Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9583

Search results for: activity relationship chart

9583 Validation and Interpretation about Precedence Diagram for Start to Finish Relationship by Graph Theory

Authors: Naoki Ohshima, Ken Kaminishi


Four types of dependencies, which are 'Finish-to-start', 'Finish-to-finish', 'Start-to-start' and 'Start-to-finish (S-F)' as logical relationship are modeled based on the definition by 'the predecessor activity is defined as an activity to come before a dependent activity in a schedule' in PMBOK. However, it is found a self-contradiction in the precedence diagram for S-F relationship by PMBOK. In this paper, author would like to validate logical relationship of S-F by Graph Theory and propose a new interpretation of the precedence diagram for S-F relationship.

Keywords: project time management, sequence activity, start-to-finish relationship, precedence diagram, PMBOK

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
9582 The Variable Sampling Interval Xbar Chart versus the Double Sampling Xbar Chart

Authors: Michael B. C. Khoo, J. L. Khoo, W. C. Yeong, W. L. Teoh


The Shewhart Xbar control chart is a useful process monitoring tool in manufacturing industries to detect the presence of assignable causes. However, it is insensitive in detecting small process shifts. To circumvent this problem, adaptive control charts are suggested. An adaptive chart enables at least one of the chart’s parameters to be adjusted to increase the chart’s sensitivity. Two common adaptive charts that exist in the literature are the double sampling (DS) Xbar and variable sampling interval (VSI) Xbar charts. This paper compares the performances of the DS and VSI Xbar charts, based on the average time to signal (ATS) criterion. The ATS profiles of the DS Xbar and VSI Xbar charts are obtained using the Mathematica and Statistical Analysis System (SAS) programs, respectively. The results show that the VSI Xbar chart is generally superior to the DS Xbar chart.

Keywords: adaptive charts, average time to signal, double sampling, charts, variable sampling interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
9581 An EWMA P-Chart Based on Improved Square Root Transformation

Authors: Saowanit Sukparungsee


Generally, the traditional Shewhart p chart has been developed by for charting the binomial data. This chart has been developed using the normal approximation with condition as low defect level and the small to moderate sample size. In real applications, however, are away from these assumptions due to skewness in the exact distribution. In this paper, a modified Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chat for detecting a change in binomial data by improving square root transformations, namely ISRT p EWMA control chart. The numerical results show that ISRT p EWMA chart is superior to ISRT p chart for small to moderate shifts, otherwise, the latter is better for large shifts.

Keywords: number of defects, exponentially weighted moving average, average run length, square root transformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
9580 Statistical Design of Synthetic VP X-bar Control Chat Using Markov Chain Approach

Authors: Ali Akbar Heydari


Control charts are an important tool of statistical quality control. Thesecharts are used to detect and eliminate unwanted special causes of variation that occurred during aperiod of time. The design and operation of control charts require the determination of three design parameters: the sample size (n), the sampling interval (h), and the width coefficient of control limits (k). Thevariable parameters (VP) x-bar controlchart is the x-barchart in which all the design parameters vary between twovalues. These values are a function of the most recent process information. In fact, in the VP x-bar chart, the position of each sample point on the chart establishes the size of the next sample and the timeof its sampling. The synthetic x-barcontrol chartwhich integrates the x-bar chart and the conforming run length (CRL) chart, provides significant improvement in terms of detection power over the basic x-bar chart for all levels of mean shifts. In this paper, we introduce the syntheticVP x-bar control chart for monitoring changes in the process mean. To determine the design parameters, we used a statistical design based on the minimum out of control average run length (ARL) criteria. The optimal chart parameters of the proposed chart are obtained using the Markov chain approach. A numerical example is also done to show the performance of the proposed chart and comparing it with the other control charts. The results show that our proposed syntheticVP x-bar controlchart perform better than the synthetic x-bar controlchart for all shift parameter values. Also, the syntheticVP x-bar controlchart perform better than the VP x-bar control chart for the moderate or large shift parameter values.

Keywords: control chart, markov chain approach, statistical design, synthetic, variable parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
9579 Analysis of Diabetes Patients Using Pearson, Cost Optimization, Control Chart Methods

Authors: Devatha Kalyan Kumar, R. Poovarasan


In this paper, we have taken certain important factors and health parameters of diabetes patients especially among children by birth (pediatric congenital) where using the above three metrics methods we are going to assess the importance of each attributes in the dataset and thereby determining the most highly responsible and co-related attribute causing diabetics among young patients. We use cost optimization, control chart and Spearmen methodologies for the real-time application of finding the data efficiency in this diabetes dataset. The Spearmen methodology is the correlation methodologies used in software development process to identify the complexity between the various modules of the software. Identifying the complexity is important because if the complexity is higher, then there is a higher chance of occurrence of the risk in the software. With the use of control; chart mean, variance and standard deviation of data are calculated. With the use of Cost optimization model, we find to optimize the variables. Hence we choose the Spearmen, control chart and cost optimization methods to assess the data efficiency in diabetes datasets.

Keywords: correlation, congenital diabetics, linear relationship, monotonic function, ranking samples, pediatric

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
9578 Developing Variable Repetitive Group Sampling Control Chart Using Regression Estimator

Authors: Liaquat Ahmad, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Azam


In this article, we propose a control chart based on repetitive group sampling scheme for the location parameter. This charting scheme is based on the regression estimator; an estimator that capitalize the relationship between the variables of interest to provide more sensitive control than the commonly used individual variables. The control limit coefficients have been estimated for different sample sizes for less and highly correlated variables. The monitoring of the production process is constructed by adopting the procedure of the Shewhart’s x-bar control chart. Its performance is verified by the average run length calculations when the shift occurs in the average value of the estimator. It has been observed that the less correlated variables have rapid false alarm rate.

Keywords: average run length, control charts, process shift, regression estimators, repetitive group sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
9577 Optimal Design for SARMA(P,Q)L Process of EWMA Control Chart

Authors: Yupaporn Areepong


The main goal of this paper is to study Statistical Process Control (SPC) with Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart when observations are serially-correlated. The characteristic of control chart is Average Run Length (ARL) which is the average number of samples taken before an action signal is given. Ideally, an acceptable ARL of in-control process should be enough large, so-called (ARL0). Otherwise it should be small when the process is out-of-control, so-called Average of Delay Time (ARL1) or a mean of true alarm. We find explicit formulas of ARL for EWMA control chart for Seasonal Autoregressive and Moving Average processes (SARMA) with Exponential white noise. The results of ARL obtained from explicit formula and Integral equation are in good agreement. In particular, this formulas for evaluating (ARL0) and (ARL1) be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on smoothing parameter (λ) and width of control limit (H) for designing EWMA chart with minimum of (ARL1).

Keywords: average run length, optimal parameters, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), control chart

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
9576 Application of Hyperbinomial Distribution in Developing a Modified p-Chart

Authors: Shourav Ahmed, M. Gulam Kibria, Kais Zaman


Control charts graphically verify variation in quality parameters. Attribute type control charts deal with quality parameters that can only hold two states, e.g., good or bad, yes or no, etc. At present, p-control chart is most commonly used to deal with attribute type data. In construction of p-control chart using binomial distribution, the value of proportion non-conforming must be known or estimated from limited sample information. As the probability distribution of fraction non-conforming (p) is considered in hyperbinomial distribution unlike a constant value in case of binomial distribution, it reduces the risk of false detection. In this study, a statistical control chart is proposed based on hyperbinomial distribution when prior estimate of proportion non-conforming is unavailable and is estimated from limited sample information. We developed the control limits of the proposed modified p-chart using the mean and variance of hyperbinomial distribution. The proposed modified p-chart can also utilize additional sample information when they are available. The study also validates the use of modified p-chart by comparing with the result obtained using cumulative distribution function of hyperbinomial distribution. The study clearly indicates that the use of hyperbinomial distribution in construction of p-control chart yields much accurate estimate of quality parameters than using binomial distribution.

Keywords: binomial distribution, control charts, cumulative distribution function, hyper binomial distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
9575 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Some Quinoline Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: M. Ouassaf, S. Belaid


A series of quinoline derivatives with antimalarial activity were subjected to two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies. Three models were implemented using multiple regression linear MLR, a regression partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear regression (MNLR), to see which descriptors are closely related to the activity biologic. We relied on a principal component analysis (PCA). Based on our results, a comparison of the quality of, MLR, PLS, and MNLR models shows that the MNLR (R = 0.914 and R² = 0.835, RCV= 0.853) models have substantially better predictive capability because the MNLR approach gives better results than MLR (R = 0.835 and R² = 0,752, RCV=0.601)), PLS (R = 0.742 and R² = 0.552, RCV=0.550) The model of MNLR gave statistically significant results and showed good stability to data variation in leave-one-out cross-validation. The obtained results suggested that our proposed model MNLR may be useful to predict the biological activity of derivatives of quinoline.

Keywords: antimalarial, quinoline, QSAR, PCA, MLR , MNLR, MLR

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
9574 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Model for Predicting the Aromatase Inhibition Activity of 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives

Authors: M. Ouassaf, S. Belaidi


Aromatase is an estrogen biosynthetic enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 family, which catalyzes the limiting step in the conversion of androgens to estrogens. As it is relevant for the promotion of tumor cell growth. A set of thirty 1,2,3-triazole derivatives was used in the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) study using regression multiple linear (MLR), We divided the data into two training and testing groups. The results showed a good predictive ability of the MLR model, the models were statistically robust internally (R² = 0.982) and the predictability of the model was tested by several parameters. including external criteria (R²pred = 0.851, CCC = 0.946). The knowledge gained in this study should provide relevant information that contributes to the origins of aromatase inhibitory activity and, therefore, facilitates our ongoing quest for aromatase inhibitors with robust properties.

Keywords: aromatase inhibitors, QSAR, MLR, 1, 2, 3-triazole

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
9573 Optimal Bayesian Chart for Controlling Expected Number of Defects in Production Processes

Authors: V. Makis, L. Jafari


In this paper, we develop an optimal Bayesian chart to control the expected number of defects per inspection unit in production processes with long production runs. We formulate this control problem in the optimal stopping framework. The objective is to determine the optimal stopping rule minimizing the long-run expected average cost per unit time considering partial information obtained from the process sampling at regular epochs. We prove the optimality of the control limit policy, i.e., the process is stopped and the search for assignable causes is initiated when the posterior probability that the process is out of control exceeds a control limit. An algorithm in the semi-Markov decision process framework is developed to calculate the optimal control limit and the corresponding average cost. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the developed optimal control chart and to compare it with the traditional u-chart.

Keywords: Bayesian u-chart, economic design, optimal stopping, semi-Markov decision process, statistical process control

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
9572 Design Data Sorter Circuit Using Insertion Sorting Algorithm

Authors: Hoda Abugharsa


In this paper we propose to design a sorter circuit using insertion sorting algorithm. The circuit will be designed using Algorithmic State Machines (ASM) method. That means converting the insertion sorting flowchart into an ASM chart. Then the ASM chart will be used to design the sorter circuit and the control unit.

Keywords: insert sorting algorithm, ASM chart, sorter circuit, state machine, control unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
9571 Personality Traits and Physical Activity among Staff Personnel of University of Southern Mindanao

Authors: Cheeze Janito, Crisly Dawang


It is important to determine the personality traits that exist in the workplace and the contribution of these personality traits in the staff’s daily work routines; a sedentary lifestyle is harmful to one’s health. This study reports the personality traits of the University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Philippines, non-teaching staff, the physical activity involvement of the non-teaching staff, and the big five personality traits that shape the relationship of university non-teaching staff in engaging physical activities. A quantitative method approach, which comprised a three-part questionnaire, was used to collect the data. The fifty non-teaching staff complete the survey. The results revealed that among the big five personality traits, the university non-teaching staff scored higher in agreeableness as revealed, that there was a commonality among the respondents’ traits of consideration to the feelings of the co-workers in observance to not being rude and vividly display of respect to co-workers and workplace and scored least in the personality trait of neuroticism. The study also reported that the university non-teaching staff's main physical activity was house chores as a prime physical exercise in which respondents reported a physical activity frequency of once to twice a week; thus, this study reported that the respondents are less engaged in doing physical activities. Further, the relationship of personality traits and the physical activity of the non-teaching staff gained a p-value of .596 that indicates there is no significant relationship between the two variables, the personality trait and physical activities. This study recommends the tight promotion of staff in engaging in physical activity of at least one hundred fifty minutes of moderate-intensity activity each week. Added to this, the use of different platforms containing physical exercise literacy and the benefits of physical exercise for the holistic development of the university community.

Keywords: university staff, physical fitness, personality traits, physical activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
9570 Design of Agricultural Machinery Factory Facility Layout

Authors: Nilda Tri Putri, Muhammad Taufik


Tools and agricultural machinery (Alsintan) is a tool used in agribusiness activities. Alsintan used to change the traditional farming systems generally use manual equipment into modern agriculture with mechanization. CV Nugraha Chakti Consultant make an action plan for industrial development Alsintan West Sumatra in 2012 to develop medium industries of Alsintan become a major industry of Alsintan, one of efforts made is increase the production capacity of the industry Alsintan. Production capacity for superior products as hydrotiller and threshers set each for 2.000 units per year. CV Citra Dragon as one of the medium industry alsintan in West Sumatra has a plan to relocate the existing plant to meet growing consumer demand each year. Increased production capacity and plant relocation plan has led to a change in the layout; therefore need to design the layout of the plant facility CV Citra Dragon. First step the to design of plant layout is design the layout of the production floor. The design of the production floor layout is done by applying group technology layout. The initial step is to do a machine grouping and part family using the Average Linkage Clustering (ALC) and Rank Order Clustering (ROC). Furthermore done independent work station design and layout design using the Modified Spanning Tree (MST). Alternative selection layout is done to select the best production floor layout between ALC and ROC cell grouping. Furthermore, to design the layout of warehouses, offices and other production support facilities. Activity Relationship Chart methods used to organize the placement of factory facilities has been designed. After structuring plan facilities, calculated cost manufacturing facility plant establishment. Type of layout is used on the production floor layout technology group. The production floor is composed of four cell machinery, assembly area and painting area. The total distance of the displacement of material in a single production amounted to 1120.16 m which means need 18,7minutes of transportation time for one time production. Alsintan Factory has designed a circular flow pattern with 11 facilities. The facilities were designed consisting of 10 rooms and 1 parking space. The measure of factory building is 84 m x 52 m.

Keywords: Average Linkage Clustering (ALC), Rank Order Clustering (ROC), Modified Spanning Tree (MST), Activity Relationship Chart (ARC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
9569 The Relation between Sports Practice and the Academic Performance

Authors: Albert Perez-Bellmunt, Eila Rivera, Aida Valls, Berta Estragues, Sara Ortiz, Roberto Seijas, Pedro Alvarez


INTRODUCTION: Physical and sports activity on a regular basis present numerous health benefits such as the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Also, there is a relation between sport and the psychological or the cognitive process of children and young people. The objective of the present study is to know if the sports practice has any positive influence on the university academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of the physical activity of 220 students of different degrees in health science was evaluated and compared with the academic results (grades). To assess the level of physical and sports activity, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (to calculate the sporting level in a general way) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (to estimate the physical activity carried out during the days leading up to the academic exams) were used. RESULTS: The students that realized an average level of sports activity the days before the exam obtained better grades than the rest of their classmate and the result was statistically significant. Controversially, if the sports level was analyzed in a general way, no relationship was observed between academic performance and the level of sport realized. CONCLUSION: A moderate physical activity, on the days leading up to an assessment, can be a positive factor for the university academic performance. Despite the fact that a regular sports activity improves many cognitive and physiological processes, the present study did not observe a direct relationship between sport/physical activity and academic performance.

Keywords: academic performance, academic results, global physical activity questionnaire, physical activity questionnaire, sport, sport practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
9568 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen


Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
9567 Process Monitoring Based on Parameterless Self-Organizing Map

Authors: Young Jae Choung, Seoung Bum Kim


Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a popular technique for process monitoring. A widely used tool in SPC is a control chart, which is used to detect the abnormal status of a process and maintain the controlled status of the process. Traditional control charts, such as Hotelling’s T2 control chart, are effective techniques to detect abnormal observations and monitor processes. However, many complicated manufacturing systems exhibit nonlinearity because of the different demands of the market. In this case, the unregulated use of a traditional linear modeling approach may not be effective. In reality, many industrial processes contain the nonlinear and time-varying properties because of the fluctuation of process raw materials, slowing shift of the set points, aging of the main process components, seasoning effects, and catalyst deactivation. The use of traditional SPC techniques with time-varying data will degrade the performance of the monitoring scheme. To address these issues, in the present study, we propose a parameterless self-organizing map (PLSOM)-based control chart. The PLSOM-based control chart not only can manage a situation where the distribution or parameter of the target observations changes, but also address the nonlinearity of modern manufacturing systems. The control limits of the proposed PLSOM chart are established by estimating the empirical level of significance on the percentile using a bootstrap method. Experimental results with simulated data and actual process data from a thin-film transistor-liquid crystal display process demonstrated the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed chart.

Keywords: control chart, parameter-less self-organizing map, self-organizing map, time-varying property

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
9566 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling of Detoxication Properties of Some 1,2-Dithiole-3-Thione Derivatives

Authors: Nadjib Melkemi, Salah Belaidi


Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed on nineteen molecules of 1,2-dithiole-3-thione analogues. The compounds used are the potent inducers of enzymes involved in the maintenance of reduced glutathione pools as well as phase-2 enzymes important to electrophile detoxication. A multiple linear regression (MLR) procedure was used to design the relationships between molecular descriptor and detoxication properties of the 1,2-dithiole-3-thione derivatives. The predictivity of the model was estimated by cross-validation with the leave-one-out method. Our results suggest a QSAR model based of the following descriptors: qS2, qC3, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, log P, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the specific activity of quinone reductase; qS1, qS2, qC3, qC4, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, logP, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the production of growth hormone. To confirm the predictive power of the models, an external set of molecules was used. High correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR models.

Keywords: QSAR, quinone reductase activity, production of growth hormone, MLR

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
9565 Optimal Bayesian Control of the Proportion of Defectives in a Manufacturing Process

Authors: Viliam Makis, Farnoosh Naderkhani, Leila Jafari


In this paper, we present a model and an algorithm for the calculation of the optimal control limit, average cost, sample size, and the sampling interval for an optimal Bayesian chart to control the proportion of defective items produced using a semi-Markov decision process approach. Traditional p-chart has been widely used for controlling the proportion of defectives in various kinds of production processes for many years. It is well known that traditional non-Bayesian charts are not optimal, but very few optimal Bayesian control charts have been developed in the literature, mostly considering finite horizon. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast computational algorithm to obtain the optimal parameters of a Bayesian p-chart. The decision problem is formulated in the partially observable framework and the developed algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Bayesian control chart, semi-Markov decision process, quality control, partially observable process

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
9564 EWMA and MEWMA Control Charts for Monitoring Mean and Variance in Industrial Processes

Authors: L. A. Toro, N. Prieto, J. J. Vargas


There are many control charts for monitoring mean and variance. Among these, the X y R, X y S, S2 Hotteling and Shewhart control charts, for mentioning some, are widely used for monitoring mean a variance in industrial processes. In particular, the Shewhart charts are based on the information about the process contained in the current observation only and ignore any information given by the entire sequence of points. Moreover, that the Shewhart chart is a control chart without memory. Consequently, Shewhart control charts are found to be less sensitive in detecting smaller shifts, particularly smaller than 1.5 times of the standard deviation. These kind of small shifts are important in many industrial applications. In this study and effective alternative to Shewhart control chart was implemented. In case of univariate process an Exponentially Moving Average (EWMA) control chart was developed and Multivariate Exponentially Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart in case of multivariate process. Both of these charts were based on memory and perform better that Shewhart chart while detecting smaller shifts. In these charts, information the past sample is cumulated up the current sample and then the decision about the process control is taken. The mentioned characteristic of EWMA and MEWMA charts, are of the paramount importance when it is necessary to control industrial process, because it is possible to correct or predict problems in the processes before they come to a dangerous limit.

Keywords: control charts, multivariate exponentially moving average (MEWMA), exponentially moving average (EWMA), industrial control process

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
9563 Economic Design of a Quality Control Chart for the Proportion of Defective Items

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez-Verdejo, Raúl Amor-Pulido, Pablo J. Moya-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz-Rosas, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda


Many companies use the statistical tool named as statistical quality control, and which can have a high cost for the companies interested on these statistical tools. The evaluation of the quality of products and services is an important topic, but the reduction of the cost of the implantation of the statistical quality control also has important benefits for the companies. For this reason, it is important to implement a economic design for the various steps included into the statistical quality control. In this paper, we describe some relevant aspects related to the economic design of a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. They are very important because the suggested issues can reduce the cost of implementing a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. Note that the main purpose of this chart is to evaluate and control the proportion of defective items of a production process.

Keywords: proportion, type I error, economic plan, distribution function

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
9562 The Investigation of Correlation between Body Composition and Physical Activity in University Students

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar


Alterations of physical activity can effect body composition (especially body fat ratio); however body mass index may not sufficient to indicate these minimal differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and physical activity in university students. In this study, 132 university students (mean age; 21.21±1.51) were included. Tanita BC-418 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to evaluate participants. The correlation between the parameters was analysed via Spearman correlation analysis. Significance level in statistical analyses was accepted is 0.05. The results showed that there was no correlation between body mass index and physical activity (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between body muscle ratio and physical activity, whereas a negative correlation between body fat ratio and physical activity (p<0.05). This study showed that body fat and muscle ratio affects the level of physical activity in healthy university students. Therefore, we thought that physical activity might reduce effects of the diseases caused by disturbed body composition. Further studies are required to support this idea.

Keywords: body composition, body mass index, physical activity, university student

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
9561 A Study on the False Alarm Rates of MEWMA and MCUSUM Control Charts When the Parameters Are Estimated

Authors: Umar Farouk Abbas, Danjuma Mustapha, Hamisu Idi


It is now a known fact that quality is an important issue in manufacturing industries. A control chart is an integrated and powerful tool in statistical process control (SPC). The mean µ and standard deviation σ parameters are estimated. In general, the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) and multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) are used in the detection of small shifts in joint monitoring of several correlated variables; the charts used information from past data which makes them sensitive to small shifts. The aim of the paper is to compare the performance of Shewhart xbar, MEWMA, and MCUSUM control charts in terms of their false rates when parameters are estimated with autocorrelation. A simulation was conducted in R software to generate the average run length (ARL) values of each of the charts. After the analysis, the results show that a comparison of the false alarm rates of the charts shows that MEWMA chart has lower false alarm rates than the MCUSUM chart at various levels of parameter estimated to the number of ARL0 (in control) values. Also noticed was that the sample size has an advert effect on the false alarm of the control charts.

Keywords: average run length, MCUSUM chart, MEWMA chart, false alarm rate, parameter estimation, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
9560 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini


Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole, QSAR, multiple linear regression, docking, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
9559 On the Bootstrap P-Value Method in Identifying out of Control Signals in Multivariate Control Chart

Authors: O. Ikpotokin


In any production process, every product is aimed to attain a certain standard, but the presence of assignable cause of variability affects our process, thereby leading to low quality of product. The ability to identify and remove this type of variability reduces its overall effect, thereby improving the quality of the product. In case of a univariate control chart signal, it is easy to detect the problem and give a solution since it is related to a single quality characteristic. However, the problems involved in the use of multivariate control chart are the violation of multivariate normal assumption and the difficulty in identifying the quality characteristic(s) that resulted in the out of control signals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of non-parametric control chart (the bootstrap approach) for obtaining control limit to overcome the problem of multivariate distributional assumption and the p-value method for detecting out of control signals. Results from a performance study show that the proposed bootstrap method enables the setting of control limit that can enhance the detection of out of control signals when compared, while the p-value method also enhanced in identifying out of control variables.

Keywords: bootstrap control limit, p-value method, out-of-control signals, p-value, quality characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
9558 Analyzing the Association between Physical Activity and Sleep Quality in College Students: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Fildzah Badzlina, Mega Puspa Sari


To rest the body after a full day of activities, the body needs sleep. During sleep, the body's response to external stimuli will be reduced and relatively inactive so that it is used to optimize the body's biological functions that cannot be done when awake. College students often experience poor sleep quality because of the dense activities carried out during the day. In addition, the level of physical activity of college students is also relatively low. Based on previous research, college students who have low physical activity have poor sleep quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity and sleep quality in college students of the University of Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka. This study used a cross-sectional research design with 107 respondents as research subjects. Samples were taken using the purposive sampling technique. The data was taken using a google form which was distributed to all college students in September 2021. The statistical test used was Chi-square. The results of this study showed that 85 (79.4%) college students experienced poor sleep quality during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. Most respondents were 96 women (89.7%) and 32.7% (35 people) aged 20 years. In the pocket money category, most college students (71%) got pocket money less than 500.000 rupiahs per month. A total of 52 respondents (48.6%) had a moderate level of physical activity category. Poor sleep quality was more common in male students (90.9%) compared to female students (78.1%) (p>0.05). In the group with poor sleep quality, 88.9% of students were categorized in Rp. 500.001 to Rp. 1.000.000 for pocket money, 80.3% of students included in the category Rp. 500.000 or less, and 61.5% of students are included in the category of Rp. 1.000.000 or more. Poor sleep quality was more common among students in the age category 20 years (84.1%), compared to students in the age category > 20 years (71.1%). For the level of physical activity in the poor sleep quality group, 87% were included in the category of heavy physical activity, 82.7% included in the moderate level of physical activity, and 68.8% included in the category of low-level physical activity. There was no significant relationship between gender, pocket money, age, and physical activity with sleep quality (p>0.05).

Keywords: college students, physical activity, sleep quality, university students

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9557 A Longitudinal Study to Develop an Emotional Design Framework for Physical Activity Interventions

Authors: Stephanie Hewitt, Leila Sheldrick, Weston Baxter


Multidisciplinary by nature, design research brings together varying research fields to answer globally significant questions. Emotional design, a field which helps us create products that influence people’s behaviour, and sports psychology, containing a growing field of recent research which focuses on understanding the emotions experienced through sport and the effects this has on our health and wellbeing, are two research fields that can be combined through design research to tackle global physical inactivity. The combination of these research fields presents an opportunity to build new tools and methods that could help designers create new interventions to promote positive behaviour change in the form of physical activity uptake, ultimately improving people’s health and wellbeing. This paper proposes a framework that can be used to develop new products and services that focus on not only improving the uptake and upkeep of physical activity but also helping people have a healthy emotional relationship with exercise. To develop this framework, a set of comprehensive maps exploring the relationship between human emotions and physical activity across a range of factors was created. These maps were then further evolved through in-depth interviews, which analysed the reasons behind the emotions felt, how physical activity fits into the daily routine and how important regular exercise is to people. Finally, to progress these findings into a design framework, a longitudinal study was carried out to explore further the emotional relationship people of varying sporting abilities have overtime with physical activity. This framework can be used to design more successful interventions that help people to not only become more active initially but implement long term changes to ensure they stay active.

Keywords: design research, emotional design, emotions, intervention, physical activity, sport psychology

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9556 Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Analysis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives by Linear Multivariate Method

Authors: Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac Kuzmanović


The relationship between antibacterial activity of eighteen different substituted benzimidazole derivatives and their molecular characteristics was studied using chemometric QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships) approach. QSAR analysis has been carried out on inhibitory activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, by using molecular descriptors, as well as minimal inhibitory activity (MIC). Molecular descriptors were calculated from the optimized structures. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) was performed in order to select molecular descriptors that best describe the antibacterial behavior of the compounds investigated, and to determine the similarities between molecules. The HCA grouped the molecules in separated clusters which have the similar inhibitory activity. PCA showed very similar classification of molecules as the HCA, and displayed which descriptors contribute to that classification. MLR equations, that represent MIC as a function of the in silico molecular descriptors were established. The statistical significance of the estimated models was confirmed by standard statistical measures and cross-validation parameters (SD = 0.0816, F = 46.27, R = 0.9791, R2CV = 0.8266, R2adj = 0.9379, PRESS = 0.1116). These parameters indicate the possibility of application of the established chemometric models in prediction of the antibacterial behaviour of studied derivatives and structurally very similar compounds.

Keywords: antibacterial, benzimidazole, molecular descriptors, QSAR

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9555 Adaptive Process Monitoring for Time-Varying Situations Using Statistical Learning Algorithms

Authors: Seulki Lee, Seoung Bum Kim


Statistical process control (SPC) is a practical and effective method for quality control. The most important and widely used technique in SPC is a control chart. The main goal of a control chart is to detect any assignable changes that affect the quality output. Most conventional control charts, such as Hotelling’s T2 charts, are commonly based on the assumption that the quality characteristics follow a multivariate normal distribution. However, in modern complicated manufacturing systems, appropriate control chart techniques that can efficiently handle the nonnormal processes are required. To overcome the shortcomings of conventional control charts for nonnormal processes, several methods have been proposed to combine statistical learning algorithms and multivariate control charts. Statistical learning-based control charts, such as support vector data description (SVDD)-based charts, k-nearest neighbors-based charts, have proven their improved performance in nonnormal situations compared to that of the T2 chart. Beside the nonnormal property, time-varying operations are also quite common in real manufacturing fields because of various factors such as product and set-point changes, seasonal variations, catalyst degradation, and sensor drifting. However, traditional control charts cannot accommodate future condition changes of the process because they are formulated based on the data information recorded in the early stage of the process. In the present paper, we propose a SVDD algorithm-based control chart, which is capable of adaptively monitoring time-varying and nonnormal processes. We reformulated the SVDD algorithm into a time-adaptive SVDD algorithm by adding a weighting factor that reflects time-varying situations. Moreover, we defined the updating region for the efficient model-updating structure of the control chart. The proposed control chart simultaneously allows efficient model updates and timely detection of out-of-control signals. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed chart were demonstrated through experiments with the simulated data and the real data from the metal frame process in mobile device manufacturing.

Keywords: multivariate control chart, nonparametric method, support vector data description, time-varying process

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9554 Leisure, Domestic or Professional Activities so as to Prevent Cognitive Decline: Results FreLE Longitudinal Study

Authors: Caroline Dupre, David Hupin, Christ Goumou, Francois Belan, Frederic Roche, Thomas Celarier, Bienvenu Bongue


Background: Previous cohorts have been notably criticized for not studying the different type of physical activity and not investigating household activities. The objective of this work was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and cognitive decline in older people living in the community. Impact of type of physical activity on the results has been realised. Methods: The study used data from the longitudinal and observational study , FrèLE (FRagility: Longitudinal Study of Expressions). The collected data included: socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, and health status (frailty, comorbidities, cognitive status, depression). Cognitive decline was assessed by using: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). This tool is structured in three sections: the leisure activity, domestic activity, and professional activity. Logistic regressions and proportional hazards regression models (Cox) were used to estimate the risk of cognitive disorders. Results: At baseline, the prevalence of cognitive disorders was 6.9% according to MMSE. In total, 1167 participants without cognitive disorders were included in the analysis. The mean age was 77.4 years, and 52.1% of the participants were women. After a 2 years long follow-up, we found cognitive disorders on 53 participants (4.5%). Physical activity at baseline is lower in older adults for whom cognitive decline was observed after two years of follow-up. Subclass analyses showed that leisure and domestic activities were associated with cognitive decline, but not professional activities. Conclusions: Analysis showed a relationship between cognitive disorders and type of physical activity. The current study will be completed by the MoCA for mild cognitive impairment. These findings compared to other ongoing studies, will contribute to the debate on the beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition.

Keywords: aging, cognitive function, physical activity, mixed models

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