Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7326

Search results for: seismic loading type

7326 Seismic Design Approach for Areas with Low Seismicity

Authors: Mogens Saberi


The following article focuses on a new seismic design approach for Denmark. Denmark is located in a low seismic zone and up till now a general and very simplified approach has been used to accommodate the effect of seismic loading. The current used method is presented and it is found that the approach is on the unsafe side for many building types in Denmark. The damages during time due to earth quake is presented and a seismic map for Denmark is developed and presented. Furthermore, a new design approach is suggested and compared to the existing one. The new approach is relatively simple but captures the effect of seismic loading more realistic than the existing one. The new approach is believed to the incorporated in the Danish Deign Code for building structures.

Keywords: low seismicity, new design approach, earthquakes, Denmark

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
7325 Experimental Study on Single Bay RC Frame Designed Using EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, M. S. Syaref, M. I. Adiyanto, M. Mohamed


A one-half scale of single-bay two-storey RC frame together with foundation beam and mass concrete block is investigated. Moment resisting RC frame was designed using EC8 by including the provision for seismic loading and detailing of its connection. The objective of the experimental work is to determine seismic behaviour RC frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading using displacement control method. A double actuator is placed at centre of the mass concrete block at top of frame to represent the seismic load. The percentage drifts are starting from ±0.01% until ±2.25% with increment of ±0.25% drift. The ultimate lateral load of 158.48 kN was recorded at +2.25% drift in pushing and -126.09 kN in pulling direction. From the experimental hysteresis loops, the parameters such as lateral strength capacity, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping can be obtained. RC frame behaves in the elastic manner followed by inelastic behaviour after reaches the yield limit. The ductility value for this type frame is 4 which lies between the limit 3 and 6. Therefore, it is recommended to build this RC frame for moderate seismic regions under Ductility Class Medium (DCM) such as in Sabah, East Malaysia.

Keywords: single bay, moment resisting RC frame, ductility class medium, inelastic behavior, seismic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
7324 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Authors: Ankur Mundhra, Shubhadeep Chakraborty, Y. R. Singh, Vishal Das


Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: clipping, compression, resolution, seismic scaling

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
7323 Study on Seismic Performance of Reinforced Soil Walls in Order to Offer Modified Pseudo Static Method

Authors: Majid Yazdandoust


This study, tries to suggest a design method based on displacement using finite difference numerical modeling in reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. In this case, dynamic loading characteristics such as duration, frequency, peak ground acceleration, geometrical characteristics of reinforced soil structure and type of the site are considered to correct the pseudo static method and finally introduce the pseudo static coefficient as a function of seismic performance level and peak ground acceleration. For this purpose, the influence of dynamic loading characteristics, reinforcement length, height of reinforced system and type of the site are investigated on seismic behavior of reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. Numerical results illustrate that the seismic response of this type of wall is highly dependent to cumulative absolute velocity, maximum acceleration, and height and reinforcement length so that the reinforcement length can be introduced as the main factor in shape of failure. Considering the loading parameters, mechanically stabilized earth wall parameters and type of the site showed that the used method in this study leads to most efficient designs in comparison with other methods which are generally suggested in cods that are usually based on limit-equilibrium concept. The outputs show the over-estimation of equilibrium design methods in comparison with proposed displacement based methods here.

Keywords: pseudo static coefficient, seismic performance design, numerical modeling, steel strip reinforcement, retaining walls, cumulative absolute velocity, failure shape

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7322 Efficient Moment Frame Structure

Authors: Mircea I. Pastrav, Cornelia Baera, Florea Dinu


A different concept for designing and detailing of reinforced concrete precast frame structures is analyzed in this paper. The new detailing of the joints derives from the special hybrid moment frame joints. The special reinforcements of this alternative detailing, named modified special hybrid joint, are bondless with respect to both column and beams. Full scale tests were performed on a plan model, which represents a part of 5 story structure, cropped in the middle of the beams and columns spans. Theoretical approach was developed, based on testing results on twice repaired model, subjected to lateral seismic type loading. Discussion regarding the modified special hybrid joint behavior and further on widening research needed concludes the presentation.

Keywords: modified hybrid joint, repair, seismic loading type, acceptance criteria

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7321 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon


Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
7320 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz


Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design

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7319 Seismic Behavior of Self-Balancing Post-Tensioned Reinforced Concrete Spatial Structure

Authors: Mircea Pastrav, Horia Constantinescu


The construction industry is currently trying to develop sustainable reinforced concrete structures. In trying to aid in the effort, the research presented in this paper aims to prove the efficiency of modified special hybrid moment frames composed of discretely jointed precast and post-tensioned concrete members. This aim is due to the fact that current design standards do not cover the spatial design of moment frame structures assembled by post-tensioning with special hybrid joints. This lack of standardization is coupled with the fact that previous experimental programs, available in scientific literature, deal mainly with plane structures and offer little information regarding spatial behavior. A spatial model of a modified hybrid moment frame is experimentally analyzed. The experimental results of a natural scale model test of a corner column-beams sub-structure, cut from an actual multilevel building tested to seismic type loading are presented in order to highlight the behavior of this type of structure. The test is performed under alternative cycles of imposed lateral displacements, up to a storey drift ratio of 0.035. Seismic response of the spatial model is discussed considering the acceptance criteria for reinforced concrete frame structures designed based on experimental tests, as well as some of its major sustainability features. The results obtained show an overall excellent behavior of the system. The joint detailing allows for quick and cheap repairs after an accidental event and a self-balancing behavior of the system that ensures it can be used almost immediately after an accidental event it.

Keywords: modified hybrid joint, seismic type loading response, self-balancing structure, acceptance criteria

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7318 Two Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Seismic Response of the Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Integral Abutments

Authors: Dawei Shen, Ming Xu, Pengfei Liu


The joints between simply supported bridge decks and abutments need to be regularly repaired, which would greatly increase the cost during the service life of the bridge. Simply supported girder bridges suffered the most severe damage during earthquakes. Another type of bridge, the integral bridge, of which the superstructure and abutment are rigidly connected, was also used in some European countries. Because no bearings or joints exit in the integral bridge, this type of bridge could significantly reduce maintenance requirements and costs. However, conventional integral bridge usually result in high earth pressure on the abutment and surface settlement in the backfill. To solve these problems, a new type of integral bridge, geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) integral bridge, was come up in recent years. This newly invented bridge has not been used in engineering practices. There was a lack of research on the seismic behavior of the conventional and new type of integral abutments. In addition, no common design code could be found for the calculation of seismic pressure of soil behind the abutment. This paper developed a dynamic constitutive model, which can consider the soil behaviors under cyclic loading. Numerical analyses of the seismic response of a full height integral bridge and GRS integral bridge were carried out using the two-dimensional numerical code, FLAC. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the soil-structure interaction. The results are presented below. The seismic responses of GRS integral bridge together with conventional simply supported bridge, GRS conventional bridge and conventional integral bridge were investigated. The results show that the GRS integral bridge holds the highest seismic stability, followed by conventional integral bridge, GRS simply supported bridge and conventional simply supported bridge. Compared with the integral bridge with 1 m thick abutments, the GRS integral bridge with 0.4 m thick abutments is subjected to a smaller bending moment, and the natural frequency and horizontal displacement remains almost the same. Geosynthetic-reinforcement will be more effective when the abutment becomes thinner or the abutment is higher.

Keywords: geosynthetic-reinforced soil integral bridge, nonlinear hysteretic model, numerical analysis, seismic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
7317 Evaluation of High Damping Rubber Considering Initial History through Dynamic Loading Test and Program Analysis

Authors: Kyeong Hoon Park, Taiji Mazuda


High damping rubber (HDR) bearings are dissipating devices mainly used in seismic isolation systems and have a great damping performance. Although many studies have been conducted on the dynamic model of HDR bearings, few models can reflect phenomena such as dependency of experienced shear strain on initial history. In order to develop a model that can represent the dependency of experienced shear strain of HDR by Mullins effect, dynamic loading test was conducted using HDR specimen. The reaction of HDR was measured by applying a horizontal vibration using a hybrid actuator under a constant vertical load. Dynamic program analysis was also performed after dynamic loading test. The dynamic model applied in program analysis is a bilinear type double-target model. This model is modified from typical bilinear model. This model can express the nonlinear characteristics related to the initial history of HDR bearings. Based on the dynamic loading test and program analysis results, equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping ratio were calculated to evaluate the mechanical properties of HDR and the feasibility of the bilinear type double-target model was examined.

Keywords: base-isolation, bilinear model, high damping rubber, loading test

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7316 Seismic Resistant Mechanism of Two-by-four Wooden Frame with Vibration Control Device

Authors: Takumi Ito, Kurumi Kurokawa, Dong Hang Wu, Takashi Nagumo, Haruhiko Hirata


The structural system of wooden house by two-by-four method is widely adopted in any countries, and a various type of vibration control system for building structures has been developed on country with frequent earthquake. In this study, a vibration control device called “Scaling Frame” (SF) is suggested, and which is applied to wooden two-by-four method structures. This paper performs the experimental study to investigate the restoring force characteristics of two-by-four with SF device installed. The seismic resistant performance is estimated experimentally, and also the applicability and effectiveness are discussing.

Keywords: two-by-four method, seismic vibration control, horizontally loading test, restoring force characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
7315 Comparison of Seismic Response for Two RC Curved Bridges with Different Column Shapes

Authors: Nina N. Serdar, Jelena R. Pejović


This paper presents seismic risk assessment of two bridge structure, based on the probabilistic performance-based seismic assessment methodology. Both investigated bridges are tree span continuous RC curved bridges with the difference in column shapes. First bridge (type A) has a wall-type pier and second (type B) has a two-column bent with circular columns. Bridges are designed according to European standards: EN 1991-2, EN1992-1-1 and EN 1998-2. Aim of the performed analysis is to compare seismic behavior of these two structures and to detect the influence of column shapes on the seismic response. Seismic risk assessment is carried out by obtaining demand fragility curves. Non-linear model was constructed and time-history analysis was performed using thirty five pairs of horizontal ground motions selected to match site specific hazard. In performance based analysis, peak column drift ratio (CDR) was selected as engineering demand parameter (EDP). For seismic intensity measure (IM) spectral displacement was selected. Demand fragility curves that give probability of exceedance of certain value for chosen EDP were constructed and based on them conclusions were made.

Keywords: RC curved bridge, demand fragility curve, wall type column, nonlinear time-history analysis, circular column

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
7314 Seismic Behaviour of CFST-RC Columns

Authors: Raghabendra Yadav, Baochun Chen, Huihui Yuan, Zhibin Lian


Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) columns are widely used in Civil Engineering Structures due to their abundant properties. CFST-RC column is a built up column in which CFST members are connected with RC web. The CFST-RC column has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties, such as high strength, high ductility and large energy absorption capacity. CFST-RC columns have been adopted as piers in Ganhaizi Bridge in high seismic risk zone with a highest pier of 107m. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. Under cyclic loading, the hysteretic performance of CFST-RC columns, such as failure modes, ductility, load displacement hysteretic curves, energy absorption capacity, strength and stiffness degradation are studied in this paper.

Keywords: CFST, cyclic load, Ganhaizi bridge, seismic performance

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7313 Seismic Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: Raghabendra Yadav, Baochun Chen, Huihui Yuan, Zhibin Lian


Pseudo-dynamic test (PDT) method is an advanced seismic test method that combines loading technology with computer technology. Large-scale models or full scale seismic tests can be carried out by using this method. CFST-RC columns are used in civil engineering structures because of their better seismic performance. A CFST-RC column is composed of four CFST limbs which are connected with RC web in longitudinal direction and with steel tube in transverse direction. For this study, a CFST-RC pier is tested under Four different earthquake time histories having scaled PGA of 0.05g. From the experiment acceleration, velocity, displacement and load time histories are observed. The dynamic magnification factors for acceleration due to Elcentro, Chi-Chi, Imperial Valley and Kobe ground motions are observed as 15, 12, 17 and 14 respectively. The natural frequency of the pier is found to be 1.40 Hz. The result shows that this type of pier has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties.

Keywords: bridge pier, CFST-RC pier, pseudo dynamic test, seismic performance, time history

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7312 Seismic Performance of Two-Storey RC Frame Designed EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, A. Azmi, M. I. Adiyanto


This main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the seismic performance of double bay two-storey reinforced concrete frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading which designed using Eurocode 8 (EC8) by taking into account of seismic loading. The prototype model of reinforced concrete frame was constructed in one-half scale tested under in-plane lateral cyclic loading starts with ±0.2% drift, ±0.25% up to ±3.0% drift with the increment of ±0.25%. The performance of the RC frame is evaluated in terms of the hysteresis loop (load vs. displacement), stiffness, ductility, lateral strength, stress-strain relationship and equivalent viscous damping. Visual observation of the crack pattern after testing were observed where the beam- column joint suffer the most severe damage as it is the critical part in moment resisting frame. Spalling of concrete starts occurred at ±2.0% drift and become worse at ±2.5% drift. The experimental result shows that the maximum lateral strength of specimen is 99.98 kN and ductility of the specimen is µ=4.07 which lies between 3≤µ≤6 in order to withstand moderate to severe earthquakes.

Keywords: ductility, equivalent viscous damping, hysteresis loops, lateral strength, stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
7311 Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

Authors: C. J. W. Habets, D. J. Peters, J. G. de Gijt, A. V. Metrikine, S. N. Jonkman


Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of this method for anchored sheet pile quay walls that were not purposely designed for seismic loads. A research methodology is developed in which pseudo-static, permanent-displacement and finite element analysis are employed, calibrated with an experimental reference case that considers a typical anchored sheet pile wall. A reduction factor that accounts for deformation behaviour is determined for pseudo-static analysis. A model to apply traditional permanent displacement analysis on anchored sheet pile walls is proposed. Dynamic analysis is successfully carried out. From the research it is concluded that PBD evaluation can effectively be used for seismic analysis and design of this type of structure.

Keywords: anchored sheet pile quay wall, simplified dynamic analysis, performance-based design, pseudo-static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
7310 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar


Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
7309 Investigations on the Seismic Performance of Hot-Finished Hollow Steel Sections

Authors: Paola Pannuzzo, Tak-Ming Chan


In seismic applications, hollow steel sections show, beyond undeniable esthetical appeal, promising structural advantages since, unlike open section counterparts, they are not susceptible to weak-axis and lateral-torsional buckling. In particular, hot-finished hollow steel sections have homogeneous material properties and favorable ductility but have been underutilized for cyclic bending. The main reason is that the parameters affecting their hysteretic behaviors are not yet well understood and, consequently, are not well exploited in existing codes of practice. Therefore, experimental investigations have been conducted on a wide range of hot-finished rectangular hollow section beams with the aim to providing basic knowledge for evaluating their seismic performance. The section geometry (width-to-thickness and depth-to-thickness ratios) and the type of loading (monotonic and cyclic) have been chosen as the key parameters to investigate the cyclic effect on the rotational capacity and to highlight the differences between monotonic and cyclic load conditions. The test results provide information on the parameters that affect the cyclic performance of hot-finished hollow steel beams and can be used to assess the design provisions stipulated in the current seismic codes of practice.

Keywords: bending, cyclic test, finite element modeling, hollow sections, hot-finished sections

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7308 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova


Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: shear walls, internal fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation, seismic behaviour

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7307 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali


Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, FLAC2D, Displacement, Embankment Dam, Pore Water Pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
7306 Probabilistic Seismic Loss Assessment of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frame Buildings Pre- and Post-Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Flora, A. Di Lascio, D. Cardone, G. Gesualdi, G. Perrone


This paper considers the seismic assessment and retrofit of a pilotis-type RC frame building, which was designed for gravity loads only, prior to the introduction of seismic design provisions. Pilotis-type RC frame buildings, featuring an uniform infill throughout the height and an open ground floor, were, and still are, quite popular all over the world, as they offer large open areas very suitable for retail space at the ground floor. These architectural advantages, however, are of detriment to the building seismic behavior, as they can determine a soft-storey collapse mechanism. Extensive numerical analyses are carried out to quantify and benchmark the performance of the selected building, both in terms of overall collapse capacity and expected losses. Alternative retrofit strategies are then examined, including: (i) steel jacketing of RC columns and beam-column joints, (ii) steel bracing and (iv) seismic isolation. The Expected Annual Loss (EAL) of the selected case-study building, pre- and post-rehabilitation, is evaluated, following a probabilistic approach. The breakeven time of each solution is computed, comparing the initial cost of the retrofit intervention with expected benefit in terms of EAL reduction.

Keywords: expected annual loss, reinforced concrete buildings, seismic loss assessment, seismic retrofit

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7305 Finite Element Modeling of Integral Abutment Bridge for Lateral Displacement

Authors: M. Naji, A. R. Khalim, M. Naji


Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are defined as simple or multiple span bridges in which the bridge deck is cast monolithically with the abutment walls. This kind of bridges are becoming very popular due to different aspects such as good response under seismic loading, low initial costs, elimination of bearings and less maintenance. However, the main issue related to the analysis of this type of structures is dealing with soil-structure interaction of the abutment walls and the supporting piles. A two-dimensional, non-linear finite element (FE) model of an integral abutment bridge has been developed to study the effect of lateral time history displacement loading on the soil system.

Keywords: integral abutment bridge, soil structure interaction, finite element modeling, soil-pile interaction

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7304 Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Steel Frame with Hysteresis Envelope Model of Joints

Authors: Krolo Paulina


The seismic response of moment-resisting steel frames depends on the behavior of the joints, especially when they are considered as ductile zones. The aim of this research is to provide a realistic assessment of the moment-resisting steel frame behavior under seismic loading using nonlinear static pushover analysis (N2 method). The hysteresis behavior of the joints in the frame model was described using a new hysteresis envelope model. The obtained seismic response was compared with the results of the seismic analysis obtained for the same steel frame that takes into account the monotonic model of the joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joints, hysteresis envelope model, moment-resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, N2 method

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7303 Spatial Integrity of Seismic Data for Oil and Gas Exploration

Authors: Afiq Juazer Rizal, Siti Zaleha Misnan, M. Zairi M. Yusof


Seismic data is the fundamental tool utilized by exploration companies to determine potential hydrocarbon. However, the importance of seismic trace data will be undermined unless the geo-spatial component of the data is understood. Deriving a proposed well to be drilled from data that has positional ambiguity will jeopardize business decision and millions of dollars’ investment that every oil and gas company would like to avoid. Spatial integrity QC workflow has been introduced in PETRONAS to ensure positional errors within the seismic data are recognized throughout the exploration’s lifecycle from acquisition, processing, and seismic interpretation. This includes, amongst other tests, quantifying that the data is referenced to the appropriate coordinate reference system, survey configuration validation, and geometry loading verification. The direct outcome of the workflow implementation helps improve reliability and integrity of sub-surface geological model produced by geoscientist and provide important input to potential hazard assessment where positional accuracy is crucial. This workflow’s development initiative is part of a bigger geospatial integrity management effort, whereby nearly eighty percent of the oil and gas data are location-dependent.

Keywords: oil and gas exploration, PETRONAS, seismic data, spatial integrity QC workflow

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7302 Evaluation on Effective Size and Hysteresis Characteristics of CHS Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


This study aims to evaluate the effective size and hysteresis characteristics of Circular Hollow Steel (CHS) damper. CHS damper is among steel dampers which are used widely for seismic energy dissipation because they are easy to install, maintain and are low cost. CHS damper dissipates seismic energy through metallic deformation due to the geometrical elasticity of circular shape and fatigue resistance around connection part. After calculating the effective size, which is found to be height to diameter ratio of √ ("3”), nonlinear FE analyses were conducted to evaluate the hysteresis characteristics. To verify the analysis simulation quasi static loading was carried out and the result was compared and satisfactory result was obtained.

Keywords: SS400 steel, circular hollow steel damper, effective size, quasi static loading, FE analysis

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7301 Regional Adjustment to the Analytical Attenuation Coefficient in the GMPM BSSA 14 for the Region of Spain

Authors: Gonzalez Carlos, Martinez Fransisco


There are various types of analysis that allow us to involve seismic phenomena that cause strong requirements for structures that are designed by society; one of them is a probabilistic analysis which works from prediction equations that have been created based on metadata seismic compiled in different regions. These equations form models that are used to describe the 5% damped pseudo spectra response for the various zones considering some easily known input parameters. The biggest problem for the creation of these models requires data with great robust statistics that support the results, and there are several places where this type of information is not available, for which the use of alternative methodologies helps to achieve adjustments to different models of seismic prediction.

Keywords: GMPM, 5% damped pseudo-response spectra, models of seismic prediction, PSHA

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7300 Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling

Authors: K. Soldatova, Y. Galerkin


A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

Keywords: loading factor performance, centrifugal compressor, impeller, modeling

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7299 The Application of Extend Spectrum-Based Pushover Analysis for Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Wall Structures

Authors: Yang Liu


Reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures are one of the most popular and efficient structural forms for medium- and high-rise buildings to resist the action of earthquake loading. Thus, it is of great significance to evaluate the seismic demands of the RC shear walls. In this paper, the application of the extend spectrum-based pushover analysis (ESPA) method on the seismic evaluation of the shear wall structure is presented. The ESPA method includes a nonlinear consecutive pushover analysis procedure and a linear elastic modal response analysis procedure to consider the combination of modes in both elastic and inelastic cases. It is found from the results of case study that the ESPA method can predict the seismic performance of shear wall structures, including internal forces and deformations very well.

Keywords: reinforced concrete shear wall, seismic performance, high mode effect, nonlinear analysis

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7298 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

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7297 Seismic Performance of Micropiles in Sand with Predrilled Oversized Holes

Authors: Cui Fu, Yi-Zhou Zhuang, Sheng-Zhi Wang


Full scale tests of six micropiles with different predrilled-hole parameters under low frequency cyclic lateral loading in-sand were carried out using the MTS hydraulic loading system to analyze the seismic performance of micropiles. Hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, energy dissipation capacity and ductility of micropiles were investigated. The experimental results show the hysteresis curves appear like plump bows in the elastic–plastic stage and failure stage which exhibit good hysteretic characteristics without pinching phenomena and good energy dissipating capacities. The ductility coefficient varies from 2.51 to 3.54 and the depth and loose backfill of oversized holes can improve ductility, but the diameter of predrilled-hole has a limited effect on enhancing its ductility. These findings and conclusions could make contribution to the practical application of the semi-integral abutment bridges and provide a reference for the predrilled oversized hole technology in integral abutment bridges.

Keywords: ductility, energy dissipation capacity, micropile with predrilled oversized hole, seismic performance, semi-integral abutment bridge

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