Commenced in January 2007
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Search results for: W. S. Thulasitha

2 Transcriptional Evidence for the Involvement of MyD88 in Flagellin Recognition: Genomic Identification of Rock Bream MyD88 and Comparative Analysis

Authors: N. Umasuthan, S. D. N. K. Bathige, W. S. Thulasitha, I. Whang, J. Lee


The MyD88 is an evolutionarily conserved host-expressed adaptor protein that is essential for proper TLR/ IL1R immune-response signaling. A previously identified complete cDNA (1626 bp) of OfMyD88 comprised an ORF of 867 bp encoding a protein of 288 amino acids (32.9 kDa). The gDNA (3761 bp) of OfMyD88 revealed a quinquepartite genome organization composed of 5 exons (with the sizes of 310, 132, 178, 92 and 155 bp) separated by 4 introns. All the introns displayed splice signals consistent with the consensus GT/AG rule. A bipartite domain structure with two domains namely death domain (24-103) coded by 1st exon, and TIR domain (151-288) coded by last 3 exons were identified through in silico analysis. Moreover, homology modeling of these two domains revealed a similar quaternary folding nature between human and rock bream homologs. A comprehensive comparison of vertebrate MyD88 genes showed that they possess a 5-exonic structure. In this structure, the last three exons were strongly conserved, and this suggests that a rigid structure has been maintained during vertebrate evolution. A cluster of TATA box-like sequences were found 0.25 kb upstream of cDNA starting position. In addition, putative 5'-flanking region of OfMyD88 was predicted to have TFBS implicated with TLR signaling, including copies of NFB1, APRF/ STAT3, Sp1, IRF1 and 2 and Stat1/2. Using qPCR technique, a ubiquitous mRNA expression was detected in liver and blood. Furthermore, a significantly up-regulated transcriptional expression of OfMyD88 was detected in head kidney (12-24 h; >2-fold), spleen (6 h; 1.5-fold), liver (3 h; 1.9-fold) and intestine (24 h; ~2-fold) post-Fla challenge. These data suggest a crucial role for MyD88 in antibacterial immunity of teleosts.

Keywords: MyD88, innate immunity, flagellin, genomic analysis

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1 A Galectin from Rock Bream Oplegnathus fasciatus: Molecular Characterization and Immunological Properties

Authors: W. S. Thulasitha, N. Umasuthan, G. I. Godahewa, Jehee Lee


In fish, innate immune defense is the first immune response against microbial pathogens which consists of several antimicrobial components. Galectins are one of the carbohydrate binding lectins that have the ability to identify pathogen by recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns. Galectins play a vital role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus is one of the most important cultured species in Korea and Japan. Considering the losses due to microbial pathogens, present study was carried out to understand the molecular and functional characteristics of a galectin in normal and pathogenic conditions, which could help to establish an understanding about immunological components of rock bream. Complete cDNA of rock bream galectin like protein B (rbGal like B) was identified from the cDNA library, and the in silico analysis was carried out using bioinformatic tools. Genomic structure was derived from the BAC library by sequencing a specific clone and using Spidey. Full length of rbGal like B (contig14775) cDNA containing 517 nucleotides was identified from the cDNA library which comprised of 435 bp in the open reading frame encoding a deduced protein composed of 145 amino acids. The molecular mass of putative protein was predicted as 16.14 kDa with an isoelectric point of 8.55. A characteristic conserved galactose binding domain was located from 12 to 145 amino acids. Genomic structure of rbGal like B consisted of 4 exons and 3 introns. Moreover, pairwise alignment showed that rock bream rbGal like B shares highest similarity (95.9 %) and identity (91 %) with Takifugu rubripes galectin related protein B like and lowest similarity (55.5 %) and identity (32.4 %) with Homo sapiens. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that the galectin related protein B was conserved among vertebrates. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that rbGal like B protein clustered together with other fish homologs in fish clade. It showed closer evolutionary link with Takifugu rubripes. Tissue distribution and expression patterns of rbGal like B upon immune challenges were performed using qRT-PCR assays. Among all tested tissues, level of rbGal like B expression was significantly high in gill tissue followed by kidney, intestine, heart and spleen. Upon immune challenges, it showed an up-regulated pattern of expression with Edwardsiella tarda, rock bream irido virus and poly I:C up to 6 h post injection and up to 24 h with LPS. However, In the presence of Streptococcus iniae rbGal like B showed an up and down pattern of expression with the peak at 6 - 12 h. Results from the present study revealed the phylogenetic position and role of rbGal like B in response to microbial infection in rock bream.

Keywords: galectin like protein B, immune response, Oplegnathus fasciatus, molecular characterization

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