Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: vending

13 Exploration of Spatial Design Strategies on Conservation of Mobile Vending in Chinese Shantytowns Renovation Planning

Authors: Tianchen Dai

Abstract:

Shantytowns are special historical products in china, possessing strong particularity and typicality, the theoretical value and the practical significance of which are deemed to hold great importance in the modern development of residential areas in China. The renovation planning of shantytowns can be very challenging in terms of cultural inheritance. The traditional lifestyle, one of the key elements building up residents’ perception of affiliation, should be carried forward in the renovation planning of shantytowns. Mobile vending can be considered as a rare business model survived within modern commercial environment, thanks to the unique spatial characteristics of Chinese shantytowns. This article mainly investigates the unique phenomenon of mobile vending in shantytowns, discussing the operating mechanism and rationality behind this commercial phenomenon. For humanistic concern, the innovative conservation of mobile vending, as a means to preserve the vivacious traditional lifestyle of local residents, can be realized through substantial urban design strategies, including spatial design of public space, height control of the facades, and traffic management around and inside shantytowns.

Keywords: cultural inheritance, mobile vending, renovation planning, shantytowns

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12 Investigating Informal Vending Practices and Social Encounters along Commercial Streets in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Dalya M. Hassan

Abstract:

Marketplaces and commercial streets represent some of the most used and lively urban public spaces. Not only do they provide an outlet for commercial exchange, but they also facilitate social and recreational encounters. Such encounters can be influenced by both formal as well as informal vending activities. This paper explores and documents forms of informal vending practices and how they relate to social patterns that occur along the sidewalks of Commercial Streets in Cairo. A qualitative single case study approach of ‘Midan El Gami’ marketplace in Heliopolis, Cairo is adopted. The methodology applied includes direct and walk-by observations for two main commercial streets in the marketplace. Four zoomed-in activity maps are also done for three sidewalk segments that displayed varying vending and social features. Main findings include a documentation and classification of types of informal vending practices as well as a documentation of vendors’ distribution patterns in the urban space. Informal vending activities mainly included informal street vendors and shop spillovers, either as product or seating spillovers. Results indicated that staying and lingering activities were more prevalent in sidewalks that had certain physical features, such as diversity of shops, shaded areas, open frontages, and product or seating spillovers. Moreover, differences in social activity patterns were noted between sidewalks with street vendors and sidewalks with spillovers. While the first displayed more buying, selling, and people watching activities, the latter displayed more social relations and bonds amongst traders’ communities and café patrons. Ultimately, this paper provides a documentation, which suggests that informal vending can have a positive influence on creating a lively commercial street and on resulting patterns of use on the sidewalk space. The results can provide a basis for further investigations and analysis concerning this topic. This could aid in better accommodating informal vending activities within the design of future commercial streets.

Keywords: commercial streets, informal vending practices, sidewalks, social encounters

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11 Design of a Customized Freshly-Made Fruit Salad and Juices Vending Machine

Authors: María Laura Guevara Campos

Abstract:

The increasing number of vending machines makes it easy for people to find them more frequently in stores, universities, workplaces, and even hospitals. These machines usually offer products with high contents of sugar and fat, which, if consumed regularly, can result in serious health threats, as overweight and obesity. Additionally, the energy consumption of these machines tends to be high, which has an impact on the environment as well. In order to promote the consumption of healthy food, a vending machine was designed to give the customer the opportunity to choose between a customized fruit salad and a customized fruit juice, both of them prepared instantly with the ingredients selected by the customer. The main parameters considered to design the machine were: the storage of the preferred fruits in a salad and/or in a juice according to a survey, the size of the machine, the use of ecologic recipients, and the overall energy consumption. The methodology used for the design was the one proposed by the German Association of Engineers for mechatronics systems, which breaks the design process in several stages, from the elaboration of a list of requirements through the establishment of the working principles and the design concepts to the final design of the machine, which was done in a 3D modelling software. Finally, with the design of this machine, the aim is to contribute to the development and implementation of healthier vending machines that offer freshly-made products, which is not being widely attended at present.

Keywords: design, design methodology, mechatronics systems, vending machines

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10 Informal Economy: Case Study of Street Vendors in Bangkok

Authors: Kangrij Roeksiripat

Abstract:

Street vending is one of the informal economy activities which considered significance to Thai people in the economic and the day-to-day social life. It had been believed that the street vendor is a group of the poor and uneducated people. With the increasing numbers of the street vendor occupying space on public sidewalks especially in central business districts, it becomes unclear whether street vending continues as a solution to unemployment for access labors. This research attempts to study and analyze types of street vendors in Bangkok under the informal economy framework. The debate on the heterogeneous informal economy has categorized into four schools; the dualism, the structuralism, the legalism and the voluntarism. The examination also embodies with market concept with Porter’s Five Forces of Competitive Position Model analysis and the interviews with the street vendors in three case study areas: Inner zone (Pathumwan district - the sidewalk on the opposite side of Siam Paragon mall), Middle zone (Ramkhamhaeng district - the sidewalk on the opposite side of Ramkhamhaeng University) and Outer zone (Minburi district- the sidewalk of Sriburanukit Road). The result indicates that most of street vendors in Siam square are voluntarily choose to make a living in vending on a sidewalk and tend to take it as a long-term occupation even though they can be in formal wage employment. Moreover, average income and positive attitude towards self-employed are the important factors that drive them to operate street vending businesses. Meanwhile, street vending is often a family enterprise in Ramkhamhaeng area and most vendors do not wish to transform their businesses into the formal sectors. Whereas the survey conducted in Sriburankit Road reveals that almost all of street vendors migrated from other provinces and were previously paid as the unskilled workers in formal sectors. They moved to informal trades because of the uncertainty of employment in the mainstream sectors and the inconsistent income with knowledge support of friends and relatives from the same hometown. In particular, the result reveals a common pattern that street vending is the very first occupation of some group of vendors and they will continue to engage in this activity. Thus, it is important for the government to design optimal policy which not only integrating informal workers into the formal economy but also monitoring the enforcement of regulations on the modern informal economy.

Keywords: informal economy, sidewalks, street vendors, occupation

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9 Debt Portfolios of the Poor: The Case of Street Vendors in Cali, Colombia

Authors: Lina Martinez, Juan David Rivera Acevedo, Isabella Franco

Abstract:

The informal economy plays a significant role in the job market in Colombia. Cali, the third largest city in the country, is characterized by a high percentage of socially and economically vulnerable population groups who take part in the urban informal economy, with street vending as their primary source of income. This paper studies the socio-economic dimensions of street vendors in Cali. In particular, it examines why they are unable to capitalize on their comparatively high earnings and are not likely to escape poverty even though they usually profit from government welfare and tax evasion due to the non-regulated character of informality. The analysis of an observational study and two surveys with 637 and 300 participants show that street vending is a cash-based day-to-day activity. Since most of the street vendors do not have access to formal banking systems, they depend on payday loans with incomparably high interest rates which absorb a large share of their income and maintain a continuous indebtedness. This is one of the main reasons why they are unable to improve their living conditions. However, the daily cash flow masks the high opportunity cost of loans and long-term deficits.

Keywords: Colombia, informal economy, payday loans, street vendors

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8 User Experience Evaluation on the Usage of Commuter Line Train Ticket Vending Machine

Authors: Faishal Muhammad, Erlinda Muslim, Nadia Faradilla, Sayidul Fikri

Abstract:

To deal with the increase of mass transportation needs problem, PT. Kereta Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ) implements Commuter Vending Machine (C-VIM) as the solution. For that background, C-VIM is implemented as a substitute to the conventional ticket windows with the purposes to make transaction process more efficient and to introduce self-service technology to the commuter line user. However, this implementation causing problems and long queues when the user is not accustomed to using the machine. The objective of this research is to evaluate user experience after using the commuter vending machine. The goal is to analyze the existing user experience problem and to achieve a better user experience design. The evaluation method is done by giving task scenario according to the features offered by the machine. The features are daily insured ticket sales, ticket refund, and multi-trip card top up. There 20 peoples that separated into two groups of respondents involved in this research, which consist of 5 males and 5 females each group. The experienced and inexperienced user to prove that there is a significant difference between both groups in the measurement. The user experience is measured by both quantitative and qualitative measurement. The quantitative measurement includes the user performance metrics such as task success, time on task, error, efficiency, and learnability. The qualitative measurement includes system usability scale questionnaire (SUS), questionnaire for user interface satisfaction (QUIS), and retrospective think aloud (RTA). Usability performance metrics shows that 4 out of 5 indicators are significantly different in both group. This shows that the inexperienced group is having a problem when using the C-VIM. Conventional ticket windows also show a better usability performance metrics compared to the C-VIM. From the data processing, the experienced group give the SUS score of 62 with the acceptability scale of 'marginal low', grade scale of “D”, and the adjective ratings of 'good' while the inexperienced group gives the SUS score of 51 with the acceptability scale of 'marginal low', grade scale of 'F', and the adjective ratings of 'ok'. This shows that both groups give a low score on the system usability scale. The QUIS score of the experienced group is 69,18 and the inexperienced group is 64,20. This shows the average QUIS score below 70 which indicate a problem with the user interface. RTA was done to obtain user experience issue when using C-VIM through interview protocols. The issue obtained then sorted using pareto concept and diagram. The solution of this research is interface redesign using activity relationship chart. This method resulted in a better interface with an average SUS score of 72,25, with the acceptable scale of 'acceptable', grade scale of 'B', and the adjective ratings of 'excellent'. From the time on task indicator of performance metrics also shows a significant better time by using the new interface design. Result in this study shows that C-VIM not yet have a good performance and user experience.

Keywords: activity relationship chart, commuter line vending machine, system usability scale, usability performance metrics, user experience evaluation

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7 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Street Vendors in Mangaung Metro South Africa

Authors: Gaofetoge Lenetha, Malerato Moloi, Ntsoaki Malebo

Abstract:

Microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods and beverages sold by street vendors has become an important public health issue. In developing countries including South Africa, health risks related to such kinds of foods are thought to be common. Thus, this study assessed knowledge, attitude and practices of street food vendors. Street vendors in the city of Mangaung Metro were investigated in order to assess their knowledge, attitudes and handling practices. A semi-structured questionnaire and checklist were used in interviews to determine the status of the vending sites and associa. ted food-handling practices. Data was collected by means of a face-to-face interview. The majority of respondents were black females. Hundred percent (100%) of the participants did not have any food safety training. However, street vendors showed a positive attitude towards food safety. Despite the positive attitude, vendors showed some non-compliance when it comes to handling food. During the survey, it was also observed that the vending stalls lack basic infrastructures like toilets and potable water that is currently a major problem. This study indicates a need for improvements in the environmental conditions at these sites to prevent foodborne diseases. Moreover, based on the results observed food safety and food hygiene training or workshops for street vendors are highly recommended.

Keywords: food hygiene, foodborne illnesses, food safety, Street foods

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6 Elements of Successful Commercial Streets: A Socio-Spatial Analysis of Commercial Streets in Cairo

Authors: Toka Aly

Abstract:

Historically, marketplaces were the most important nodes and focal points of cities, where different activities took place. Commercial streets offer more than just spaces for shopping; they also offer choices for social activities and cultural exchange. They are considered the backbone of the city’s vibrancy and vitality. Despite that, the public life in Cairo’s commercial streets has deteriorated, where the shopping activities became reliant mainly on 'planned formal places', mainly in privatized or indoor spaces like shopping malls. The main aim of this paper is to explore the key elements and tools of assessing the successfulness of commercial streets in Cairo. The methodology followed in this paper is based on a case study methodology (multiple cases) that is based on assessing and analyzing the physical and social elements in historical and contemporary commercial streets in El Muiz Street and Baghdad Street in Cairo. The data collection is based on personal observations, photographs, maps and street sections. Findings indicate that the key factors of analyzing commercial streets are factors affecting the sensory experience, factors affecting the social behavior, and general aspects that attract people. Findings also indicate that urban features have clear influence on shopping pedestrian activities in both streets. Moreover, in order for a commercial street to be successful, shopping patterns must provide people with a quality public space that can provide easy navigation and accessibility, good visual continuity, and well-designed urban features and social gathering. Outcomes of this study will be a significant endeavor in providing a good background for urban designers on analyzing and assessing successfulness of commercial streets. The study will also help in understanding the different physical and social pattern of vending activities taking place in Cairo.

Keywords: activities, commercial street, marketplace, successful, vending

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5 [Keynote Talk]: Surveillance of Food Safety Compliance of Hong Kong Street Food

Authors: Mabel Y. C. Yau, Roy C. F. Lai, Hugo Y. H. Or

Abstract:

This study is a pilot surveillance of hygiene compliance and food microbial safety of both licensed and mobile vendors selling Chinese ready–to-eat snack foods in Hong Kong. The study reflects similar situations in running mobile food vending business on trucks. Hong Kong is about to launch the Food Truck Pilot Scheme by the end of 2016 or early 2017. Technically, selling food on the vehicle is no different from hawking food on the street or vending food on the street. Each type of business bears similar food safety issues and cast the same impact on public health. Present findings demonstrate exemplarily situations that also apply to food trucks. 9 types of Cantonese style snacks of 32 samples in total were selected for microbial screening. A total of 16 vending sites including supermarkets, street markets, and snack stores were visited. The study finally focused on a traditional snack, the steamed rice cake with red beans called Put Chai Ko (PCK). PCK is a type of classical Cantonese pastry sold on push carts on the street. It used to be sold at room temperature and served with bamboo sticks in the old days. Some shops would have them sold steam fresh. Microbial examinations on aerobic counts, yeast, and mould, coliform, salmonella as well as Staphylococcus aureus detections were carried out. Salmonella was not detected in all samples. Since PCK does not contain ingredients of beef, poultry, eggs or dairy products, the risk of the presence of Salmonella in PCK was relatively lower although other source of contamination might be possible. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus was found in 6 of the 14 samples sold at room temperature. Among these 6 samples, 3 were PCK. One of the samples was in an unacceptable range of total colony forming units higher than 105. The rest were only satisfactory. Observational evaluations were made with checklists on personal hygiene, premises hygiene, food safety control, food storage, cleaning and sanitization as well as waste disposals. The maximum score was 25 if total compliance were obtained. The highest score among vendors was 20. Three stores were below average, and two of these stores were selling PCK. Most of the non-compliances were on food processing facilities, sanitization conditions and waste disposal. In conclusion, although no food poisoning outbreaks happened during the time of the investigation, the risk of food hazard existed in these stores, especially among street vendors. Attention is needed in the traditional practice of food selling, and that food handlers might not have sufficient knowledge to properly handle food products. Variations in food qualities existed among supply chains or franchise eateries or shops. It was commonly observed that packaging and storage conditions are not properly enforced in the retails. The same situation could be reflected across the food business. It did indicate need of food safety training in the industry and loopholes in quality control among business.

Keywords: cantonese snacks, food safety, microbial, hygiene, street food

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4 Exploring the Impact of Location on Urban and Peri-Urban Farming: A Case Study from Lusaka, Zambia

Authors: Cecilia Elisabeth Fåhraeus

Abstract:

In 2016, this author conducted a study on agricultural livelihoods in urban and peri-urban low-income settings in Lusaka, Zambia. The overarching aim was to determine the impact of physical space on agricultural activities, with a particular emphasis on geographical distinctions between urban and peri-urban environments. Agricultural activities among the areas’ residents were mapped through questionnaires, interviews and observations, and included variables such as type of activity and product; degree of marketization; inputs; location of production, storage and vending; labour distribution; production constraints, and associated mobility patterns, among others. The study confirmed that spatial idiosyncrasies of urban and peri-urban environments both enabled and constrained agricultural activity, but not always as anticipated. There were also cross-cutting issues on which physical space appeared to have a limited impact.

Keywords: agricultural production systems, geography, low-income settlements, Lusaka, peri-urban, urban

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3 Manual to Automated Testing: An Effort-Based Approach for Determining the Priority of Software Test Automation

Authors: Peter Sabev, Katalina Grigorova

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Test automation allows performing difficult and time consuming manual software testing tasks efficiently, quickly and repeatedly. However, development and maintenance of automated tests is expensive, so it needs a proper prioritization what to automate first. This paper describes a simple yet efficient approach for such prioritization of test cases based on the effort needed for both manual execution and software test automation. The suggested approach is very flexible because it allows working with a variety of assessment methods, and adding or removing new candidates at any time. The theoretical ideas presented in this article have been successfully applied in real world situations in several software companies by the authors and their colleagues including testing of real estate websites, cryptographic and authentication solutions, OSGi-based middleware framework that has been applied in various systems for smart homes, connected cars, production plants, sensors, home appliances, car head units and engine control units (ECU), vending machines, medical devices, industry equipment and other devices that either contain or are connected to an embedded service gateway.

Keywords: automated testing, manual testing, test automation, software testing, test prioritization

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2 A Speeded up Robust Scale-Invariant Feature Transform Currency Recognition Algorithm

Authors: Daliyah S. Aljutaili, Redna A. Almutlaq, Suha A. Alharbi, Dina M. Ibrahim

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All currencies around the world look very different from each other. For instance, the size, color, and pattern of the paper are different. With the development of modern banking services, automatic methods for paper currency recognition become important in many applications like vending machines. One of the currency recognition architecture’s phases is Feature detection and description. There are many algorithms that are used for this phase, but they still have some disadvantages. This paper proposes a feature detection algorithm, which merges the advantages given in the current SIFT and SURF algorithms, which we call, Speeded up Robust Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SR-SIFT) algorithm. Our proposed SR-SIFT algorithm overcomes the problems of both the SIFT and SURF algorithms. The proposed algorithm aims to speed up the SIFT feature detection algorithm and keep it robust. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SR-SIFT algorithm decreases the average response time, especially in small and minimum number of best key points, increases the distribution of the number of best key points on the surface of the currency. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm increases the accuracy of the true best point distribution inside the currency edge than the other two algorithms.

Keywords: currency recognition, feature detection and description, SIFT algorithm, SURF algorithm, speeded up and robust features

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1 Income Inequality among Selected Entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: O.O. Ehinmowo, A.I. Fatuase, D.F. Oke

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Nigeria is endowed with resources that could boost the economy as well as generate income and provide jobs to the teaming populace. One of the keys of attaining this is by making the environment conducive for the entrepreneurs to excel in their respective enterprises so that more income could be accrued to the entrepreneurs. This study therefore examines income inequality among selected entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria using primary data. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents for the study with the aid of structured questionnaire and personal interview. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient and Double - Log regression model. Results revealed that majority of the entrepreneurs (63%) were males and 90% were married with an average age of 44 years. About 40% of the respondents spent at most 12 years in school with 81% of the respondents had 4-6 members per household, while hair dressing (43.5%) and fashion designing (31.5%) were the most common enterprises among the sampled respondents. The findings also showed that majority of the entrepreneurs in hairdressing, fashion designing and laundry service earned below N200,000 per annum while the majority of those in restaurant and food vending earned between N400,000 – N600,000 followed by the entrepreneurs in pure water enterprise where majority earned N800,000 and above per annum. The result of the Gini coefficient (0.58) indicated that there was presence of inequality among the entrepreneurs which was also affirmed by the Lorenz curve. The Regression results showed that gender, household size and number of employees significantly affected the income of the entrepreneurs in the study area. Therefore, more female households should be encouraged into entrepreneurial businesses and government should give incentive cum conductive environment that could bridge the disparity in the income of the entrepreneurs in their various enterprises.

Keywords: entrepreneurs, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Lorenz curve

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