersection level and in the presence of roadside obstacles. The procedure produces results that are expressed in the same unity of measure for both vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to roadside object conflicts. The total energy for a square meter of all generated crash can be used and is shown on the map, for the test network, after the application of a threshold to evidence the most dangerous points. Without any detailed calibration of the microsimulation model and without any calibration of the parameters of the procedure (standard values have been used), it is possible to identify dangerous points. A preliminary sensitivity analysis has shown that results are not dependent on the different energy thresholds and different parameters of the procedure. This paper introduces a specific new procedure and the implementation in the form of a software package that is able to assess road safety, also considering potential conflicts with roadside objects. Some of the principles that are at the base of this specific model are discussed. The procedure can be applied on common microsimulation packages once vehicle trajectories and the positions of roadside barriers and obstacles are known. The procedure has many calibration parameters and research efforts will have to be devoted to make confrontations with real crash data in order to obtain the best parameters that have the potential of giving an accurate evaluation of the risk of any traffic scenario.

Keywords: Traffic, Traffic Safety, Traffic Simulation, Road Safety

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508 Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: Victor Bodell, Lukas Ekstrom, Somayeh Aghanavesi

Abstract:

Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer may therefor request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle. The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented, it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first require the construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40 000 vehicles specific and operational environmental conditions information, such as road slopes and driver profiles. All vehicles have diesel engines and a mileage of more than 20 000km. The data is used to investigate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial neural networks (ANN) in predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Fuel Consumption, statistical hypothesis testing, friedman test

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507 An Index to Measure Transportation Sustainable Performance in Construction Projects

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Taha Anjamrooz, Salwa Bheiry

Abstract:

The continuous increase in the world population, resource shortage and the warning of climate change cause various environmental and social issues to the world. Thus, sustainability concept is much needed nowadays. Organizations are progressively falling under strong worldwide pressure to integrate sustainability practices into their project decision-making development. Construction projects in the industry are amongst the most significant, since it is one of the biggest divisions and of main significance for the national economy and hence has a massive effect on the environment and society. So, it is important to discover approaches to incorporate sustainability into the management of those projects. This study presents a combined sustainability index of projects with sustainable transportation which has been formed as per a comprehensive literature review and survey study. Transportation systems enable the movement of goods and services worldwide, and it is leading to economic growth and creating jobs while creating negative impacts on the environment and society. This research is study to quantify the sustainability indicators, through 1) identifying the importance of sustainable transportation indicators that are based on the sustainable practices used for the construction projects and 2) measure the effectiveness of practices through these indicators on the three sustainable pillars. A total 26 sustainability indicators have been selected and grouped under each related sustainability pillars. A survey was used to collect the opinion about the sustainability indicators by a scoring system. A combined sustainability index considering three sustainable pillars can be helpful in evaluating the transportation sustainable practices of a project and making decisions regarding project selection. In addition to focus on the issue of financial resource allocation in a project selection, the decision-maker could take into account the sustainability as an important key in addition to the project’s return and risk. The purpose of this study is to measure the performance of transportation sustainability which allow companies to assess multiple projects selection. This is useful to decision makers to rank and focus more on future sustainable projects.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Transportation, transportation performances, sustainable indicators, sustainable construction practice

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506 Deep-Learning Coupled with Pragmatic Categorization Method to Classify the Urban Environment of the Developing World

Authors: M. Ashraful Amin, Ryosuke Shibasaki, Amin Ahsan Ali, Qianwei Cheng, A. K. M. Mahbubur Rahman, Anis Sarker, Abu Bakar Siddik Nayem, Ovi Paul, Moinul Zaber

Abstract:

Thomas Friedman, in his famous book, argued that the world in this 21st century is flat and will continue to be flatter. This is attributed to rapid globalization and the interdependence of humanity that engendered tremendous in-flow of human migration towards the urban spaces. In order to keep the urban environment sustainable, policy makers need to plan based on extensive analysis of the urban environment. With the advent of high definition satellite images, high resolution data, computational methods such as deep neural network analysis, and hardware capable of high-speed analysis; urban planning is seeing a paradigm shift. Legacy data on urban environments are now being complemented with high-volume, high-frequency data. However, the first step of understanding urban space lies in useful categorization of the space that is usable for data collection, analysis, and visualization. In this paper, we propose a pragmatic categorization method that is readily usable for machine analysis and show applicability of the methodology on a developing world setting. Categorization to plan sustainable urban spaces should encompass the buildings and their surroundings. However, the state-of-the-art is mostly dominated by classification of building structures, building types, etc. and largely represents the developed world. Hence, these methods and models are not sufficient for developing countries such as Bangladesh, where the surrounding environment is crucial for the categorization. Moreover, these categorizations propose small-scale classifications, which give limited information, have poor scalability and are slow to compute in real time. Our proposed method is divided into two steps-categorization and automation. We categorize the urban area in terms of informal and formal spaces and take the surrounding environment into account. 50 km × 50 km Google Earth image of Dhaka, Bangladesh was visually annotated and categorized by an expert and consequently a map was drawn. The categorization is based broadly on two dimensions-the state of urbanization and the architectural form of urban environment. Consequently, the urban space is divided into four categories: 1) highly informal area; 2) moderately informal area; 3) moderately formal area; and 4) highly formal area. In total, sixteen sub-categories were identified. For semantic segmentation and automatic categorization, Google’s DeeplabV3+ model was used. The model uses Atrous convolution operation to analyze different layers of texture and shape. This allows us to enlarge the field of view of the filters to incorporate larger context. Image encompassing 70% of the urban space was used to train the model, and the remaining 30% was used for testing and validation. The model is able to segment with 75% accuracy and 60% Mean Intersection over Union (mIoU). In this paper, we propose a pragmatic categorization method that is readily applicable for automatic use in both developing and developed world context. The method can be augmented for real-time socio-economic comparative analysis among cities. It can be an essential tool for the policy makers to plan future sustainable urban spaces.

Keywords: Urban Environment, classification, Deep learning, Urban Building, semantic segmentation

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505 A New Complex Method for Integrated Warehouse Design in Aspect of Dynamic and Static Capacity

Authors: Tamás Hartványi, Zoltan Andras Nagy, Miklos Szabo

Abstract:

The dynamic and static capacity are two opposing aspect of warehouse design. Static capacity optimization aims to maximize the space-usage for goods storing, while dynamic capacity needs more free place to handling them. They are opposing by the building structure and the area utilization. According to Pareto principle: the 80% of the goods are the 20% of the variety. From the origin of this statement, it worth to store the big amount of same products by fulfill the space with minimal corridors, meanwhile the rest 20% of goods have the 80% variety of the whole range, so there is more important to be fast-reachable instead of the space utilizing, what makes the space fulfillment numbers worse. The warehouse design decisions made in present practice by intuitive and empiric impressions, the planning method is formed to one selected technology, making this way the structure of the warehouse homogeny. Of course the result can’t be optimal for the inhomogeneous demands. A new innovative model based on our research will be introduced in this paper to describe the technic capacities, what makes possible to define optimal cluster of technology. It is able to optimize the space fulfillment and the dynamic operation together with this cluster application.

Keywords: Warehouse, warehouse optimization, warehouse capacity, warehouse design method

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504 A Study on the Effect of Different Climate Conditions on Time of Balance of Bleeding and Evaporation in Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete Pavements

Authors: Hasan Ziari, Hassan Fazaeli, Seyed Javad Vaziri Kang Olyaei, Asma Sadat Dabiri

Abstract:

The presence of cracks in concrete pavements is a place for the ingression of corrosive substances, acids, oils, and water into the pavement and reduces its long-term durability and level of service. One of the causes of early cracks in concrete pavements is the plastic shrinkage. This shrinkage occurs due to the formation of negative capillary pressures after the equilibrium of the bleeding and evaporation rates at the pavement surface. These cracks form if the tensile stresses caused by the restrained shrinkage exceed the tensile strength of the concrete. Different climate conditions change the rate of evaporation and thus change the balance time of the bleeding and evaporation, which changes the severity of cracking in concrete. The present study examined the relationship between the balance time of bleeding and evaporation and the area of cracking in the concrete slabs using the standard method ASTM C1579 in 27 different environmental conditions by using continuous video recording and digital image analyzing. The results showed that as the evaporation rate increased and the balance time decreased, the crack severity significantly increased so that by reducing the balance time from the maximum value to its minimum value, the cracking area increased more than four times. It was also observed that the cracking area- balance time curve could be interpreted in three sections. An examination of these three parts showed that the combination of climate conditions has a significant effect on increasing or decreasing these two variables. The criticality of a single factor cannot cause the critical conditions of plastic cracking. By combining two mild environmental factors with a severe climate factor (in terms of surface evaporation rate), a considerable reduction in balance time and a sharp increase in cracking severity can be prevented. The results of this study showed that balance time could be an essential factor in controlling and predicting plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete pavements. It is necessary to control this factor in the case of constructing concrete pavements in different climate conditions.

Keywords: Concrete Pavements, climate conditions, bleeding and cracking severity, plastic shrinkage

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503 A Review: The Impact of Core Quality the Empirical Review of Critical Factors on the Causes of Delay in Road Constructions Projects in the GCC Countries

Authors: Setyawan Widyarto, Sulaiman Al-Hinai

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to identify the critically dominating factors on the delays of road constructions in the GCC countries and their effects on project delivery in Arab countries. Towards the achieved of the objectives the study used the empirical literature from the all relevant online sources and database as many as possible. The findings of this study have summarized and short listed of the success factors in the two categories such as internal and external factors have caused to be influenced to delay of road constructions in the Arab regions. However, in the category of internal factors, there are 63 factors short listed from seven group of factors which has revealed to effects on the delay of road constructions especially, the consultant related factors, the contractor related factors, designed related factors, client related factors, labor related factors, material related issues, equipment related issues respectively. Moreover, for external related factors are also considered to summarized especially natural disaster (flood, hurricanes and cyclone etc.), conflict, war, global financial crisis, compensation delay to affected property owner, price fluctuated, unexpected ground conditions (soil and high-water level), changing of government regulations and laws, delays in obtaining permission from municipality, loss of time by traffic control and restrictions at job site, problem with inhabitant of community, delays in providing service from utilities (water and electricity’s) and accident during constructions accordingly. The present study also concluded the effects of above factors which has delay road constructions through increasing of cost and overrun it, taken overtime, creating of disputes, going for lawsuits, finally happening of abandon of projects. Thus, the present study has given the following recommendations to overcome of above problems by increasing of detailed site investigations, ensure careful monitoring and regular meetings, effective site management, collaborative working and effective coordination’s, proper and comprehensive planning and scheduling and ensure full and intensive commitment from all parties accordingly.

Keywords: Project Management, critical success factors, Arab GCC countries, road constructions delay

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502 Mathematical Model to Operationalize the Virtual Container

Authors: Lalith Edirisinghe, Hansa Edirisinghe, Zhiong Jin

Abstract:

The container inventory imbalance has a direct impact to shipping lines, but it is inevitable due to nature of shipping business. This adds a substantial cost on sea transportation. If the transport cost is brought down the price of goods and services are expected to reduce. This would help a country to bring down its inflation. Similarly, the country’s exports will be more competitive in the global market due to lower transport cost. These factors would have direct impact on the welfare of the economy. Federal maritime commission in the USA has raised its concern because of the trade and weight imbalance, transpacific carriers need to return substantial numbers of empty containers back to Asia. In order to strike a balance between inward flow and outward flow of container fleet at a specific location container shipping lines are compelled to transport the empty containers at their cost. Due to the nature of liner shipping industry the supply and demand is very difficult to match. This similar imbalance problem was evident in the ship space (slots in a container ship) as ships got bigger and bigger focusing on scale of economies of ships. As a result, they found space sharing of vessels is economical and they formed strategic alliances to enhance performance and sustain the highly competitive liner shipping market. Now there are several shipping alliances in which they share ship space and this system works very fine. However, container liner carriers still manage their container inventory independently. The concept of virtual container yard is formulated through collaboration among shipping lines. It provides flexibility to shipping lines to exchange empty containers among between them thus to reduce the repositioning costs of empty containers. Nevertheless, the initialising of collaboration among liner carriers is challenging because, in realty, it reflects a partnership between oligopoly competitors. Many initiatives has taken place in this regard as to find the variables that affect container demand and supply; to identify the factors that influence current container inventory management strategies; to understand the industry perception with respect to container exchange; to identify the variables that influence container exchange between carriers and finally to develop a model for the proposed virtual container yard Generally, the goal of a liner carrier is the maximization of its own profit (or minimization of its individual cost). In this model, the researchers aim to determine the number of empty containers at a specific period delivered from a liner carrier of surplus port to another liner carrier in a deficit port to obtain an optimization solution of empty container allocation for both liner carriers. Specific mathematical notations were defined in order to facilitate description and formulation of the problem using dynamic model about period (week). It aims to minimize the cost to find the optimal empty containers exchange solution. The growing imbalance of container inventory globally creates a substantial cost and environmental issues. Therefore, the proposed mathematical solution may help find a solution to this paradox.

Keywords: Inventory, Shipping, virtual container yard, collaboation

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501 Time-Series Analysis of Port State Control Inspections for Tankers

Authors: Chien-Chung Yuan, Cunqiang Cai, Wu-Hsun Chung, Shu-Te Sung

Abstract:

A tanker is a critical vessel used to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk in maritime shipping. However, it is more dangerous than other types of vessels. Port State Control (PSC) inspection is an important measure to ensure maritime safety when such vessels traveling between ports. However, the current inspection system lacks a useful tool to observe the inspections for tankers and to identify non-random instances in PSC inspections. This study collects the inspection records in Taiwan’s ports from 2015 to 2018 and utilizes run charts to map the PSC inspections for tankers in terms of deficiencies. Based on these time-series charts, several patterns of deficiencies are identified. The results demonstrate that run charts are a useful tool to observe how the PSC inspections for tankers are performed. Also, the charts can help port administrations to identify abnormal phenomena for further investigation. Furthermore, with valuable information from the analysis, port administrations can take proactive improvement measures to ensure the safety of tanker shipping.

Keywords: port state control, tanker, run chart, deficiency

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500 Ghost Frequency Noise Reduction through Displacement Deviation Analysis

Authors: Paua Ketan, Bhagate Rajkumar, Adiga Ganesh, M. Kiran

Abstract:

Low gear noise is an important sound quality feature in modern passenger cars. Annoying gear noise from the gearbox is influenced by the gear design, gearbox shaft layout, manufacturing deviations in the components, assembly errors and the mounting arrangement of the complete gearbox. Geometrical deviations in the form of profile and lead errors are often present on the flanks of the inspected gears. Ghost frequencies of a gear are very challenging to identify in standard gear measurement and analysis process due to small wavelengths involved. In this paper, gear whine noise occurring at non-integral multiples of gear mesh frequency of passenger car gearbox is investigated and the root cause is identified using the displacement deviation analysis (DDA) method. DDA method is applied to identify ghost frequency excitations on the flanks of gears arising out of generation grinding. Frequency identified through DDA correlated with the frequency of vibration and noise on the end-of-line machine as well as vehicle level measurements. With the application of DDA method along with standard lead profile measurement, gears with ghost frequency geometry deviations were identified on the production line to eliminate defective parts and thereby eliminate ghost frequency noise from a vehicle. Further, displacement deviation analysis can be used in conjunction with the manufacturing process simulation to arrive at suitable countermeasures for arresting the ghost frequency.

Keywords: displacement deviation analysis, gear whine, ghost frequency, sound quality

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499 Analysis of the Introduction of Carsharing in the Context of Developing Countries: A Case Study Based on On-Board Carsharing Survey in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Takuya Maruyama, Mustafa Rezazada

Abstract:

Cars have a strong integration with the human being since its introduction, and this interaction is more evident in the urban context. Therefore, shifting city residents from driving private vehicles to public transits has been a big challenge. Accordingly, carsharing as an innovative, environmentally friendly transport alternative had a significant contribution to this transition so far. It helped to reduce the numbers of household car ownership, declining demand for on-street parking, dropping the numbers of kilometers traveled by car, and affects the future of mobility by decreasing the Green House Gases (GHS) emissions’ and the numbers of new cars to be purchased otherwise. However, majorities of carsharing researches were conducted in highly developed cities, and less attention has been paid to the cities of developing countries. This study is conducted in the Capital of Afghanistan, Kabul to investigate the current transport pattern, user behavior, and to examine the possibility of introducing the carsharing system. This study established a new survey method called Onboard Carsharing Survey OCS. In this survey, the carpooling passengers aboard are interviewed following the Onboard Transit Survey OTS guideline with a few refinements. The survey focuses on respondents’ daily travel behavior and hypothetical stated choice of carsharing opportunities. Moreover, it followed by an aggregate analysis at the end. The survey results indicate the following: two-thirds of the respondents 62% have been carpooling every day since 5 years or more, more than half of the respondents are not satisfied with current modes, besides other attributes the Traffic Congestion, Environment and Insufficient Public Transport were ranked the most critical in daily transportation by survey participants. Moreover, 68.24% of the respondent chose Carsharing over carpooling under different choice game scenarios. Overall, the findings in this research show that Kabul City is a potential underground for the introduction of Carsharing in the future. Taken together, insufficient public transit, dissatisfaction with current modes, and their stated interest will affect the future of carsharing positively in Kabul City. The modal choice in this study is limited to carpooling and carsharing; more choice sets, including bus, cycling, and walking, will have to be added to evaluate further.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Transportation, developing countries, carsharing, Kabul Afghanistan, onboard carsharing survey

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498 Social Implementation of Information Sharing Road Safety Measure in South-East Asia

Authors: Hiroki Kikuchi, Atsushi Fukuda, Hirokazu Akahane, Satoru Kobayakawa, Tuenjai Fukuda, Takeru Miyokawa

Abstract:

According to WHO reports, fatalities by road traffic accidents in many countries of South-East Asia region especially Thailand and Malaysia are increasing year by year. In order to overcome these serious problems, both governments are focusing on road safety measures. In response, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have begun active support based on the experiences to reduce the number of fatalities in road accidents in Japan in the past. However, even if the successful road safety measures in Japan is adopted in South-East Asian countries, it is not sure whether it will work well or not. So, it is necessary to clarify the issues and systematize the process for the implementation of road safety measures in South-East Asia. On the basis of the above, this study examined the applicability of "information sharing traffic safety measure" which is one of the successful road safety measures in Japan to the social implementation of road safety measures in South-East Asian countries. The "Information sharing traffic safety measure" is carried out traffic safety measures by stakeholders such as residents, administration, and experts jointly. In this study, we extracted the issues of implementation of road safety measures under local context firstly. This is clarifying the particular issues with its implementation in South-East Asian cities. Secondly, we considered how to implement road safety measures for solving particular issues based on the method of "information sharing traffic safety measure". In the implementation method, the location of the occurrence of a dangerous event was extracted based on the “HIYARI-HATTO” data which were obtained from the residents. This is because it is considered that the implementation of the information sharing traffic safety measure focusing on the location where the dangerous event occurs leads to the reduction of traffic accidents. Also, the target locations for the implementation of measures differ for each city. In Penang, we targeted the intersections in the downtown, while in Suphan Buri, we targeted mainly traffic control on the intercity highway. Finally, we proposed a method for implementing traffic safety measures. For Penang, we proposed a measure to improve the signal phase and showed the effect of the measure on the micro traffic simulation. For Suphan Buri, we proposed the suitable measures for the danger points extracted by collecting the “HIYARI-HATTO” data of residents to the administration. In conclusion, in order to successfully implement the road safety measure based on the "information sharing traffic safety measure", the process for social implementation of the road safety measures should be consistent and carried out repeatedly. In particular, by clarifying specific issues based on local context in South-East Asian countries, the stakeholders, not only such as government sectors but also local citizens can share information regarding road safety and select appropriate countermeasures. Finally, we could propose this approach to the administration that had the authority.

Keywords: south-east Asia, information sharing road safety measure, social implementation, HIYARI-HATTO

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497 The Application of Participatory Social Media in Collaborative Planning: A Systematic Review

Authors: Zhen Li, Yujie Chen

Abstract:

In the context of planning transformation, how to promote public participation in the formulation and implementation of collaborative planning has been the focused issue of discussion. However, existing studies have often been case-specific or focused on a specific design field, leaving the role of participatory social media (PSM) in urban collaborative planning generally questioned. A systematic database search was conducted in December 2019. Articles and projects were eligible if they reported a quantitative empirical study applying participatory social media in the collaborative planning process (a prospective, retrospective, experimental, longitudinal research, or collective actions in planning practices). Twenty studies and seven projects were included in the review. Findings showed that social media are generally applied in public spatial behavior, transportation behavior, and community planning fields, with new technologies and new datasets. PSM has provided a new platform for participatory design, decision analysis, and collaborative negotiation most widely used in participatory design. Findings extracted several existing forms of PSM. PSM mainly act as three roles: the language of decision-making for communication, study mode for spatial evaluation, and decision agenda for interactive decision support. Three optimization content of PSM were recognized, including improving participatory scale, improvement of the grass-root organization, and promotion of politics. However, basically, participants only could provide information and comment through PSM in the future collaborative planning process, therefore the issues of low data response rate, poor spatial data quality, and participation sustainability issues worth more attention and solutions.

Keywords: Collaborative Planning, participatory social media, planning workshop, application mode

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496 Enhanced Iceberg Information Dissemination for Public and Autonomous Maritime Use

Authors: Ronald Mraz, Gary C. Kessler, Ethan Gold, John G. Cline

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The International Ice Patrol (IIP) continually monitors iceberg activity in the North Atlantic by direct observation using ships, aircraft, and satellite imagery. Daily reports detailing navigational boundaries of icebergs have significantly reduced the risk of iceberg contact. What is currently lacking is formatting this data for automatic transmission and display of iceberg navigational boundaries in commercial navigation equipment. This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a system to format iceberg limit information for dissemination through existing radio network communications. This information will then automatically display on commercial navigation equipment. Additionally, this information is reformatted for Google Earth rendering of iceberg track line limits. Having iceberg limit information automatically available in standard navigation equipment will help support full autonomous operation of sailing vessels.

Keywords: Google earth, Autonomous surface vessels, iceberg, iceberg risk, iceberg track lines, AIS messaging, international ice patrol, North American ice service

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495 Data Challenges Facing Implementation of Road Safety Management Systems in Egypt

Authors: A. Anis, W. Bekheet, A. El Hakim

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Implementing a Road Safety Management System (SMS) in a crowded developing country such as Egypt is a necessity. Beginning a sustainable SMS requires a comprehensive reliable data system for all information pertinent to road crashes. In this paper, a survey for the available data in Egypt and validating it for using in an SMS in Egypt. The research provides some missing data, and refer to the unavailable data in Egypt, looking forward to the contribution of the scientific society, the authorities, and the public in solving the problem of missing or unreliable crash data. The required data for implementing an SMS in Egypt are divided into three categories; the first is available data such as fatality and injury rates and it is proven in this research that it may be inconsistent and unreliable, the second category of data is not available, but it may be estimated, an example of estimating vehicle cost is available in this research, the third is not available and can be measured case by case such as the functional and geometric properties of a facility. Some inquiries are provided in this research for the scientific society, such as how to improve the links among stakeholders of road safety in order to obtain a consistent, non-biased, and reliable data system.

Keywords: road crash, road safety management system, road fatality, road injury

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494 Appraisal of Shipping Trade Influence on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Ikpechukwu Njoku

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The study examined appraisal of shipping trade influence on the economic growth in Nigeria from 1981-2016 by the use of secondary data collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria. The main objectives are to examine the trend of shipping trade in Nigeria as well as determine the influence of economic growth on gross domestic product (GDP). The study employed both descriptive and influential tools. The study adopted cointegration regression method for the analysis of each of the variables (shipping trade, external reserves and external debts). The results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between GDP and external reserves with p-value 0.0190. Also the result revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship between GDP and shipping trade with p-value 0.000. However, shipping trade and external reserves contributed positively at 1% and 5% level of significance respectively while external debts impacted negatively to GDP at 5% level of significance with a long run variance of cointegration regression. Therefore, the study suggests that government should do all it can to curtail foreign dominance and repatriation of profit for a more sustainable economy as well as upgrade port facilities, prevent unnecessary delays and encourage exportable goods for maximum deployment of ships.

Keywords: GDP, external debts, external reserve, shipping trade

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493 A Review on Potential of Electric Vehicles in Reducing World CO₂ Footprints

Authors: S. Alotaibi, S. Omer, Y. Su

Abstract:

The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort 'noise, pollution' as well as reduced (or no) emissions of greenhouse gases. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometre. Similarly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emission compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as Zero emission vehicles.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, Fuel Economy, zero emission car, CO2 footprint

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492 Retro-Reflectivity and Diffuse Reflectivity Degradation of Thermoplastic Pavement Marking: A Case Study on Asphaltic Road in Thailand

Authors: Kittichai Thanasupsin, Satis Sukniam

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Pavement marking is an essential task of road construction and maintenance. One of several benefits of pavement markings has been used to provide information about road alignment and road conditions ahead. In some cases, retro-reflectivity of road marking at night may not meet the standard. This degradation may be caused by internal factors such as the size of glass beads and the number of glass beads or external factors such as traffic volume, lane width, vehicle weight, and so on. This research aims to investigate the reflective efficiency of thermoplastic road marking with the glass beads. Ratios of glass beads, ranging from 359 to 553 grams per square meter on an asphaltic concrete, have been tested. The reflective efficiency data was collected at the beginning and at a specific time interval for a total of 8 months. It was found that the difference in glass beads quantity affects the rate of retro-reflectivity but does not affect the diffuse reflectivity. It was also found that other factors affect retro-reflectivity, such as duration, the position of road marking, traffic density, the quantity of glass beads, and dirt coating on top. The dirt coating on top is the most crucial factor that deteriorating retro-reflectivity.

Keywords: Asphalt Concrete, thermoplastic pavement marking, retro-reflectivity, diffuse reflectivity

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491 Disaggregate Travel Behavior and Transit Shift Analysis for a Transit Deficient Metropolitan City

Authors: Sultan Ahmad Azizi, Gaurang J. Joshi

Abstract:

Urban transportation has come to lime light in recent times due to deteriorating travel quality. The economic growth of India has boosted significant rise in private vehicle ownership in cities, whereas public transport systems have largely been ignored in metropolitan cities. Even though there is latent demand for public transport systems like organized bus services, most of the metropolitan cities have unsustainably low share of public transport. Unfortunately, Indian metropolitan cities have failed to maintain balance in mode share of various travel modes in absence of timely introduction of mass transit system of required capacity and quality. As a result, personalized travel modes like two wheelers have become principal modes of travel, which cause significant environmental, safety and health hazard to the citizens. Of late, the policy makers have realized the need to improve public transport system in metro cities for sustaining the development. However, the challenge to the transit planning authorities is to design a transit system for cities that may attract people to switch over from their existing and rather convenient mode of travel to the transit system under the influence of household socio-economic characteristics and the given travel pattern. In this context, the fast-growing industrial city of Surat is taken up as a case for the study of likely shift to bus transit. Deterioration of public transport system of bus after 1998, has led to tremendous growth in two-wheeler traffic on city roads. The inadequate and poor service quality of present bus transit has failed to attract the riders and correct the mode use balance in the city. The disaggregate travel behavior for trip generations and the travel mode choice has been studied for the West Adajan residential sector of city. Mode specific utility functions are calibrated under multi-nominal logit environment for two-wheeler, cars and auto rickshaws with respect to bus transit using SPSS. Estimation of shift to bus transit is carried indicate an average 30% of auto rickshaw users and nearly 5% of 2W users are likely to shift to bus transit if service quality is improved. However, car users are not expected to shift to bus transit system.

Keywords: public transport, bus transit, Mode Choice Behavior, disaggregate travel nehavior

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490 Modeling Travel Behavior for Public Transport Using Discrete Choice Modeling

Authors: Durba Kundu

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The vital aspect of transportation planning is a mode choice decision. Public transportation plays an essential role in policy-making services. Results of travel behavior analysis of commuters based on their mode choice decision can be used for demand forecasting and service pricing. There is a need to understand travelers’ preferences and willingness to choose among the existing or potential alternatives, such as traditional transport modes. Furthermore, it is essential to understand aspects, which influence trips for designing the model. These aspects that impact commuter’s trips are essential to policymakers for determining decisions on the needs of travelers. A city that beholds major electronics hub tends to become the worst commuting city in a country. The socio-economic loss due to traffic congestion includes extra travel time, more congestion of fuels, death, loss of vehicle, and environmental issues. The relatively higher congestion is created due to limitations of the traditional route based transportation networks and the rapid growth of private vehicles — improper planning of infrastructure and rapid growth of a city. Increasing ridesharing or carpooling services can decrease the use of the number of users of the private vehicle. Analysis of the behavior of the commuters is one of the vital steps to understand the rider’s need from transportation services, and hence it will be a better approach to deal with the congestion problems by providing permanent solutions. Mode choice modeling is an essential aspect of behavior analysis of the commuters. The multinomial logit model is developed to get the significant coefficients and estimated standard error of the dependent variable. Discrete choice modeling is a mathematical operation that derives an individual’s mode choice decision based on the significance of relative parameters or independent variables. The model which is developed is the Probability of choosing Traditional modes as the primary mode in Trip. Several variables are selected to form this model. The outcomes of the developed model contain a value of the coefficients, estimated standard error, and P-value of the variable. This paper deals with contains the inference of the different variables for choosing a public transport mode. Here strong positive influence implies that more the number of that variable (whatever the number signifies), the Probability of choosing that mode is high. Low positive influence does not affect the mode choice decision effectively, but still for a specific mode higher, the number of the category of hat variable chances of choosing that particular mode is more. Again high adverse inference signifies that more the number of a variable less the chance of choosing that mode and for profound adverse effects the variable does not affect the mode choice decision that much, but it still affects negatively. From the outcomes of the model, it is seen that the significance of the intercept for own two-wheelers, Public Bus, Own Two Wheeler with family, friends, own car as a passenger, and Walk mode is significant (p<0.05). Age is a significant parameter for choosing a Public bus, own car as a passenger, and own car self-drive. Gender is essential for own two-wheeler, own car as a passenger, own car drive self as it seems significant (p<0.00).

Keywords: public transport, Travel Behavior, discrete choice analysis, mode choice modeling

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489 On Flexible Preferences for Standard Taxis, Electric Taxis, and Peer-to-Peer Ridesharing

Authors: Ricardo Daziano

Abstract:

In the analysis and planning of the mobility ecosystem, preferences for ride-hailing over incumbent street-hailing services need better understanding. In this paper, a seminonparametric discrete choice model that allows for flexible preference heterogeneity is fitted with data from a discrete choice experiment among adult commuters in Montreal, Canada (N=760). Participants chose among Uber, Teo (a local electric ride-hailing service that was in operation when data was collected in 2018), and a standard taxi when presented with information about cost, time (on-trip, waiting, walking), powertrain of the car (gasoline/hybrid) for Uber and taxi, and whether the available electric Teo was a Tesla (which was one of the actual features of the Teo fleet). The fitted flexible model offers several behavioral insights. Waiting time for ride-hailing services is associated with a statistically significant but low marginal disutility. For other time components, including on-ride, and street-hailing waiting and walking the estimates of the value of time show an interesting pattern: whereas in a conditional logit on-ride time reductions are valued higher, in the flexible LML specification means of the value of time follow the expected pattern of waiting and walking creating a higher disutility. At the same time, the LML estimates show the presence of important, multimodal unobserved preference heterogeneity.

Keywords: discrete choice, electric taxis, ridehailing, semiparametrics

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488 A Conceptual Model of the 'Driver – Highly Automated Vehicle' System

Authors: V. A. Dubovsky, V. V. Savchenko, A. A. Baryskevich

Abstract:

The current trend in the automotive industry towards automatic vehicles is creating new challenges related to human factors. This occurs due to the fact that the driver is increasingly relieved of the need to be constantly involved in driving the vehicle, which can negatively impact his/her situation awareness when manual control is required, and decrease driving skills and abilities. These new problems need to be studied in order to provide road safety during the transition towards self-driving vehicles. For this purpose, it is important to develop an appropriate conceptual model of the interaction between the driver and the automated vehicle, which could serve as a theoretical basis for the development of mathematical and simulation models to explore different aspects of driver behaviour in different road situations. Well-known driver behaviour models describe the impact of different stages of the driver's cognitive process on driving performance but do not describe how the driver controls and adjusts his actions. A more complete description of the driver's cognitive process, including the evaluation of the results of his/her actions, will make it possible to more accurately model various aspects of the human factor in different road situations. This paper presents a conceptual model of the 'driver – highly automated vehicle' system based on the P.K. Anokhin's theory of functional systems, which is a theoretical framework for describing internal processes in purposeful living systems based on such notions as goal, desired and actual results of the purposeful activity. A central feature of the proposed model is a dynamic coupling mechanism between the decision-making of a driver to perform a particular action and changes of road conditions due to driver’s actions. This mechanism is based on the stage by stage evaluation of the deviations of the actual values of the driver’s action results parameters from the expected values. The overall functional structure of the highly automated vehicle in the proposed model includes a driver/vehicle/environment state analyzer to coordinate the interaction between driver and vehicle. The proposed conceptual model can be used as a framework to investigate different aspects of human factors in transitions between automated and manual driving for future improvements in driving safety, and for understanding how driver-vehicle interface must be designed for comfort and safety. A major finding of this study is the demonstration that the theory of functional systems is promising and has the potential to describe the interaction of the driver with the vehicle and the environment.

Keywords: Human Factors, Driver Behavior, human-machine system, automated vehicle

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487 Automated Vehicle Traffic Control Tower: A Solution to Support the Next Level Automation

Authors: Xiaoyun Zhao, Rami Darwish, Anna Pernestål

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Automated vehicles (AVs) have the potential to enhance road capacity, improving road safety and traffic efficiency. Research and development on AVs have been going on for many years. However, when the complicated traffic rules and real situations interacted, AVs fail to make decisions on contradicting situations, and are not able to have control in all conditions due to highly dynamic driving scenarios. This limits AVs’ usage and restricts the full potential benefits that they can bring. Furthermore, regulations, infrastructure development, and public acceptance cannot keep up at the same pace as technology breakthroughs. Facing these challenges, this paper proposes automated vehicle traffic control tower (AVTCT) acting as a safe, efficient and integrated solution for AV control. It introduces a concept of AVTCT for control, management, decision-making, communication and interaction with various aspects in transportation. With the prototype demonstrations and simulations, AVTCT has the potential to overcome the control challenges with AVs and can facilitate AV reaching their full potential. Possible functionalities, benefits as well as challenges of AVTCT are discussed, which set the foundation for the conceptual model, simulation and real application of AVTCT.

Keywords: Traffic Control, intelligent transport system, Traffic Safety, automated vehicle, connectivity and automation

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486 Design and Analysis of Wireless Charging Lane for Light Rail Transit

Authors: Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Watcharet Kongwarakom

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This paper presents a design and analysis of wireless charging lane system (WCLS) for light rail transit (LRT) by considering the performance of wireless charging, traffic conditions and energy consumption drawn by the LRT system. The dynamic of the vehicle movement in terms of the vehicle speed profile during running on the WCLS, a dwell time during stopping at the station for taking the WCLS and the capacity of the WCLS in each section are taken into account to alignment design of the WCLS. This paper proposes a case study of the design of the WCLS into 2 sub-cases including continuous and discontinuous WCLS with the same distance of WCLS in total. The energy consumption by the LRT through the WCLS with the different designs of the WCLS is compared to find out the better configuration of those two cases by considering the best performance of the power transfer between the LRT and the WCLS.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Power transfer, Light rail transit, Wireless charging lane

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