Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Marcella Attimonellid

4 From Orthodox to Haploid Mitochondrial DNA Markers: Exploring the Datum Folder of population of Sindh in Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhattiab, M. Aslamkhana, Sana Abbasbc, Marcella Attimonellid, Kumarasamy Thangaraje, Erica Martinha Silva de Souzaf, Uzay U. Sezen

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate three regions of mitochondrial DNA, HVI, HVII and HVIII, to hold a powwow genetic diversity and affiliations in 115 probands of 6 major ethnic groups, viz., Bijarani, Chandio, Ghallu, Khoso, Nasrani and Solangi, in the province of Sindh of Pakistan. For this purpose 88 haplotypes were scrutinized, defined by particular set of nucleotides (ignoring the C insertions around position 309 and 315). In spite of that 82% sequences were observed once, 12 % twice and 5.2 % thrice. The most common South Asian haplotypes were observed M (42%), N (6.9%) and R (6.9%) whereas west Eurasian haplotypes were J (1.7%), U (23.4%), H (9.5%), W (6.9%) and T (0.86%), in six ethnic groups. A random match probability between two unrelated individuals was found 0.06 %, while genetic diversity was ranged to be 0.991 to 0.999, and nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.0089 to 0.0142 for the whole control region of the population studied.

Keywords: mtDNA haplogroups, control region, Pakistan, Sindh, ethnicity

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3 Understanding Tourism Innovation through Fuzzy Measures

Authors: Marcella De Filippo, Delio Colangelo, Luca Farnia

Abstract:

In recent decades, the hyper-competition of tourism scenario has implicated the maturity of many businesses, attributing a central role to innovative processes and their dissemination in the economy of company management. At the same time, it has defined the need for monitoring the application of innovations, in order to govern and improve the performance of companies and destinations. The study aims to analyze and define the innovation in the tourism sector. The research actions have concerned, on the one hand, some in-depth interviews with experts, identifying innovation in terms of process and product, digitalization, sustainability policies and, on the other hand, to evaluate the interaction between these factors, in terms of substitutability and complementarity in management scenarios, in order to identify which one is essential to be competitive in the global scenario. Fuzzy measures and Choquet integral were used to elicit Experts’ preferences. This method allows not only to evaluate the relative importance of each pillar, but also and more interestingly, the level of interaction, ranging from complementarity to substitutability, between pairs of factors. The results of the survey are the following: in terms of Shapley values, Experts assert that Innovation is the most important factor (32.32), followed by digitalization (31.86), Network (20.57) and Sustainability (15.25). In terms of Interaction indices, given the low degree of consensus among experts, the interaction between couples of criteria on average could be ignored; however, it is worth to note that the factors innovations and digitalization are those in which experts express the highest degree of interaction. However for some of them, these factors have a moderate level of complementarity (with a pick of 57.14), and others consider them moderately substitutes (with a pick of -39.58). Another example, although outlier is the interaction between network and digitalization, in which an expert consider them markedly substitutes (-77.08).

Keywords: innovation, business model, tourism, fuzzy

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2 A Piebald Cladistic Portray of Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Haplogroups in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhatti, M. Aslamkhan, Sana Abbas, Marcella Attimonelli, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Erica Martinha Silva de Souza,

Abstract:

Despite being situated at the crossroad of Asia, Pakistan has gained crucial importance because of its pivotal role in subsequent migratory events. To highlight the genetic footprints and to contribute an enigmatic picture of the relative population expansion pattern among four major Pashtun tribes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa viz., Bangash, Khattak, Mahsuds and Orakzai, the complete mitochondrial control region of 100 Pashtun were analyzed. All Pashtun tribes studied here revealed high genetic diversity; that was comparable to the other Central Asian, Southeast Asian and European populations. The configuration of genetic variation and heterogeneity further unveiled through Multidimensional Scaling, Principal Component Analysis, and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that the Pashtun is a composite mosaic of West Eurasian ancestry of numerous geographic origin. They received substantial gene flow during different invasions and have a high element of the Western provenance. The most common haplogroups reported in this study are: South Asian haplogroup M (28%) and R (8%); whereas, West Asians haplogroups are present, albeit in high frequencies (67%) and widespread over all; HV (15%), U (17%), H (9%), J (8%), K (8%), W (4%), N (3%) and T (3%). Herein we linked the unexplored genetic connection between Ashkenazi Jews and Pashtun. The presence of specific haplotypes J1b (4%) and K1a1b1a (5%) point to a genetic connection of Jewish conglomeration with Khattak tribe. This was a result of an ancient genetic influx in the early Neolithic period that led to the formation of a diverse genetic substratum in present day Pashtun.

Keywords: mtDNA haplogroups, control region, Pakistan, KPK, ethnicity

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1 Improving School Design through Diverse Stakeholder Participation in the Programming Phase

Authors: Doris C. C. K. Kowaltowski, Marcella S. Deliberador

Abstract:

The architectural design process, in general, is becoming more complex, as new technical, social, environmental, and economical requirements are imposed. For school buildings, this scenario is also valid. The quality of a school building depends on known design criteria and professional knowledge, as well as feedback from building performance assessments. To attain high-performance school buildings, a design process should add a multidisciplinary team, through an integrated process, to ensure that the various specialists contribute at an early stage to design solutions. The participation of stakeholders is of special importance at the programming phase when the search for the most appropriate design solutions is underway. The composition of a multidisciplinary team should comprise specialists in education, design professionals, and consultants in various fields such as environmental comfort and psychology, sustainability, safety and security, as well as administrators, public officials and neighbourhood representatives. Users, or potential users (teachers, parents, students, school officials, and staff), should be involved. User expectations must be guided, however, toward a proper understanding of a response of design to needs to avoid disappointment. In this context, appropriate tools should be introduced to organize such diverse participants and ensure a rich and focused response to needs and a productive outcome of programming sessions. In this paper, different stakeholder in a school design process are discussed in relation to their specific contributions and a tool in the form of a card game is described to structure the design debates and ensure a comprehensive decision-making process. The game is based on design patterns for school architecture as found in the literature and is adapted to a specific reality: State-run public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. In this State, school buildings are managed by a foundation called Fundação para o Desenvolvimento da Educação (FDE). FDE supervises new designs and is responsible for the maintenance of ~ 5000 schools. The design process of this context was characterised with a recommendation to improve the programming phase. Card games can create a common environment, to which all participants can relate and, therefore, can contribute to briefing debates on an equal footing. The cards of the game described here represent essential school design themes as found in the literature. The tool was tested with stakeholder groups and with architecture students. In both situations, the game proved to be an efficient tool to stimulate school design discussions and to aid in the elaboration of a rich, focused and thoughtful architectural program for a given demand. The game organizes the debates and all participants are shown to spontaneously contribute each in his own field of expertise to the decision-making process. Although the game was specifically based on a local school design process it shows potential for other contexts because the content is based on known facts, needs and concepts of school design, which are global. A structured briefing phase with diverse stakeholder participation can enrich the design process and consequently improve the quality of school buildings.

Keywords: architectural program, design process, school building design, stakeholder

Procedia PDF Downloads 336