Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Nauplii

4 Toxicity Evaluation of Reduced Graphene Oxide on First Larval Stages of Artemia sp.

Authors: Roberta Pecoraro


The focus of this work was to investigate the potential toxic effect of titanium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (TiO₂-rGO) nanocomposites on nauplii of microcrustacean Artemia sp. In order to assess the nanocomposite’s toxicity, a short-term test was performed by exposing nauplii to solutions containing TiO₂-rGO. To prepare titanium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (TiO₂-rGO) nanocomposites, a green procedure based on solar photoreduction was proposed; it allows to obtain the photocatalysts by exploiting the photocatalytic properties of titania activated by the solar irradiation in order to avoid the high temperatures and pressures required for the standard hydrothermal synthesis. Powders of TiO₂-rGO supplied by the Department of Chemical Sciences (University of Catania) are indicated as TiO₂-rGO at 1% and TiO₂-rGO at 2%. Starting from a stock solution (1mg rGO-TiO₂/10 ml ASPM water) of each type, we tested four different concentrations (serial dilutions ranging from 10⁻¹ to 10⁻⁴ mg/ml). All the solutions have been sonicated for 12 min prior to use. Artificial seawater (called ASPM water) was prepared to guarantee the hatching of the cysts and to maintain nauplii; the durable cysts used in this study, marketed by JBL (JBL GmbH & Co. KG, Germany), were hydrated with ASPM water to obtain nauplii (instar II-III larvae). The hatching of the cysts was carried out in the laboratory by immersing them in ASPM water inside a 500 ml beaker and keeping them constantly oxygenated thanks to an aerator for the insufflation of microbubble air: after 24-48 hours, the cysts hatched, and the nauplii appeared. The nauplii in the second and third stages of development were collected one-to-one, using stereomicroscopes, and transferred into 96-well microplates where one nauplius per well was added. The wells quickly have been filled with 300 µl of each specific concentration of the solution used, and control samples were incubated only with ASPM water. Replication was performed for each concentration. Finally, the microplates were placed on an orbital shaker, and the tests were read after 24 and 48 hours from inoculating the solutions to assess the endpoint (immobility/death) for the larvae. Nauplii that appeared motionless were counted as dead, and the percentages of mortality were calculated for each treatment. The results showed a low percentage of immobilization both for TiO₂-rGO at 1% and TiO₂-rGO at 2% for all concentrations tested: for TiO₂-rGO at 1% was below 12% after 24h and below 15% after 48h; for TiO₂-rGO at 2% was below 8% after 24h and below 12% after 48h. According to other studies in the literature, the results have not shown mortality nor toxic effects on the development of larvae after exposure to rGO. Finally, it is important to highlight that the TiO₂-rGO catalysts were tested in the solar photodegradation of a toxic herbicide (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-D), obtaining a high percentage of degradation; therefore, this alternative approach could be considered a good strategy to obtain performing photocatalysts.

Keywords: Nauplii, photocatalytic properties, reduced GO, short-term toxicity test, titanium dioxide

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3 Sympatric Calanus Species: A High Temporal Resolution of Reproductive Timing and Stage Composition

Authors: Mads Schultz, Galice Hoarau, Marvin Choquet


Members of the genus Calanus are key species in the North Atlantic and Arctic marine ecosystems due to their vast abundance and their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipid. As a link between primary producers and higher trophic levels, the temporal presence of each Calanus species is important in a time of changing communities and northward distribution shifts. This study focused on the temporal niches of the sympatric species Calanus helgolandicus, Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis, and Calanus hyperboreus in Skjerstad fjord, a Norwegian fjord (67˚14’N, 14 ˚44’E). Three depth intervals were sampled monthly over a year, targeting copepodite stages of the genus Calanus. Species determination was carried out genetically using insertion/deletion markers. In addition, during the reproductive season (Jan-May), weekly samples of the upper 50 meters of the water column targeting nauplii and 5 depth intervals targeting copepodites were collected. Nauplii samples were sorted into two groups (NI-NIII and NIV-NVI), and species were genetically identified. Specimens from stage CIV to adults from each depth interval of copepodite sampling were photographed in order to generate a supporting timeline of visual traits, including gonad maturation stage, presence of stomach content, and total lipid content. The most abundant species were Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis, followed by Calanus hyperboreus. These species were present in the water column throughout the year, whereas Calanus helgolandicus, the least abundant species, was only present during the summer and autumn period. Each species showed distinct temporal niches, with Calanus finmarchicus occupying the upper 50 meters longer than any of the other species. Calanus hyperboreus dominates in abundance early in the spring but are outnumbered by Calanus glacialis and Calanus finmarchicus after spring bloom sets in. In Skjerstad fjord, Calanus hyperboreus is a clear capital breeder with a long period of nauplii presence before the spring bloom. Calanus glacialis and Calanus finmarchicus both utilize income breeding, with Calanus glacialis developing to the larger nauplii stages quicker than Calanus finmarchicus, but also having a shorter reproduction period. Indeed, the “traditional Arctic” species Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus glacialis appear to end their reproduction period earlier than the North Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus.

Keywords: calanus, depth distribution, reproduction, stage composition, temporal niches

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2 Eco-Biological Study of Artemia salina (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) in Sahline Salt Lake, Tunisia

Authors: Khalil Trigui, Rafik Ben Said, Fourat Akrout, Neji Aloui


In this study, we examined in the first part the eco-biology of Artemia (A.salina) collected from Sahline Salt Lake (governorate of Monastir: Tunisia) during an annual cycle. The correlations between environmental factors and some biological parameters of Artemia were determined. The results obtained showed that the environmental factors affected the biology of Artemia. The highest abundance was recorded in May (550 ± 2,16 ind/l) and all life history stages existed with different seasonal proportions. The Artemia population is bisexual with ovoviviparous reproduction at the beginning and oviparous at the end of the life cycle. We also recorded the dominance of males at the start and the females at the end of the cycle. During all the study period, the size of mature females is bigger than that of males. The fertility obtained resulted in a significant production of cysts compared to the nauplii. A negative correlation with highly significant effect was deduced between environmental factors (temperature and salinity) and the production of nauplii (ovoviviparity) in contrast with dissolved oxygen. In the second part of our work is consecrated to the mastery of breeding Artemia. For this, we tested the effect of five external factors (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, light intensity and food) on the survival of this crustacean. Thereby, the survival rates of Artemia were affected by the different values of studied factors. The recorded results showed that Artemia salina has an optimum temperature ranged from 25 to 27°C with a survival rate ranging from 84 to 88%. The optimal salinity to breed Artemia salina was 37 psu (62 ± 0,23%). Nevertheless, this crustacean was able to survive and withstand the salinity of 0 psu (freshwater). The optimum concentration of dissolved oxygen was 7mg/l with a survival rate of 87,11 ± 0,04%. An optimum light intensity of 10 lux revealed a survival rate equal to 85,33 ± 0,01%. The results also showed that the preferred micro-algae by Artemia is Dunaliella salina with a maximum survival rate of the order of 80 ± 0,15%. There is a significant effect for all experienced parameters on the survival of Artemia reared except the nature of food.

Keywords: Artemia salina, biology, breeding, ecology, Sahline salt lake

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1 Defense Priming from Egg to Larvae in Litopenaeus vannamei with Non-Pathogenic and Pathogenic Bacteria Strains

Authors: Angelica Alvarez-Lee, Sergio Martinez-Diaz, Jose Luis Garcia-Corona, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza


World aquaculture is always looking for improvements to achieve productions with high yields avoiding the infection by pathogenic agents. The best way to achieve this is to know the biological model to create alternative treatments that could be applied in the hatcheries, which results in greater economic gains and improvements in human public health. In the last decade, immunomodulation in shrimp culture with probiotics, organic acids and different carbon sources has gained great interest, mainly in larval and juvenile stages. Immune priming is associated with a strong protective effect against a later pathogen challenge. This work provides another perspective about immunostimulation from spawning until hatching. The stimulation happens during development embryos and generates resistance to infection by pathogenic bacteria. Massive spawnings of white shrimp L. vannamei were obtained and placed in experimental units with 700 mL of sterile seawater at 30 °C, salinity of 28 ppm and continuous aeration at a density of 8 embryos.mL⁻¹. The immunostimulating effect of three death strains of non-pathogenic bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and a pathogenic strain for white shrimp (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) was evaluated. The strains killed by heat were adjusted to O.D. 0.5, at A 600 nm, and directly added to the seawater of each unit at a ratio of 1/100 (v/v). A control group of embryos without inoculum of dead bacteria was kept under the same physicochemical conditions as the rest of the treatments throughout the experiment and used as reference. The duration of the stimulus was 12 hours, then, the larvae that hatched were collected, counted and transferred to a new experimental unit (same physicochemical conditions but at a salinity of 28 ppm) to carry out a challenge of infection against the pathogen V. parahaemolyticus, adding directly to seawater an amount 1/100 (v/v) of the live strain adjusted to an OD 0.5; at A 600 nm. Subsequently, 24 hrs after infection, nauplii survival was evaluated. The results of this work shows that, after 24 hrs, the hatching rates of immunostimulated shrimp embryos with the dead strains of B. subtillis and V. parahaemolyticus are significantly higher compared to the rest of the treatments and the control. Furthermore, survival of L. vanammei after a challenge of infection of 24 hrs against the live strain of V. parahaemolyticus is greater (P < 0.05) in the larvae immunostimulated during the embryonic development with the dead strains B. subtillis and V. parahaemolyticus, followed by those that were treated with E. coli. In summary superficial antigens can stimulate the development cells to promote hatching and can have normal development in agreeing with the optical observations, plus exist a differential response effect between each treatment post-infection. This research provides evidence of the immunostimulant effect of death pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains in the rate of hatching and oversight of shrimp L. vannamei during embryonic and larval development. This research continues evaluating the effect of these death strains on the expression of genes related to the defense priming in larvae of L. vannamei that come from massive spawning in hatcheries before and after the infection challenge against V. parahaemolyticus.

Keywords: immunostimulation, L. vannamei, hatching, survival

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