Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 583

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Transport and Vehicle Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

583 Maneuvering Modelling of a One-Degree-of-Freedom Articulated Vehicle: Modeling and Experimental Verification

Authors: Mauricio E. Cruz, Ilse Cervantes, Manuel J. Fabela

Abstract:

The evaluation of the maneuverability of road vehicles is generally carried out through the use of specialized computer programs due to the advantages they offer compared to the experimental method. These programs are based on purely geometric considerations of the characteristics of the vehicles, such as main dimensions, the location of the axles, and points of articulation, without considering parameters such as weight distribution and magnitude, tire properties, etc. In this paper, we address the problem of maneuverability in a semi-trailer truck to navigate urban streets, maneuvering yards, and parking lots, using the Ackerman principle to propose a kinematic model that, through geometric considerations, it is possible to determine the space necessary to maneuver safely. The model was experimentally validated by conducting maneuverability tests with an articulated vehicle. The measurements were made through a GPS that allows us to know the position, trajectory, and speed of the vehicle, an inertial motion unit (IMU) that allows measuring the accelerations and angular speeds in the semi-trailer, and an instrumented steering wheel that allows measuring the angle of rotation of the flywheel, the angular velocity and the torque applied to the flywheel. To obtain the steering angle of the tires, a parameterization of the complete travel of the steering wheel and its equivalent in the tires was carried out. For the tests, 3 different angles were selected, and 3 turns were made for each angle in both directions of rotation (left and right turn). The results showed that the proposed kinematic model achieved 95% accuracy for speeds below 5 km / h. The experiments revealed that that tighter maneuvers increased significantly the space required and that the vehicle maneuverability was limited by the size of the semi-trailer. The maneuverability was also tested as a function of the vehicle load and 3 different load levels we used: light, medium, and heavy. It was found that the internal turning radii also increased with the load, probably due to the changes in the tires' adhesion to the pavement since heavier loads had larger contact wheel-road surfaces. The load was found as an important factor affecting the precision of the model (up to 30%), and therefore I should be considered. The model obtained is expected to be used to improve maneuverability through a robust control system.

Keywords: articuled vehicle, experimental validation, kinematic model, maneuverability, semi-trailer truck

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582 Developing a Framework for Locating Railway Passenger Stations Using Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) And Urban Regeneration Approaches

Authors: Mohammad Taghavi Zavareh, Hamidreza Saremi

Abstract:

Railway transportation is one of the types of transportation systems, which due to the advantages such as the ability to transport a large number of passengers, environmental protection, low energy consumption, and contribution to tourism, has importance. The existence of suitable and accessible stations is one of the requirements that leads to better performance and plays a significant role in the economic, social, political, and cultural development of urban areas. This paper aims to propose a framework for locating railway passenger stations. in this research, we used descriptive-analytical methods and library tools to answer which definitions and theoretical approaches are suitable for the location of railway passenger stations. The results showed that theoretical approaches such as Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration are of the utmost importance theoretical bases in the field of research. Moreover, we studied three stations in Iran to find out about real trends and criteria in this research. We also proposed four major criteria including accessibility, development, Rail related and economics, and environmental harmony. Ultimately with an emphasis on the proposed criteria, we conclude that the combination of Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration is the most suitable framework to locate railway passenger stations.

Keywords: railway passenger station, railway station, site selection, transit-oriented development, urban regeneration

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581 Road Kills of Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the Lithuania, 2014-2020

Authors: Lina Galinskaitė

Abstract:

Animal-vehicle collisions (AVC’s) affect human safety, cause property damage end wildlife welfare. The number of AVC’s is increasing and creating serious implications for conservation and management. In Lithuania, the roe deer (Capreoluscapreolus) is one the main wildlife animals frequently ending up as road kill. The study analyses the data from police reports on vehicle collisions with animals by date and time and animal species over a8-year period (2014–2020). These data were analyses to determine the temporal dynamics of vehicle collisions with animals. In Lithuania, in period of 2014–2020, collision with wildlife was registered more than 23395times, more than67,7 % of it occur with roe deer. Roe deer are most commonly involved in vehicle collisions, followed by moose (6,3), wild boar (3,8), red deer (1,7). Since vehicle collisions with animals showed temporal variation, these should be taken into consideration in developing statistical models of spatial WVC patterns and also in planning strategies to reduce accident risk.

Keywords: animal-vehicle collisions, roe deer, statistic analysis, lithuania

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580 Probability Model Accidents of Motorcyclist Based on Driver's Personality

Authors: Margareth E. Bolla, Ludfi Djakfar, Achmad Wicaksono

Abstract:

The increase in the number of motorcycle users in Indonesia is in line with the increase in accidents involving motorcycles. Several previous studies have shown that humans are the biggest factor causing accidents, and the driver's personality factor will affect his behavior on the road. This study was conducted to see how a person's personality traits will affect the probability of having an accident while driving. The Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire and the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT) simulator were used as measuring tools, while the analysis carried out was logistic regression analysis. The results of the descriptive analysis of the respondent's personality based on the BFI show that the majority of drivers have the dominant character of neuroticism (34%), while the smallest group is the driver with the dominant type of openness character (6%). The percentage of motorists who were not involved in an accident was 54%. The results of the logistic regression analysis form a mathematical model as follows Y = -3.852 - 0.288 X1 + 0.596 X2 + 0.429 X3 - 0.386 X4 - 0.094 X5 + 0.436 X6 + 0.162 X7, where the results of hypothesis testing indicate that the variables openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, history of traffic accidents and age at starting driving did not have a significant effect on the probability of a motorcyclist being involved in an accident.

Keywords: accidents, BFI, probability, simulator

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579 Analysis of the Impact of Suez Canal on the Robustness of Global Shipping Networks

Authors: Zimu Li, Zheng Wan

Abstract:

The Suez Canal plays an important role in global shipping networks and is one of the most frequently used waterways in the world. The 2021 canal obstruction by ship Ever Given in March 2021, however, completed blocked the Suez Canal for a week and caused significant disruption to world trade. Therefore, it is very important to quantitatively analyze the impact of the accident on the robustness of the global shipping network. However, the current research on maritime transportation networks is usually limited to local or small-scale networks in a certain region. Based on the complex network theory, this study establishes a global shipping complex network covering 2713 nodes and 137830 edges by using the real trajectory data of the global marine transport ship automatic identification system in 2018. At the same time, two attack modes, deliberate (Suez Canal Blocking) and random, are defined to calculate the changes in network node degree, eccentricity, clustering coefficient, network density, network isolated nodes, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality under the two attack modes, and quantitatively analyze the actual impact of Suez Canal Blocking on the robustness of global shipping network. The results of the network robustness analysis show that Suez Canal blocking was more destructive to the shipping network than random attacks of the same scale. The network connectivity and accessibility decreased significantly, and the decline decreased with the distance between the port and the canal, showing the phenomenon of distance attenuation. This study further analyzes the impact of the blocking of the Suez Canal on Chinese ports and finds that the blocking of the Suez Canal significantly interferes withChina's shipping network and seriously affects China's normal trade activities. Finally, the impact of the global supply chain is analyzed, and it is found that blocking the canal will seriously damage the normal operation of the global supply chain.

Keywords: global shipping networks, ship AIS trajectory data, main channel, complex network, eigenvalue change

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578 Optimizing Road Transportation Network Considering the Durability Factors

Authors: Yapegue Bayogo, Ahmadou Halassi Dicko, Brahima Songore

Abstract:

In developing countries, the road transportation system occupies an important place because of its flexibility and the low prices of infrastructure and rolling stock. While road transport is necessary for economic development, the movement of people and their goods, it is urgent to use transportation systems that minimize carbon emissions in order to ensure sustainable development. One of the main objectives of OEDC and the Word Bank is to ensure sustainable economic’ development. This paper aims to develop a road transport network taking into account environmental impacts. The methodology adopted consists of formulating a model optimizing the flow of goods and then collecting information relating to the transport of products. Our model was tested with data on product transport in CMDT areas in the Republic of Mali. The results of our study indicate that emissions from the transport sector can be significantly reduced by minimizing the traffic volume. According to our study, optimizing the transportation network, we benefit from a significant amount of tons of CO₂.

Keywords: road transport, transport sustainability, pollution, flexibility, optimized network

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577 Response of Loose Granular Materials Subjected to Static Loads at Low Number of Cycles Under Ko -condition

Authors: Amir Tophel, Troyee Tanu Dutta, Jeffrey Walker, David Barker, Jayantha Kodikara

Abstract:

The compaction of granular materials for structural layers of flexible pavements, such as base and subbase, involves mechanical densification using compactors. From a very loose state, materials are compacted at or near their optimum moisture content (OMC) for a number of cycles (i.e. compactor passes), typically less than 10. Compaction of loose materials involves predominantly volumetric deformation, which can be approximated by one-dimensional compression. Modelling of the response of these materials can be used to optimize the soil compaction process in terms of load and number of load cycles, with a view to achieving a target density. The accumulation of plastic strain with number of cycles is investigated, and its behaviour with varying moisture content, initial void ratio, and maximum stress level is explored. Three different granular materials were compacted at relatively loose state in a California Bearing Ratio (CBR) mould and subjected to different loading conditions under zero-lateral-strain (i.e. Ko conditions). A simple and practical constitutive equation based on the observed behaviour of the specimen was developed, capturing the accumulation of plastic strain for a given loading condition. An important feature of the model with respect to the effect of Degree of Saturation (Sr) on strain accumulation will be discussed. The model prediction was compared with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) prediction, which found that both approaches were able to capture the experimental results equally well. The use of the constitutive relationship in achieving the target density using a simplified procedure will also be discussed.

Keywords: compaction, degree of saturation, plastic strain, Artificial neural network

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576 Use of an L-band Radiometer for Remote Moisture Measurement of Unbound Materials and Soil Subgrades

Authors: Thi Mai Nguyen

Abstract:

The moisture content level during road pavement construction has been shown to play an important role in road pavement performance, as it can affect the soil behaviour in unbound and subgrade layers under repeated heavy traffic loading. However, it is difficult to monitor the spatial variation in pavement moisture content along construction corridors during compaction in an economically feasible manner. Current state-of-the-art methods include manually taking small samples from a few isolated locations. This approach does not take into account spatial variations in the soil moisture along the construction corridor; hence, finding effective and easy methods to measure water content in soil used for road construction is an issue of concern. For more than four decades, it has been known that soil moisture can be retrieved from thermal radiance obtained with an L-band radiometer. Moreover, the L-band passive microwave approach has been demonstrated as the most accurate method for soil moisture measurement in the agriculture field. However, because of the nature of the technology and the satellite altitude, the current spatial resolution from space is approximately 40 km, which is far too coarse for road construction. Nevertheless, it is possible to deploy this technology closer to the ground, such as from vehicles or drones, so that a spatial resolution of less than 10 m can be achieved. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that it has the potential to provide useful soil moisture information in road construction, which has not been explored in the literature. Therefore, this project seeks to use the L-band passive microwave instrument on a vehicle/ UAV for mapping high-resolution soil moisture for use in the context of optimum compaction of soil in road construction.

Keywords: remote sensing, road pavement, soil moisture measurement, compaction process

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575 Prospective Analysis of Micromobility in the City of Medellín

Authors: Saúl Rivero, Estefanya Marín, Katherine Bolaño, Elena Urán, Juan Yepes, Andrés Cossio

Abstract:

Medellín is the Colombian city with the best public transport systems in the country, which is made up of two metro lines, five metrocables, two BRT-type bus lines, and a tram. But despite the above, the Aburrá Valley, the area in which the city is located, has about 3000 km of roads, which for the existing population of 3.2 million inhabitants, gives an indicator of 900 meters of road per 1000 inhabitants, which is lower than the country's average, which is approximately 3900 meters. In addition, given that in Medellín, there is approximately one vehicle for every three inhabitants, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution have worsened over the years. In this sense, due to the limitations of physical space, the low public investment in road infrastructure, it is necessary to opt for mobility alternatives according to the above. Among the options for the city, there is what is known as micromobility. Micromobility is understood to be those small and light means of transport that are used for short distances, that use electrical energy, such as skateboards and bicycles. Taking into account the above, in this work, the current state and future of micromobility in the city of Medellín were analyzed, carrying out a prospective analysis, supported by a PEST analysis, but also of the crossed impact matrices; of influence and dependence; and the technique of the actor's game. The analysis was carried out for two future scenarios: one normal and one optimistic. Result of the analysis, it was determined that micromobility as an alternative social practice to mobility in the city of Medellín has favorable conditions since the local government has adopted strategies such as the Metropolitan Bicycle Master Plan of Valle de Aburrá and the plan " Bicycle paths in the city: more public spaces for life,” where a projection of 400 kilometers of bicycle paths was estimated by the year 2030, as for that same year it is expected that 10% of all trips in the region will be in bike mode. The total trip indicator is an achievable goal, while that of the number of kilometers of bike paths would be close to being met.

Keywords: electric vehicles, micromobilty, public transport, sustainable transport

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574 Classic Modelled Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using The Power of Internet Of Things

Authors: Venkatesh Krishna Murthy

Abstract:

The era before government-regulated automotive designs gave us some astonishing vehicles that are well worth to keep on the road. The fact that restoring an automobile in 2015 does not mean it will perform like one designed in 2021. This is one of the reasons that manufacturers continue to turn to vintage hardware for future enhancements in their vehicles. Now we need to understand that a modern chassis could possibly allow manufacturers to give vintage performance cars a level of braking capability, compatibility with tires, chassis rigidity, suspension sophistication, and steering response, an experience only racers got until now. However, half a century of advancements in engineering can have a great impact on design in any field, and the automotive realm which holds no exception. In the current situation, a growing number of companies offer chassis and braking components to onboard manufacturers to retrofit contemporary technology for their vintage vehicles to modernize them at the foundation level. The recent question arises on performance on lithium batteries, as opposed to simply bolting upgraded components, for ex. lithium batteries with graphene as superconductive material to enhance performance, an area deeply investigated. Serving as the “bones” of the vehicle, the chassis and frame play a central role in dictating how that automobile will perform. While the desire to maintain originality is alluring for many, the benefits of a modern chassis are vast. In some situations, it also allows builders to put cars back on the road that might otherwise be too far gone. “There’s a couple of different factors at play here – one of them being that these older cars from the ’40s, ’50s, and ’60s have seen a lot of weather and a lot of road miles over the years, more often than not,” says Craig Morrison of Art Morrison Enterprises.

Keywords: hybrid electric vehicles, internet of things, lithium graphene batteries, classic car chassis

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573 Maximizing Bidirectional Green Waves for Major Road Axes

Authors: Christian Liebchen

Abstract:

Both, from an environmental perspective and with respect to road traffic flow quality, planning so-called green waves along major road axes is a well-established target for traffic engineers. For one-way road axes (e.g. the Avenues in Manhattan), this is a trivial downstream task. For bidirectional arterials, the well-known necessary condition for establishing a green wave in both direction is that the driving times between two subsequent crossings must be an integer multiple of half of the cycle time of the signal programs at the nodes. In this paper, we propose an integer linear optimization model to establish fixed-time green waves in both directions that are as long and as wide as possible, even in the situation where the driving time condition is not fulfilled. In particular, we are considering an arterial along whose nodes separate left-turn signal groups are realized. In our computational results, we provide examples which illustrate that allowing for selecting among different strategies for the left-turn phases is beneficial. Moreover, we show that there is always a solution with green waves in both directions that are as long and as wide as possible, where absolute priority is put on just one direction. Only when considering prioritized parts of a green band (e.g. some first few seconds), then an ideal green wave into one direction can provide suboptimal quality compared to optimizing both directions together.

Keywords: traffic light coordination, synchronization, phase sequencing, green waves, integer programming

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572 Predictive Analytics of Bike Sharing Rider Parameters

Authors: Bongs Lainjo

Abstract:

The evolution and escalation of bike-sharing programs (BSP) continue unabated. Since the sixties, many countries have introduced different models and strategies of BSP. These include variations ranging from dockless models to electronic real-time monitoring systems. Reasons for using this BSP include recreation, errands, work, etc. And there is all indication that complex, and more innovative rider-friendly systems are yet to be introduced. The objective of this paper is to analyze current variables established by different operators and streamline them identifying the most compelling ones using analytics. Given the contents of available databases, there is a lack of uniformity and common standard on what is required and what is not. Two factors appear to be common: user type (registered and unregistered, and duration of each trip). This article uses historical data provided by one operator based in the greater Washington, District of Columbia, USA area. Several variables including categorical and continuous data types were screened. Eight out of 18 were considered acceptable and significantly contribute to determining a useful and reliable predictive model. Bike-sharing systems have become popular in recent years all around the world. Although this trend has resulted in many studies on public cycling systems, there have been few previous studies on the factors influencing public bicycle travel behavior. A bike-sharing system is a computer-controlled system in which individuals can borrow bikes for a fee or free for a limited period. This study has identified unprecedented useful, and pragmatic parameters required in improving BSP ridership dynamics.

Keywords: sharing program, historical data, parameters, ridership dynamics, trip duration

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571 Understanding the Safety Impacts of Imbalances in Truck Parking Supply and Demand

Authors: Rahil Saeedi

Abstract:

The imbalance in truck parking supply and demand can create important safety issues for truck drivers and the public. Research has shown that breaks at specific intervals can increase drivers’ alertness by reducing the monotony of the task. However, if fatigued truck drivers are unable to find a safe parking spot for rest, they may continue to drive or choose to park at remote and insecure areas or undesignated locations. All of these situations pose serious safety and security risks to truck drivers and other roadway users. This study uses 5-year truck crash data in Ohio to develop and test a framework for identifying crashes that happen as a result of imbalances in truck parking supply and demand. The societal impacts of these crashes are then interpreted as monetary values, calculated using the costs associated with various crash severity levels.

Keywords: truck parking, road safety, crash data, geofencing, driver fatigue, undesignated parking

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570 Simulation of Technological, Energy and GHG Comparison between a Conventional Diesel Bus and E-bus: Feasibility to Promote E-bus Change in High Lands Cities

Authors: Riofrio Jonathan, Fernandez Guillermo

Abstract:

Renewable energy represented around 80% of the energy matrix for power generation in Ecuador during 2020, so the deployment of current public policies is focused on taking advantage of the high presence of renewable sources to carry out several electrification projects. These projects are part of the portfolio sent to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the established national determined contribution (NDC). In this sense, the Ecuadorian Organic Energy Efficiency Law (LOEE) published in 2019 promotes E-mobility as one of the main milestones. In fact, it states that the new vehicles for urban and interurban usage must be E-buses since 2025. As a result, and for a successful implementation of this technological change in a national context, it is important to deploy land surveys focused on technical and geographical areas to keep the quality of services in both the electricity and transport sectors. Therefore, this research presents a technological and energy comparison between a conventional diesel bus and its equivalent E-bus. Both vehicles fulfill all the technical requirements to ride in the study-case city, which is Ambato in the province of Tungurahua-Ecuador. In addition, the analysis includes the development of a model for the energy estimation of both technologies that are especially applied in a highland city such as Ambato. The altimetry of the most important bus routes in the city varies from 2557 to 3200 m.a.s.l., respectively, for the lowest and highest points. These operation conditions provide a grade of novelty to this paper. Complementary, the technical specifications of diesel buses are defined following the common features of buses registered in Ambato. On the other hand, the specifications for E-buses come from the most common units introduced in Latin America because there is not enough evidence in similar cities at the moment. The achieved results will be good input data for decision-makers since electric demand forecast, energy savings, costs, and greenhouse gases emissions are computed. Indeed, GHG is important because it allows reporting the transparency framework that it is part of the Paris Agreement. Finally, the presented results correspond to stage I of the called project “Analysis and Prospective of Electromobility in Ecuador and Energy Mix towards 2030” supported by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

Keywords: high altitude cities, energy planning, NDC, e-buses, e-mobility

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569 Challenges for a WPT 4 Waiting Lane Concept - Laboratory and Practical Experience

Authors: Julia Langen

Abstract:

This article describes the challenges of a wireless charging system for a cab waiting lane in a public space and presents a concept for solving them. In this concept, multiple cabs can be charged simultaneously and during stopping and rolling. Particular technical challenges are a coil topology that meets the EMF requirements and an intelligent control concept that allows the individual coil segments to be switched on and off. The charging concept explained here is currently being implemented as a pilot project, so that initial results on the operation can be presented.

Keywords: charge lane, inductive charging solution, smart city, wireless power transfer

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568 Sustainability Assessment of Food Delivery with Last-Mile Delivery Droids, A Case Study at the European Commission's JRC Ispra Site

Authors: Ada Garus

Abstract:

This paper presents the outcomes of the sustainability assessment of food delivery with a last-mile delivery service introduced in a real-world case study. The methodology used in the sustainability assessment integrates multi-criteria decision-making analysis, sustainability pillars, and scenario analysis to best reflect the conflicting needs of stakeholders involved in the last mile delivery system. The case study provides an application of the framework to the food delivery system of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission where three alternative solutions were analyzed I) the existent state in which individuals frequent the local cantine or pick up their food, using their preferred mode of transport II) the hypothetical scenario in which individuals can only order their food using the delivery droid system III) a scenario in which the food delivery droid based system is introduced as a supplement to the current system. The environmental indices are calculated using a simulation study in which decision regarding the food delivery is predicted using a multinomial logit model. The vehicle dynamics model is used to predict the fuel consumption of the regular combustion engines vehicles used by the cantine goers and the electricity consumption of the droid. The sustainability assessment allows for the evaluation of the economic, environmental, and social aspects of food delivery, making it an apt input for policymakers. Moreover, the assessment is one of the first studies to investigate automated delivery droids, which could become a frequent addition to the urban landscape in the near future.

Keywords: innovations in transportation technologies, behavioural change and mobility, urban freight logistics, innovative transportation systems

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567 Regeneration Study on the Athens City Center: Transformation of the Historical Triangle to “Low Pollution and Restricted Vehicle Traffic Zone”

Authors: Chondrogianni Dimitra, Yorgos J. Stephanedes

Abstract:

The impact of the economic crisis, coupled with the aging of the city's old core, is reflected in central Athens. Public and private users, residents, employees, visitors desire the quality upgrading of abandoned buildings and public spaces through environmental upgrading and sustainable mobility, and promotion of the international metropolitan character of the city. In the study, a strategy for reshaping the character and function of the historic Athenian triangle is proposed, aiming at its economic, environmental, and social sustainable development through feasible, meaningful, and non-landscaping solutions of low cost and high positive impact. Sustainable mobility is the main principle in re-planning the study area and transforming it into a “Low Pollution and Limited Vehicle Traffic Zone” is the main strategy. Τhe proposed measures include the development of pedestrian mobility networks by expanding the pedestrian roads and limited-traffic routes, of bicycle networks based on the approved Metropolitan Bicycle Route of Athens, of public transportation networks with new lines of electric mini-buses, and of new regulations for vehicle mobility in the historic triangle. In addition, complementary actions are proposed regarding the provision of Wi-Fi on fixed track media, development of applications that facilitate combined travel and provide real-time data, integration of micromobility (roller skates, Segway, Hoverboard), and its enhancement as a flexible means of personal mobility, and development of car-sharing, ride-sharing and dynamic carpooling initiatives.

Keywords: regeneration plans, sustainable mobility, environmental upgrading, athens historical triangle

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566 Vehicle Ownership and Occupancy Change in Travel Demand Model Due to the Emergence of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Authors: Asadur Rahman, Bin Ran

Abstract:

Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) will have a major impact on transportation infrastructure, transportation mobility, as well as vehicle ownership and occupancy. The traffic forecasting process using the travel demand model (TDM) predicts traffic conditions that are expected to occur on the transportation system in future years but not the precise representations of traffic volume due to the complexity of real-world drive behavior and roadway characteristics. This research has proposed a framework (from the state-of-the-art and practice and the 20 to 30 years forecast horizon) to incorporate CAVs in the traditional four-step trip based TDM to do traffic forecast; and concludes that vehicle miles travel (VMT), vehicle hours travel (VHT), and travel delay are directly related to travel behaviors such as vehicle ownership and occupancy. Outlining changes (decrease) in single occupancy (SO) in trips and vehicle ownership (VO) in households with the dedicated lane(s) for CAVs in roadway network, the planned scenarios revealed that ‘with CAV’ VMT may decrease up to forty percent than ‘without CAV’ in an extreme scenario. Results from different scenarios in this research suggest implementing a single dedicated lane in the road network for CAVs at the beginning of implementation. Analyzing the impact of CAVs on urban-rural mobility, travel patterns, vehicle ownership, and occupancy will benefit traffic forecasts from a scenario planning perspective for the long-range transportation planning process; to guide and improve investment plans and the overall decision-making process.

Keywords: connected and automated vehicles, traffic forecasting, vehicle ownership, vehicle occupancy

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565 Assessing the Impact of Additional Information during Motor Preparation in Lane Change Task

Authors: Nikita Rajendra Sharma, Jai Prakash Kushvah, Gerhard Rinkenauer

Abstract:

Driving a car is a discrete aiming movement in which drivers aim at successful extraction of relevant information and elimination of potentially distracting one. It is the motor preparation which enables one to react to certain stimuli onsite by allowing perceptual process for optimal adjustment. Drivers prepare their responses according to the available resources of advanced and ongoing information to drive efficiently. It requires constant programming and reprogramming of the motor system. The reaction time (RT) is shorter when a response signal is preceded by a warning signal. The reason behind this reduced time in responding to targets is that the warning signal causes the participant to prepare for the upcoming response by updating the motor program before the execution. While performing the primary task of changing lanes while driving, the simultaneous occurrence of additional information during the presentation of cues (congruent or incongruent with respect to target cue) might impact the motor preparation and execution. The presence of additional information (other than warning or response signal) between warning signal and imperative stimulus influences human motor preparation to a reasonable extent. The present study was aimed to assess the impact of congruent and incongruent additional information (with respect to imperative stimulus) on driving performance (reaction time, steering wheel amplitude, and steering wheel duration) during a lane change task. implementing movement pre-cueing paradigm. 22 young valid car-drivers (Mage = 24.1+/- 3.21 years, M = 10, F = 12, age-range 21-33 years) participated in the study. The study revealed that additional information influenced the overall driving performance as potential distractors and relevant information. Findings suggest that the events of additional information relatively influenced the reaction time and steering wheel angle as potential distractor or irrelevant information. Participants took longer to respond, and higher steering wheel angles were reported for targets coupled with additional information in comparison with warning signs preceded by potential distractors and the participants' response time was more for a higher number of lanes (2 Lanes > 1 Lane). The same additional information appearing interchangeably at warning signals and targets worked as relevant information facilitating the motor programming in the trails where they were congruent with the direction of lane change direction.

Keywords: additional information, lane change task, motor preparation, movement pre-cueing, reaction time, steering wheel amplitude

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564 The Elimination of Fossil Fuel Subsidies from the Road Transportation Sector and the Promotion of Electro Mobility – The Ecuadorian Case

Authors: Alvaro Corral Naveda, Juan Fonseca, Henry Acurio, Guillermo Fernández

Abstract:

In Ecuador, subventions on fossil fuels for the road transportation sector have always been part of its economy throughout time, mainly because of demagogy and populism from political leaders. It is clearly seen that the government cannot maintain the subsidies anymore due to its commercial balance and its general state budget, subsidies are a key barrier to implement the use of cleaner technologies. However, during the last few months, the elimination of subsidies has been done gradually with the purpose of reaching international prices. It is expected that with this measure, the population will opt for other means of transportation, and in a certain way, it will promote the use of private electric vehicles, public, e.g., taxis, buses (urban transport). It is also important to consider that Ecuador´s production of energy is mainly hydropower. Considering the three main elements of sustainable development, an analysis of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of eliminating subsidies will be generated at the country level. To achieve this, four scenarios will be developed in order to determine how the subsidies will contribute to the promotion of electro mobility. 1)A Business as Usual BAU scenario;2) the introduction of 10.000 electric vehicles by 2025; 3) the introduction of 100.000 electric vehicles by 2030; 4) the introduction of 750.000 electric vehicles by 2040 (for all the scenarios buses, taxis, lightweight duty vehicles, and private vehicles will be introduced, as it was established in the National ElectroMobility Strategy for Ecuador). The Low Emissions Analysis Platform LEAP will be used, and it will be suitable to determine the cost for the government in terms of importing derivatives for fossil fuels and the cost of electricity to power the electric fleet that can be changed. The elimination of subventions generates fiscal resources to the state that can be used to develop other kinds of projects that will benefit Ecuadorian society. It will definitely change the energy matrix, and it will provide energy security for the country. It will be an opportunity for the government to incentivize a greater introduction of renewable energies, e.g., solar and wind. At the same time, it will help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emissions GHG from the transportation sector, considering its mitigation potential, which in result will improve the inhabitant´s quality of life by improving the quality of air, therefore reducing respiratory diseases associated with exhaust emissions. Consequently, achieving sustainability, the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs, and complying with the agreements established in the Paris Agreement COP 21 in 2015. Electromobility in Latin America and the Caribbean can only be achieved by the implementation of the right policies at the central government, that need to be accompanied by a National Urban Mobility Policy NUMP, and can encompass a greater vision to develop holistic sustainable transport systems at local governments.

Keywords: electromobility, energy, policy, sustainable transportation

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563 Blockchain for Transport: Performance Simulations of Blockchain Network for Emission Monitoring Scenario

Authors: Dermot O'Brien, Vasileios Christaras, Georgios Fontaras, Igor Nai Fovino, Ioannis Kounelis

Abstract:

With the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT), 5G, and blockchain (BC) technologies, vehicles are becoming ever increasingly connected and are already transmitting substantial amounts of data to the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) servers. This data could be used to help detect mileage fraud and enable more accurate vehicle emissions monitoring. This would not only help regulators but could enable applications such as permitting efficient drivers to pay less tax, geofencing for air quality improvement, as well as pollution tolling and trading platforms for transport-related businesses and EU citizens. Other applications could include traffic management and shared mobility systems. BC enables the transmission of data with additional security and removes single points of failure while maintaining data provenance, identity ownership, and the possibility to retain varying levels of privacy depending on the requirements of the applied use case. This research performs simulations of vehicles interacting with European member state authorities and European Commission BC nodes that are running hyperleger fabric and explores whether the technology is currently feasible for transport applications such as the emission monitoring use-case.

Keywords: future transportation systems, technological innovations, policy approaches for transportation future, economic and regulatory trends, blockchain

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562 An Application-Driven Procedure for Optimal Signal Digitization of Automotive-Grade Ultrasonic Sensors

Authors: ohamed Shawki Elamir, Heinrich Gotzig, Raoul Zoellner, Patrick Maeder

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In this work, a methodology is presented for identifying the optimal digitization parameters for the analog signal of ultrasonic sensors. These digitization parameters are the resolution of the analog to digital conversion and the sampling rate. This is accomplished through the derivation of characteristic curves based on Fano inequality and the calculation of the mutual information content over a given dataset. The mutual information is calculated between the examples in the dataset and the corresponding variation in the feature that needs to be estimated. The optimal parameters are identified in a manner that ensures optimal estimation performance while preventing inefficiency in using unnecessarily powerful analog to digital converters.

Keywords: analog to digital conversion, digitization, sampling rate, ultrasonic

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561 Low-Emission Commuting with Micro Public Transport: Investigation of Travel Times and CO₂ Emissions

Authors: Marcel Ciesla, Victoria Oberascher, Sven Eder, Stefan Kirchweger, Wolfgang E. Baaske, Gerald Ostermayer

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The omnipresent trend towards sustainable mobility is a major challenge, especially for commuters in rural areas. The use of micro public transport systems is expected to significantly reduce pollutant emissions, as several commuters travel the first mile together with a single pick-up bus instead of their own car. In this paper, different aspects of such a micro public transport system are analyzed. The main findings of the investigations should be how the travel times of commuters change and how many CO₂ emissions can be saved if some of the commuters use public transport instead of their own vehicle.

Keywords: micro public transport, green transportation, sustainable mobility, low-emission commuting

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560 Integrated Target Tracking and Control for Automated Car-Following of Truck Platforms

Authors: Fadwa Alaskar, Fang-Chieh Chou, Carlos Flores, Xiao-Yun Lu, Alexandre M. Bayen

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This article proposes a perception model for enhancing the accuracy and stability of car-following control of a longitudinally automated truck. We applied a fusion-based tracking algorithm on measurements of a single preceding vehicle needed for car-following control. This algorithm fuses two types of data, radar and LiDAR data, to obtain more accurate and robust longitudinal perception of the subject vehicle in various weather conditions. The filter’s resulting signals are fed to the gap control algorithm at every tracking loop composed by a high-level gap control and lower acceleration tracking system. Several highway tests have been performed with two trucks. The tests show accurate and fast tracking of the target, which impacts on the gap control loop positively. The experiments also show the fulfilment of control design requirements, such as fast speed variations tracking and robust time gap following.

Keywords: object tracking, perception, sensor fusion, adaptive cruise control, cooperative adaptive cruise control

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559 Long Short-Time Memory Neural Networks for Human Driving Behavior Modelling

Authors: Lu Zhao, Nadir Farhi, Yeltsin Valero, Zoi Christoforou, Nadia Haddadou

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In this paper, a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model is proposed to replicate simultaneously car-following and lane-changing behaviors in road networks. By combining two kinds of LSTM layers and three input designs of the neural network, six variants of the LSTM model have been created. These models were trained and tested on the NGSIM 101 dataset, and the results were evaluated in terms of longitudinal speed and lateral position, respectively. Then, we compared the LSTM model with a classical car-following model (the intelligent driving model (IDM)) in the part of speed decision. In addition, the LSTM model is compared with a model using classical neural networks. After the comparison, the LSTM model demonstrates higher accuracy than the physical model IDM in terms of car-following behavior and displays better performance with regard to both car-following and lane-changing behavior compared to the classical neural network model.

Keywords: traffic modeling, neural networks, LSTM, car-following, lane-change

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558 Driver Behavior Analysis and Inter-Vehicular Collision Simulation Approach

Authors: Lu Zhao, Nadir Farhi, Zoi Christoforou, Nadia Haddadou

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The safety test of deploying intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs) on the road network is a critical challenge. Road traffic network simulation can be used to test the functionality of ICVs, which is not only time-saving and less energy-consuming but also can create scenarios with car collisions. However, the relationship between different human driver behaviors and the car-collision occurrences has been not understood clearly; meanwhile, the procedure of car-collisions generation in the traffic numerical simulators is not fully integrated. In this paper, we propose an approach to identify specific driver profiles from real driven data; then, we replicate them in numerical traffic simulations with the purpose of generating inter-vehicular collisions. We proposed three profiles: (i) 'aggressive': short time-headway, (ii) 'inattentive': long reaction time, and (iii) 'normal' with intermediate values of reaction time and time-headway. These three driver profiles are extracted from the NGSIM dataset and simulated using the intelligent driver model (IDM), with an extension of reaction time. At last, the generation of inter-vehicular collisions is performed by varying the percentages of different profiles.

Keywords: vehicular collisions, human driving behavior, traffic modeling, car-following models, microscopic traffic simulation

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557 Data Refinement Enhances The Accuracy of Short-Term Traffic Latency Prediction

Authors: Man Fung Ho, Lap So, Jiaqi Zhang, Yuheng Zhao, Huiyang Lu, Tat Shing Choi, K. Y. Michael Wong

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Nowadays, a tremendous amount of data is available in the transportation system, enabling the development of various machine learning approaches to make short-term latency predictions. A natural question is then the choice of relevant information to enable accurate predictions. Using traffic data collected from the Taiwan Freeway System, we consider the prediction of short-term latency of a freeway segment with a length of 17 km covering 5 measurement points, each collecting vehicle-by-vehicle data through the electronic toll collection system. The processed data include the past latencies of the freeway segment with different time lags, the traffic conditions of the individual segments (the accumulations, the traffic fluxes, the entrance and exit rates), the total accumulations, and the weekday latency profiles obtained by Gaussian process regression of past data. We arrive at several important conclusions about how data should be refined to obtain accurate predictions, which have implications for future system-wide latency predictions. (1) We find that the prediction of median latency is much more accurate and meaningful than the prediction of average latency, as the latter is plagued by outliers. This is verified by machine-learning prediction using XGBoost that yields a 35% improvement in the mean square error of the 5-minute averaged latencies. (2) We find that the median latency of the segment 15 minutes ago is a very good baseline for performance comparison, and we have evidence that further improvement is achieved by machine learning approaches such as XGBoost and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). (3) By analyzing the feature importance score in XGBoost and calculating the mutual information between the inputs and the latencies to be predicted, we identify a sequence of inputs ranked in importance. It confirms that the past latencies are most informative of the predicted latencies, followed by the total accumulation, whereas inputs such as the entrance and exit rates are uninformative. It also confirms that the inputs are much less informative of the average latencies than the median latencies. (4) For predicting the latencies of segments composed of two or three sub-segments, summing up the predicted latencies of each sub-segment is more accurate than the one-step prediction of the whole segment, especially with the latency prediction of the downstream sub-segments trained to anticipate latencies several minutes ahead. The duration of the anticipation time is an increasing function of the traveling time of the upstream segment. The above findings have important implications to predicting the full set of latencies among the various locations in the freeway system.

Keywords: data refinement, machine learning, mutual information, short-term latency prediction

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556 The Role of Synthetic Data in Aerial Object Detection

Authors: Ava Dodd, Jonathan Adams

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The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of developing a machine learning application using synthetic data. The study is structured to develop the application for the purpose of deploying the computer vision model. The findings discuss the realities of attempting to develop a computer vision model for practical purpose, and detail the processes, tools, and techniques that were used to meet accuracy requirements. The research reveals that synthetic data represents another variable that can be adjusted to improve the performance of a computer vision model. Further, a suite of tools and tuning recommendations are provided.

Keywords: computer vision, machine learning, synthetic data, YOLOv4

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555 A Study on Accident Result Contribution of Individual Major Variables Using Multi-Body System of Accident Reconstruction Program

Authors: Donghun Jeong, Somyoung Shin, Yeoil Yun

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A large-scale traffic accident refers to an accident in which more than three people die or more than thirty people are dead or injured. In order to prevent a large-scale traffic accident from causing a big loss of lives or establish effective improvement measures, it is important to analyze accident situations in-depth and understand the effects of major accident variables on an accident. This study aims to analyze the contribution of individual accident variables to accident results, based on the accurate reconstruction of traffic accidents using PC-Crash’s Multi-Body, which is an accident reconstruction program, and simulation of each scenario. Multi-Body system of PC-Crash accident reconstruction program is used for multi-body accident reconstruction that shows motions in diverse directions that were not approached previously. MB System is to design and reproduce a form of body, which shows realistic motions, using several bodies. Targeting the 'freight truck cargo drop accident around the Changwon Tunnel' that happened in November 2017, this study conducted a simulation of the freight truck cargo drop accident and analyzed the contribution of individual accident majors. Then on the basis of the driving speed, cargo load, and stacking method, six scenarios were devised. The simulation analysis result displayed that the freight car was driven at a speed of 118km/h(speed limit: 70km/h) right before the accident, carried 196 oil containers with a weight of 7,880kg (maximum load: 4,600kg) and was not fully equipped with anchoring equipment that could prevent a drop of cargo. The vehicle speed, cargo load, and cargo anchoring equipment were major accident variables, and the accident contribution analysis results of individual variables are as follows. When the freight car only obeyed the speed limit, the scattering distance of oil containers decreased by 15%, and the number of dropped oil containers decreased by 39%. When the freight car only obeyed the cargo load, the scattering distance of oil containers decreased by 5%, and the number of dropped oil containers decreased by 34%. When the freight car obeyed both the speed limit and cargo load, the scattering distance of oil containers fell by 38%, and the number of dropped oil containers fell by 64%. The analysis result of each scenario revealed that the overspeed and excessive cargo load of the freight car contributed to the dispersion of accident damage; in the case of a truck, which did not allow a fall of cargo, there was a different type of accident when driven too fast and carrying excessive cargo load, and when the freight car obeyed the speed limit and cargo load, there was the lowest possibility of causing an accident.

Keywords: accident reconstruction, large-scale traffic accident, PC-Crash, MB system

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554 A Framework for Railway Passenger Station Site Selection Using Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration Approaches

Authors: M. Taghavi Zavareh, H. Saremi

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Railway transportation is one of the types of transportation systems which, due to the advantages such as the ability to transport a large number of passengers, environmental protection, low energy consumption, and contribution to tourism, has importance. The existence of suitable and accessible stations is one of the requirements that leads to better performance and plays a significant role in the economic, social, political, and cultural development of urban areas. This paper aims to propose a framework for locating railway passenger stations. This research used descriptive-analytical methods and library tools to answer which definitions and theoretical approaches are suitable for the location of railway passenger stations. The results showed that theoretical approaches such as Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration are of the utmost importance theoretical bases in the field of research. Moreover, we studied three stations in Iran to find out about real trends and criteria in this research. This study also proposed four major criteria including accessibility, development, rail related and economics, and environmental harmony. Ultimately with an emphasis on the proposed criteria, the study concludes that the combination of Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration is the most suitable framework to locate railway passenger stations.

Keywords: railway passenger station, railway station, site selection, transit-oriented development, urban regeneration

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