Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 989

Search results for: synthetic phorbol ester

989 Phorbol Ester Content in Jatropha curcas Crude Oil and Derived Biodiesel from Different Regions of Botswana

Authors: Edwin Khethiwe, Clever Ketlogetswe, Jerekias Gandure


Jatropha curcas crop is an oil-bearing shrub widely found in some countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Its seed kernels contain oil which can be used for the production of biodiesel. Nevertheless, the seeds and seed oil contain toxic element mainly phorbol esters which limit full utilisation of the overall Jatropha curcas crop as there are concerns about possible risk associated with occupation exposure which is known co-carcinogen. In Botswana, information on the level of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas is scarce hence the need for this study. The main objective of the present study was to quantify the level of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and biodiesel obtained from four regions in Botswana, namely; Serowe, Paje, Tsamaya and Mmadinare. In order to achieve that, an HPLC-UV was used for quantification of phorbol esters. The results showed that the concentration of phorbol ester found in JCO for Serowe, Paje, Tsamaya and Mmadinare were 0.03mg/g, 0.26mg/g, 0.12mg/g and 0.06mg/g respectively. As for biodiesel for all the regions investigated there were no traces of phorbol esters found.

Keywords: biodiesel, Jatropha curcas, phorbol esters, toxicity

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988 Microbubbles Enhanced Synthetic Phorbol Ester Degradation by Ozonolysis

Authors: D. Kuvshinov, A. Siswanto, W. Zimmerman


A phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) is a synthetic analogue of phorbol ester (PE), a natural toxic compound of Euphorbiaceae plant. The oil extracted from plants of this family is useful source for primarily biofuel. However this oil can also be used as a food stock due to its significant nutrition content. The limitations for utilizing the oil as a food stock are mainly due to a toxicity of PE. Nowadays a majority of PE detoxification processes are expensive as include multi steps alcohol extraction sequence. Ozone is considered as a strong oxidative agent. It reaction with PE it attacks the carbon double bond of PE. This modification of PE molecular structure results into nontoxic ester with high lipid content. This report presents data on development of simple and cheap PE detoxification process with water application as a buffer and ozone as reactive component. The core of this new technique is a simultaneous application of new microscale plasma unit for ozone production and patented gas oscillation technology. In combination with a reactor design the technology permits ozone injection to the water-TPA mixture in form of microbubbles. The efficacy of a heterogeneous process depends on diffusion coefficient which can be controlled by contact time and interface area. The low velocity of rising microbubbles and high surface to volume ratio allow fast mass transfer to be achieved during the process. Direct injection of ozone is the most efficient process for a highly reactive and short lived chemical. Data on the plasma unit behavior are presented and influence of the gas oscillation technology to the microbubbles production mechanism has been discussed. Data on overall process efficacy for TPA degradation is shown.

Keywords: microbubble, ozonolysis, synthetic phorbol ester, chemical engineering

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987 A Viable Approach for Biological Detoxification of Non Edible Oil Seed Cakes and Their Utilization in Food Production Using Aspergillus Niger

Authors: Kshitij Bhardwaj, R.K. Trivedi, Shipra Dixit


We used biological detoxification method that converts toxic residue waste of Jatropha curcas oil seeds (non edible oil seed) into industrial bio-products and animal feed material. Present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Aspergillus Niger strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in 15 days under the optimized SSF conditions viz deoiled cake 5.0 gm moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 2 ml of overnight grown Aspergillus niger; incubated at 30◦ C, pH 7.0. This method simultaneously induces the production of Protease enzyme by Aspergillus Niger which has high potential to be used in feedstuffs .The maximum Protease activities obtained were 709.16 mg/ml in Jatropha curcas oil seed cake. The protein isolate had small amounts of phorbol esters, phytic acid, and saponin without any lectin. Its minimum and maximum solubility were at pH 4.0&12.0. Water and oil binding capacities were 3.22 g water/g protein and 1.86 ml oil/g protein respectively.Emulsion activity showed high values in a range of basic pH. We concluded that Jatropha Curcas seed cake has a potential to be used as a novel source of functional protein for food or feed applications.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Jatropha curcas, oil seed cake, phorbol ester

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986 Conversion of Jatropha curcas Oil to Ester Biolubricant Using Solid Catalyst Derived from Saltwater Clam Shell Waste (SCSW)

Authors: Said Nurdin, Fatimah A. Misebah, Rosli M. Yunus, Mohd S. Mahmud, Ahmad Z. Sulaiman


The discarded clam shell waste, fossil and edible oil as biolubricant feedstocks create environmental impacts and food chain dilemma, thus this work aims to circumvent these issues by using activated saltwater clam shell waste (SCSW) as solid catalyst for conversion of Jatropha curcas oil as non-edible sources to ester biolubricant. The characterization of solid catalyst was done by Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (DTA-TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The calcined catalyst was used in the transesterification of Jatropha oil to methyl ester as the first step, and the second stage was involved the reaction of Jatropha methyl ester (JME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) based on the various process parameters. The formated biolubricant was analyzed using the capillary column (DB-5HT) equipped Gas Chromatography (GC). The conversion results of Jatropha oil to ester biolubricant can be found nearly 96.66%, and the maximum distribution composition mainly contains 72.3% of triester (TE).

Keywords: conversion, Jatropha curcas oil, ester biolubricant, solid catalyst

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985 Synthesis of Biolubricant Base Stock from Palm Methyl Ester

Authors: Nur Sulihatimarsyila Abd Wafti, Harrison Lik Nang Lau, Nabilah Kamaliah Mustaffa, Nur Azreena Idris


The use of biolubricant has gained its popularity over the last decade. Base stock produced using methyl ester and trimethylolethane (TME) can be potentially used for biolubricant production due to its biodegradability, non-toxicity and good thermal stability. The synthesis of biolubricant base stock e.g. triester (TE) via transesterification of palm methyl ester and TME in the presence of sodium methoxide as the catalyst was conducted. Factors influencing the reaction conditions were investigated including reaction time, temperature and pressure. The palm-based biolubricant base stock produced was analysed for its monoester (ME), diester (DE) and TE contents using gas chromatography as well as its lubricating properties such as viscosity, viscosity index, oxidation stability, and density. The resulting base stock containing 90 wt% TE was successfully synthesized.

Keywords: biolubricant, methyl ester, triester transesterification, lubricating properties

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984 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi


Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, oleic acid, saponification value, sunflower oil

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983 Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Synthetic Cannabinoids

Authors: Hiroshi Nakayama, Yuji Ito


Synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention recently in Japan. 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole (JWH-018), 1-pentyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl) indole (JWH-015), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3- (1-(2,2,3,3- tetramethylcyclopropyl)) indole (XLR-11) and 1-methyl-3- (1-admantyl) indole (JWH-018 adamantyl analog) are known as synthetic cannabinoids and are also considered dangerous illegal drugs in Japan. It has become necessary to develop sensitive and useful methods for detection of synthetic cannabinoids. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against synthetic cannabinoids, named NT1 (IgG1) and NT2 (IgG1), using Hybridoma technology. The cross-reactivity of these produced MAbs was evaluated using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the results, we found both of these antibodies recognize many kinds of synthetic cannabinoids analog. However, neither of these antibodies recognizes naphtoic acid, 1-methyl-indole and indole known as a raw material of synthetic cannabinoid. Thus, the MAbs produced in this study could be a useful tool for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids.

Keywords: ELISA, monoclonal antibody, sensor, synthetic cannabinoid

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982 The Effect of Oxidation Stability Improvement in Calophyllum Inophyllum Palm Oil Methyl Ester Production

Authors: Natalina, Hwai Chyuan Onga, W. T. Chonga


Oxidation stability of biodiesel is very important in fuel handling especially for remote location of biodiesel application. Variety of feedstocks and biodiesel production process resulted many variation of biodiesel oxidation stability. The current study relates to investigation of the impact of fatty acid composition that caused by natural and production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester that correlated with improvement of biodiesel oxidation stability. Firstly, biodiesel was produced from crude oil of palm oil, calophyllum inophyllum and mixing of calophyllum inophyllum and palm oil. The production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester (CIPOME) was divided by including washing process and without washing. Secondly, the oxidation stability was measured from the palm oil methyl ester (POME), calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester (CIME), CIPOME with washing process and CIPOME without washing process. Then, in order to find the differences of fatty acid compositions all of the biodiesels were measured by gas chromatography analysis. It was found that mixing calophyllum inophyllum into palm oil increased the oxidation stability. Washing process influenced the CIPOME fatty acid composition, and reduction of washing process during the production process gave significant oxidation stability number of CIPOME (38 h to 114 h).

Keywords: biodiesel, oxidation stability, calophyllum inophyllum, water content

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981 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut


Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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980 Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for ISO VG32 and VG46 Applications

Authors: M. Nuhu, M. S. Amina, A. H. Aminu, A. J. Abbas, N. Salahudeen, A. Z. Yusuf


Transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with the common polyol, trimethylolpropane (TMP) produced the TMP based ester which exhibits improved temperature properties. This paper discusses the physic-chemical properties of jatropha bio-lubricant base oil applicable for ISO VG32 and VG46 requirement. The catalyst employed for the JME was CaO synthesized in National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) that gives 100% conversion. The molar ratio of JME to TMP was 3.5:1 and the catalyst (NaOCH3) loading were found to be 0.8% of the weight of the total reactants. The final fractionated jatropha bio-lubricant base was found to contain 11.95% monoesters, 43.89% diesters and 44.16% triesters (desired product). In addition, it was found that the bio-lubricant base oil produced is comparable to the ISO VG46 commercial standards for light and industrial gears applications and other plant based bio-lubricant.

Keywords: biodegradability, methyl ester, pour point, transesterification, viscosity index

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979 Biofuel Production via Thermal Cracking of Castor Methyl Ester

Authors: Roghaieh Parvizsedghy, Seyed Mojtaba Sadrameli


Diminishing oil reserves, deteriorating health standards because of greenhouse gas emissions and associated environmental impacts have emerged biofuel production. Vegetable oils are proved to be valuable feedstock in these growing industries as they are renewable and potentially inexhaustible sources. Thermal Cracking of vegetable oils (triglycerides) leads to production of biofuels which are similar to fossil fuels in terms of composition but their combustion and physical properties have limits. Acrolein (very poisonous gas) and water production during cracking of triglycerides occurs because of presence of glycerin in their molecular structure. Transesterification of vegetable oil is a method to extract glycerol from triglycerides structure and produce methyl ester. In this study, castor methyl ester was used for thermal cracking in order to survey the efficiency of this method to produce bio-gasoline and bio-diesel. Thus, several experiments were designed by means of central composite method. Statistical studies showed that two reaction parameters, namely cracking temperature and feed flowrate, affect products yield significantly. At the optimized conditions (480 °C and 29 g/h) for maximum bio-gasoline production, 88.6% bio-oil was achieved which was distilled and separated as bio-gasoline (28%) and bio-diesel (48.2%). Bio-gasoline exposed a high octane number and combustion heat. Distillation curve and Reid vapor pressure of bio-gasoline fell in the criteria of standard gasoline (class AA) by ASTM D4814. Bio-diesel was compatible with standard diesel by ASTM D975. Water production was negligible and no evidence of acrolein production was distinguished. Therefore, thermal cracking of castor methyl ester could be used as a method to produce valuable biofuels.

Keywords: bio-diesel, bio-gasoline, castor methyl ester, thermal cracking, transesterification

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978 Numerical Investigation of Improved Aerodynamic Performance of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet

Authors: K. Boualem, T. Yahiaoui, A. Azzi


Numerical investigations are performed to analyze the flow behavior over NACA0015 and to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic jet as active control device. The second objective of this work is to investigate the influence of momentum coefficient of synthetic jet on the flow behaviour. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using, k-ω SST provided by ANSYS CFX-CFD code. The model presented in this paper is a comprehensive representation of the information found in the literature. Comparison of obtained numerical flow parameters with the experimental ones shows that the adopted computational procedure reflects nearly the real flow nature. Also, numerical results state that use of synthetic jets devices has positive effects on the flow separation, and thus, aerodynamic performance improvement of NACA0015 airfoil. It can also be observed that the use of synthetic jet increases the lift coefficient about 13.3% and reduces the drag coefficient about 52.7%.

Keywords: active control, synthetic jet, NACA airfoil, CFD

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977 Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery

Authors: Kun Liang Ang, Eng Toon Saw, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, pervaporation, solvent recovery, Sn-MFI zeolite

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976 New Biobased(Furanic-Sulfonated) Poly(esteramide)s

Authors: Souhir Abid


The growing interest in vegetal biomass as an alternative for fossil resources has stimulated the development of numerous classes of monomers. Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons (i) firstly environmental concerns, and (ii) secondly the use of monomers from renewable feedstock is a steadily growing field of interest in order to reduce the amount of petroleum consumed in the chemical industry and to open new high-value-added markets to agriculture. Furanic polymers have been considered as alternative environmentally friendly polymers. In our earlier work, modifying furanic polyesters by incorporation of amide functions along their backbone, lead to a particular class of polymer ‘poly(ester-amide)s’, was investigated to combine the excellent mechanical properties of polyamides and the biodegradability of polyesters. As a continuation of our studies on this family of polymer, a series of furanic poly(ester-amide)s bearing sulfonate groups in the main chain were synthesized from 5,5’-Isopropylidene-bis(ethyl 2-furoate), dimethyl 5-sodiosulfoisophthalate, ethylene glycol and hexamethylene diamine by melt polycondensation using zinc acetate as a catalyst. In view of the complexity of the NMR spectrum analysis of the resulting sulfonated poly(ester-amide)s, we found that it is useful to prepare initially the corresponding homopolymers: sulfonated polyesters and polyamides. Structural data of these polymers will be used as a basic element in 1H NMR characterization. The hydrolytic degradation in acidic aqueous conditions (pH = 4,35 ) at 37 °C over the period of four weeks show that the mechanism of the hydrolysis of poly(ester amide)s was elucidated in relation with the microstructure. The strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between amide functions and water molecules increases the hydrophilicity of the macromolecular chains and consequently their hydrolytic degradation.

Keywords: furan, hydrolytic degradation, polycondensation, poly(ester amide)

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975 Bio-Furan Based Poly (β-Thioether Ester) Synthesized via Thiol-Michael Addition Polymerization with Tunable Structure and Properties

Authors: Daihui Zhang, Marie J. Dumont


A derivative of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was synthesized for the thiol-Michael addition reaction. The efficiency of the catalysts (base and nucleophiles) and side reactions during the thiol-Michael addition were investigated. Dimethylphenylphosphine efficiently initiated the thiol-Michael addition polymerization for synthesizing a series of bio-based furan polymers with different structure and properties. The benzene rings or hydroxyl groups present in the polymer chains increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of poly (β-thioether ester). Additionally, copolymers with various compositions were obtained via adding different ratio of 1,6-hexanedithiols to 1,4-benzenedithiols. 1H NMR analysis revealed that experimental ratios of two dithiols monomers matched well with theoretical ratios. The occurrence of a reversible Diels-Alder reaction between furan rings and maleimide groups allowed poly (β-thioether ester) to be dynamically crosslinked. These polymers offer the potentials to produce materials from biomass that have both practical mechanical properties and reprocessing ability.

Keywords: copolymers, Diels-Alder reaction, hydroxymethylfurfural, Thiol-Michael addition

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974 The Role of Synthetic Data in Aerial Object Detection

Authors: Ava Dodd, Jonathan Adams


The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of developing a machine learning application using synthetic data. The study is structured to develop the application for the purpose of deploying the computer vision model. The findings discuss the realities of attempting to develop a computer vision model for practical purpose, and detail the processes, tools, and techniques that were used to meet accuracy requirements. The research reveals that synthetic data represents another variable that can be adjusted to improve the performance of a computer vision model. Further, a suite of tools and tuning recommendations are provided.

Keywords: computer vision, machine learning, synthetic data, YOLOv4

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973 Surface Active Phthalic Acid Ester Produced by a Rhizobacterial Strain

Authors: M. L. Ibrahim, A. Abdulhamid


A surface active molecule synthesized by a rhizobacterial strain Bacillus lentus isolated from Cajanus cajan was investigated. The bioemulsifier was extracted, purified and partially characterized using standard methods. Surface properties of the bioemulsifier were determined by studying the emulsification index, solubility test and stability studies. Partial purification of the bioemulsifier was carried out using FT-IR analysis, Silica-gel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. GC-MS analysis was carried out to detect the composition and mass of the lipids and esters. The isolate showed an emulsifying activity of 57% and surface activity of 36mm. The stability studies revealed that the bioemulsifier had better stability at temperature of 70oC, 8% pH and 8% NaCl concentration. FT-IR indicated the bioemulsifier to contain peptide and aliphatic chain, TLC revealed the compound to be ninhydrin positive and Column chromatography showed the presence of three amino acids namely; glutamine, valine and cysteine. GC-MS indicated the lipid moiety to contain aliphatic chain ranging from C9-C16 and two major peaks of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl octyl ester. Therefore, surface active agent from Bacillus lentus can be used effectively in a wide range of applications such as in MEOR and in the biosynthesis of plasticizers for industrial uses.

Keywords: Bacillus lentus, bioemulsifiers, phthalic acid ester, Rhizosphere

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972 Oxidation States of Trace Elements in Synthetic Corundum

Authors: Ontima Yamchuti, Waruntorn Kanitpanyacharoen, Chakkaphan Sutthirat, Wantana Klysuban, Penphitcha Amonpattarakit


Natural corundum occurs in various colors due to impurities or trace elements in its structure. Sapphire and ruby are essentially the same mineral, corundum, but valued differently due to their red and blue varieties, respectively. Color is one of the critical factors used to determine the value of natural and synthetic corundum. Despite the abundance of research on impurities in natural corundum, little is known about trace elements in synthetic corundum. This project thus aims to quantify trace elements and identify their oxidation states in synthetic corundum. A total of 15 corundum samples in red, blue, and yellow, synthesized by melt growth process, were first investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to determine the composition. Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) was used to identify the types of trace elements. Results confirm that all synthetic corundums contain crystalline Al₂O₃ and a wide variety type of trace element, particularly Cr, Fe, and Ti. In red, yellow, and blue corundums respectively. To further determine their oxidation states, synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure spectrometry (XANES) was used to observe absorbing energy of each element. XANES results show that red synthetic corundum has Cr³⁺ as a major trace element (62%). The pre-edge absorption energy of Cr³⁺ is at 6001 eV. In addition, Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ are dominant oxidation states of yellow synthetic corundum while Ti³⁺and Ti⁴⁺ are dominant oxidation states of blue synthetic corundum. the average absorption energy of Fe and Ti is 4980 eV and 7113 eV respectively. The presence of Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Cr³⁺, Ti³⁺, and Ti⁴⁺ in synthetic corundums in this study is governed by comparison absorption energy edge with standard transition. The results of oxidation states in this study conform with natural corundum. However yellow synthetic corundums show difference oxidation state of trace element compared with synthetic in electron spin resonance spectrometer method which found that Ni³⁺ is a dominant oxidation state.

Keywords: corundum, trace element, oxidation state, XANES technique

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971 Synthetic Cannabinoids: Extraction, Identification and Purification

Authors: Niki K. Burns, James R. Pearson, Paul G. Stevenson, Xavier A. Conlan


In Australian state Victoria, synthetic cannabinoids have recently been made illegal under an amendment to the drugs, poisons and controlled substances act 1981. Identification of synthetic cannabinoids in popular brands of ‘incense’ and ‘potpourri’ has been a difficult and challenging task due to the sample complexity and changes observed in the chemical composition of the cannabinoids of interest. This study has developed analytical methodology for the targeted extraction and determination of synthetic cannabinoids available pre-ban. A simple solvent extraction and solid phase extraction methodology was developed that selectively extracted the cannabinoid of interest. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV‐visible and chemiluminescence detection (acidic potassium permanganate and tris (2,2‐bipyridine) ruthenium(III)) were used to interrogate the synthetic cannabinoid products. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used for structural elucidation of the synthetic cannabinoids. The tris(2,2‐bipyridine)ruthenium(III) detection was found to offer better sensitivity than the permanganate based reagents. In twelve different brands of herbal incense, cannabinoids were extracted and identified including UR‐144, XLR 11, AM2201, 5‐F‐AKB48 and A796‐260.

Keywords: electrospray mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction, synthetic cannabinoids

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970 Thermal Performance of a Pair of Synthetic Jets Equipped in Microchannel

Authors: J. Mohammadpour, G. E. Lau, S. Cheng, A. Lee


Numerical study was conducted using two synthetic jet actuators attached underneath a micro-channel. By fixing the oscillating frequency and diaphragm amplitude, the effects on the heat transfer within the micro-channel were investigated with two synthetic jets being in-phase and 180° out-of-phase at different orifice spacing. There was a significant benefit identified with two jets being 180° out-of-phase with each other at the orifice spacing of 2 mm. By having this configuration, there was a distinct pattern of vortex forming which disrupts the main channel flow as well as promoting thermal mixing at high velocity within the channel. Therefore, this configuration achieved higher cooling performance compared to the other cases studied in terms of the reduction in the maximum temperature and cooling uniformity in the silicon wafer.

Keywords: synthetic jets, microchannel, electronic cooling, computational fluid dynamics

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969 Characterization and Effect of Using Pumpkin Seeds Oil Methyl Ester (PSME) as Fuel in a LHR Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul, Ugur Ozturk


In order to decrease the hazardous emissions of the internal combustion engines and to improve the combustion and thermal efficiency, thermal barrier coatings are applied. In this experimental study, cylinder, piston, exhaust, and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material, and this earned the engine LHR feature. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) was produced by the transesterification method. In addition, dimethoxymethane additive materials were used to improve the properties of diesel fuel, pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) and its mixture. Dimethoxymethane was blended with test fuels, which was used as a pilot fuel, at the volumetric ratios of 4% and 8%. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's CO, HC, and smoke density values decreased; but, NOx and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increased.

Keywords: boriding, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier coating

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968 In vitro Inhibitory Action of an Aqueous Extract of Carob on the Release of Myeloperoxidase by Human Neutrophils

Authors: Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Jamel El-Benna, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai


Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemic enzyme found in high concentrations in the primary neutrophils granules. In addition to its peroxidase activity, it has a chlorination activity, using hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions to form hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidant, capable of chlorinating molecules. Bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants could limit the action of this enzyme to reduce the reactive oxygen species production and its chlorination activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the carob aqueous extract (CAE) on the release of MPO by human neutrophils in vitro and its activity following stimulation of these cells by PMA. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated by simple sedimentation using the Dextran/Ficoll method. After stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), neutrophils release the MPO by degranulation. The effect of CAE on the release of MPO was analyzed by the Western blot technique, while, its activity was determined by biochemical method using the method of 3,3', 5,5'- Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide. The data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: The carob aqueous extract causes a decrease in MPO quantity and activity in a concentration-dependent manner which leads to a reduction of the production of the ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the protection of the molecules against oxidation and chlorination mechanisms. Conclusion: Thanks to its richness in bioactive compounds, the aqueous extract of carob could limit the development of damages related to the uncontrolled activity of MPO.

Keywords: carob, MPO, myeloperoxidase, neutrophils, PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

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967 Experimental Evaluation of 10 Ecotypes of Toxic and Non-Toxic Jatropha curcas as Raw Material to Produce Biodiesel in Morelos State, Mexico

Authors: Guadalupe Pérez, Jorge Islas, Mirna Guevara, Raúl Suárez


Jatropha curcas is a perennial oleaginous plant that is currently considered an energy crop with high potential as an environmentally sustainable biofuel. During the last decades, research in biofuels has grown in tropical and subtropical regions in Latin America. However, as far we know, there are no reports on the growth and yield patterns of Jatropha curcas under the specific agro climatic scenarios of the State of Morelos, Mexico. This study presents the results of 52 months monitoring of 10 toxic and non-toxic ecotypes of Jatropha curcas (E1M, E2M, E3M, E4M, E5M, E6O, E7O, E8O, E9C, E10C) in an experimental plantation with minimum watering and fertilization resources. The main objective is to identify the ecotypes with the highest potential as biodiesel raw material in the select region, by developing experimental information. Specifically, we monitored biophysical and growth parameters, including plant survival and seed production (at the end of month 52), to study the performance of each ecotype and to establish differences among the variables of morphological growth, net seed oil content, and toxicity. To analyze the morphological growth, a statistical approach to the biophysical parameters was used; the net seed oil content -80 to 192 kg/ha- was estimated with the first harvest; and the toxicity was evaluated by examining the phorbol ester concentration (µg/L) in the oil extracted from the seeds. The comparison and selection of ecotypes was performed through a methodology developed based on the normalization of results. We identified four outstanding ecotypes (E1M, E2M, E3M, and E4M) that can be used to establish Jatropha curcas as energy crops in the state of Morelos for feasible agro-industrial production of biodiesel and other products related to the use of biomass.

Keywords: biodiesel production, Jatropha curcas, seed oil content, toxic and non-toxic ecotypes

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966 Synthesis of Some 1h-Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase

Authors: İsmail Çeli̇k, Gülgün Ayhan-Kılcıgi̇l, Arzu Onay-Beşi̇kçi̇


In this study, some 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)- lH-benzo[d]'imidazol-l-yl)-N'-(alkylthiosemicarbazide were designed and prepared. Firstly, 2-phenyl/ suhstitutedphenyl-lH-Benzo[d]imidazole was prepared via oxidative condensation of o-phenylenediamine, benzaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. Treatment of the benzimidazole compound with ethyl chloroacetate in KOH/DMSO gave the ester compound ethyl 2-(2-substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetate. Hydrazine hydrate and the ester in ethanol were refluxed for 4 h to give 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetohydrazide. Thiosemicarbazides were obtained by condensing acyl hydrazide with the alkylisothiocyanate in ethanol. Following the structure elucidation, benzimidazole compounds were tested for their EGFR kinase inhibitory activities by using ADP-GloTM Kinase Assay.

Keywords: benzimidazole, EGFR kinase inhibitor, synthesis, thiosemicarbazide

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965 Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Different Blends of Rice Bran Oil and Ethanol

Authors: Perminderjit Singh, Randeep Singh


The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multifuel engine when fueled with different blends of rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol are investigated and compared with the results of standard diesel. Biodiesel produced from rice bran oil by transesterification process has been used in this study. The experiment has been conducted at a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm, 50% load and at compression ratios of 16.5:1, 17:1, 17.5:1 and 18:1. The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives the best performance has been identified. The results indicate longer ignition delay, the maximum rate of pressure rise, lower heat release rate and higher mass fraction burnt at higher compression ratio for waste cooking oil methyl ester when compared to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency at 50% load for rice bran oil methyl ester blends and diesel has been calculated and the blend B40 is found to give maximum thermal efficiency. The blends when used as fuel results in the reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and increase in nitrogen oxides emissions.

Keywords: biodiesel, rice bran oil, transesterification, ethanol, compression ratio

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964 Inference for Synthetic Control Methods with Multiple Treated Units

Authors: Ziyan Zhang


Although the Synthetic Control Method (SCM) is now widely applied, its most commonly- used inference method, placebo test, is often problematic, especially when the treatment is not uniquely assigned. This paper discusses the problems with the placebo test under the multivariate treatment case. And, to improve the power of inferences, I further propose an Andrews-type procedure as it potentially solves some drawbacks of the placebo test. Simulations are conducted to show the Andrews’ test is often valid and powerful, compared with the placebo test.

Keywords: Synthetic Control Method, Multiple treatments, Andrews' test, placebo test

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963 Chemical Synthesis of a cDNA and Its Expression Analysis

Authors: Salman Akrokayan


Synthetic cDNA (ScDNA) of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was constructed using a DNA synthesizer with the aim to increase its expression level. 5' end of the ScDNA of G-CSF coding region was modified by decreasing the GC content without altering the predicted amino acids sequence. The identity of the resulting protein from ScDNA was confirmed by the highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In conclusion, a synthetic G-CSF cDNA in combination with the recombinant DNA protocol offers a rapid and reliable strategy for synthesizing the target protein. However, the commercial utilization of this methodology requires rigorous validation and quality control.

Keywords: synthetic cDNA, recombinant G-CSF, cloning, gene expression

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962 Comparative Study for Biodiesel Production Using a Batch and a Semi-Continuous Flow Reactor

Authors: S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato


Biodiesel may be produced through transesterification reaction (or alcoholysis), that is the transformation of a long chain fatty acid in an alkyl ester. This reaction can occur in the presence of acid catalysts, alkali, or enzyme. Currently, for industrial processes, biodiesel is produced by alkaline route. The alkali most commonly used in these processes is hydroxides and methoxides of sodium and potassium. In this work, biodiesel production was conducted in two different systems. The first consisted of a batch reactor operating with a traditional washing system and the second consisted of a semi-continuous flow reactor operating with a membrane separation system. Potassium hydroxides was used as catalyst at a concentration of 1% by weight, the molar ratio oil/alcohol was 1/9 and temperature of 55 °C. Tests were performed using soybeans and palm oil and the ester conversion results were compared for both systems. It can be seen that the results for both oils are similar when using the batch reator or the semi-continuous flow reactor. The use of the semi-continuous flow reactor allows the removal of the formed products. Thus, in the case of a reversible reaction, with the removal of reaction products, the concentration of the reagents becomes higher and the equilibrium reaction is shifted towards the formation of more products. The higher conversion to ester with soybean and palm oil using the batch reactor was approximately 98%. In contrast, it was observed a conversion of 99% when using the same operating condition on a semi-continuous flow reactor.

Keywords: biodiesel, batch reactor, semi-continuous flow reactor, transesterification

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961 An Investigation on the Removal of Synthetic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by a Functional Polymer

Authors: Ali Kara, Asim Olgun, Sevgi Sozugecer, Sahin Ozel, Kubra Nur Yildiz, P. Sevinç, Abdurrahman Kuresh, Guliz Turhan, Duygu Gulgun


The synthetic dyes, one of the most hazardous chemical compound classes, are important potential water pollutions since their presence in water bodies reduces light penetration, precluding the photosynthesis of aqueous flora and causing various diseases. Some the synthetic dyes are highly toxic and/or carcinogenic, and their biodegradation can produce even more toxic aromatic amines. The adsorption procedure is one of the most effective means of removing synthetic dye pollutants, and has been described in a number of previous studies by using the functional polymers. In this study, we investigated the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solution by using a functional polymer as an adsorbent material. The effect of initial solution concentration, pH, and contact time on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were studied in details. The results showed that functional polymer has a potential to be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbent for the treatment of aqueous solutions from textile industries.

Keywords: functional polymers, synhetic dyes, adsorption, physicochemical parameters

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960 Efficient Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Biologically Important Spirocarbocyclic Oxindoles via Hauser Annulation

Authors: Kanduru Lokesh, Venkitasamy Kesavan


The unique structural features of spiro-oxindoles with diverse biological activities have made them privileged structures in new drug discovery. The key structural characteristic of these compounds is the spiro ring fused at the C-3 position of the oxindole core with varied heterocyclic motifs. Structural diversification of heterocyclic scaffolds to synthesize new chemical entities as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals is one of the important goals of synthetic organic chemists. Nitrogen and oxygen containing heterocycles are by far the most widely occurring privileged structures in medicinal chemistry. The structural complexity and distinct three-dimensional arrangement of functional groups of these privileged structures are generally responsible for their specificity against biological targets. Structurally diverse compound libraries have proved to be valuable assets for drug discovery against challenging biological targets. Thus, identifying a new combination of substituents at C-3 position on oxindole moiety is of great importance in drug discovery to improve the efficiency and efficacy of the drugs. The development of suitable methodology for the synthesis of spiro-oxindole compounds has attracted much interest often in response to the significant biological activity displayed by the both natural and synthetic compounds. So creating structural diversity of oxindole scaffolds is need of the decade and formidable challenge. A general way to improve synthetic efficiency and also to access diversified molecules is through the annulation reactions. Annulation reactions allow the formation of complex compounds starting from simple substrates in a single transformation consisting of several steps in an ecologically and economically favorable way. These observations motivated us to develop the annulation reaction protocol to enable the synthesis of a new class of spiro-oxindole motifs which in turn would enable the enhancement of molecular diversity. As part of our enduring interest in the development of novel, efficient synthetic strategies to enable the synthesis of biologically important oxindole fused spirocarbocyclic systems, We have developed an efficient methodology for the construction of highly functionalized spirocarbocyclic oxindoles through [4+2] annulation of phthalides via Hauser annulation. functionalized spirocarbocyclic oxindoles was accomplished for the first time in the literature using Hauser annulation strategy. The reaction between methyleneindolinones and arylsulfonylphthalides catalyzed by cesium carbonate led to the access of new class of biologically important spiro[indoline-3,2'-naphthalene] derivatives in very good yields. The synthetic utility of the annulated product was further demonstrated by fluorination Using NFSI as a fluorinating agent to furnish corresponding fluorinated product.

Keywords: Hauser-Kraus annulation, spiro carbocyclic oxindoles, oxindole-ester, fluoridation

Procedia PDF Downloads 92