Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: rectennas

3 Rectenna Modeling Based on MoM-GEC Method for RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Soulayma Smirani, Mourad Aidi, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

Energy harvesting has arisen as a prominent research area for low power delivery to RF devices. Rectennas have become a key element in this technology. In this paper, electromagnetic modeling of a rectenna system is presented. In our approach, a hybrid technique was demonstrated to associate both the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and MoM-GEC (the method of moments combined with the generalized equivalent circuit technique). Auxiliary sources were used in order to substitute specific electronic devices. Therefore, a simple and controllable model is obtained. Also, it can easily be interconnected to form different topologies of rectenna arrays for more energy harvesting. At last, simulation results show the feasibility and simplicity of the proposed rectenna model with high precision and computation efficiency.

Keywords: computational electromagnetics, MoM-GEC method, rectennas, RF energy harvesting

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2 Proposal of a Rectenna Built by Using Paper as a Dielectric Substrate for Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting

Authors: Ursula D. C. Resende, Yan G. Santos, Lucas M. de O. Andrade

Abstract:

The recent and fast development of the internet, wireless, telecommunication technologies and low-power electronic devices has led to an expressive amount of electromagnetic energy available in the environment and the smart applications technology expansion. These applications have been used in the Internet of Things devices, 4G and 5G solutions. The main feature of this technology is the use of the wireless sensor. Although these sensors are low-power loads, their use imposes huge challenges in terms of an efficient and reliable way for power supply in order to avoid the traditional battery. The radio frequency based energy harvesting technology is especially suitable to wireless power sensors by using a rectenna since it can be completely integrated into the distributed hosting sensors structure, reducing its cost, maintenance and environmental impact. The rectenna is an equipment composed of an antenna and a rectifier circuit. The antenna function is to collect as much radio frequency radiation as possible and transfer it to the rectifier, which is a nonlinear circuit, that converts the very low input radio frequency energy into direct current voltage. In this work, a set of rectennas, mounted on a paper substrate, which can be used for the inner coating of buildings and simultaneously harvest electromagnetic energy from the environment, is proposed. Each proposed individual rectenna is composed of a 2.45 GHz patch antenna and a voltage doubler rectifier circuit, built in the same paper substrate. The antenna contains a rectangular radiator element and a microstrip transmission line that was projected and optimized by using the Computer Simulation Software (CST) in order to obtain values of S11 parameter below -10 dB in 2.45 GHz. In order to increase the amount of harvested power, eight individual rectennas, incorporating metamaterial cells, were connected in parallel forming a system, denominated Electromagnetic Wall (EW). In order to evaluate the EW performance, it was positioned at a variable distance from the internet router, and a 27 kΩ resistive load was fed. The results obtained showed that if more than one rectenna is associated in parallel, enough power level can be achieved in order to feed very low consumption sensors. The 0.12 m2 EW proposed in this work was able to harvest 0.6 mW from the environment. It also observed that the use of metamaterial structures provide an expressive growth in the amount of electromagnetic energy harvested, which was increased from 0. 2mW to 0.6 mW.

Keywords: electromagnetic energy harvesting, metamaterial, rectenna, rectifier circuit

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1 Design of an Ultra High Frequency Rectifier for Wireless Power Systems by Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain

Authors: Felipe M. de Freitas, Ícaro V. Soares, Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves, Úrsula D. C. Resende

Abstract:

There is a dispersed energy in Radio Frequencies (RF) that can be reused to power electronics circuits such as: sensors, actuators, identification devices, among other systems, without wire connections or a battery supply requirement. In this context, there are different types of energy harvesting systems, including rectennas, coil systems, graphene and new materials. A secondary step of an energy harvesting system is the rectification of the collected signal which may be carried out, for example, by the combination of one or more Schottky diodes connected in series or shunt. In the case of a rectenna-based system, for instance, the diode used must be able to receive low power signals at ultra-high frequencies. Therefore, it is required low values of series resistance, junction capacitance and potential barrier voltage. Due to this low-power condition, voltage multiplier configurations are used such as voltage doublers or modified bridge converters. Lowpass filter (LPF) at the input, DC output filter, and a resistive load are also commonly used in the rectifier design. The electronic circuits projects are commonly analyzed through simulation in SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) environment. Despite the remarkable potential of SPICE-based simulators for complex circuit modeling and analysis of quasi-static electromagnetic fields interaction, i.e., at low frequency, these simulators are limited and they cannot model properly applications of microwave hybrid circuits in which there are both, lumped elements as well as distributed elements. This work proposes, therefore, the electromagnetic modelling of electronic components in order to create models that satisfy the needs for simulations of circuits in ultra-high frequencies, with application in rectifiers coupled to antennas, as in energy harvesting systems, that is, in rectennas. For this purpose, the numerical method FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) is applied and SPICE computational tools are used for comparison. In the present work, initially the Ampere-Maxwell equation is applied to the equations of current density and electric field within the FDTD method and its circuital relation with the voltage drop in the modeled component for the case of lumped parameter using the FDTD (Lumped-Element Finite-Difference Time-Domain) proposed in for the passive components and the one proposed in for the diode. Next, a rectifier is built with the essential requirements for operating rectenna energy harvesting systems and the FDTD results are compared with experimental measurements.

Keywords: energy harvesting system, LE-FDTD, rectenna, rectifier, wireless power systems

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