Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Teodoro Espinosa-Solares

5 Water Detection in Aerial Images Using Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Caio Marcelo Nunes, Anderson da Silva Soares, Gustavo Teodoro Laureano, Clarimar Jose Coelho

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology to pixel recognition in aerial images using fuzzy $c$-means algorithm. This algorithm is a alternative to recognize areas considering uncertainties and inaccuracies. Traditional clustering technics are used in recognizing of multispectral images of earth's surface. This technics recognize well-defined borders that can be easily discretized. However, in the real world there are many areas with uncertainties and inaccuracies which can be mapped by clustering algorithms that use fuzzy sets. The methodology presents in this work is applied to multispectral images obtained from Landsat-5/TM satellite. The pixels are joined using the $c$-means algorithm. After, a classification process identify the types of surface according the patterns obtained from spectral response of image surface. The classes considered are, exposed soil, moist soil, vegetation, turbid water and clean water. The results obtained shows that the fuzzy clustering identify the real type of the earth's surface.

Keywords: aerial images, fuzzy clustering, image processing, pattern recognition

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4 Effect of the Magnetite Nanoparticles Concentration on Biogas and Methane Production from Chicken Litter

Authors: Guadalupe Stefanny Aguilar-Moreno, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Mendez, Teodoro Espinosa-Solares

Abstract:

In the agricultural sector, one of the main emitters of greenhouse gases is manure management, which has been increased considerably in recent years. Biogas is an energy source that can be produced from different organic materials through anaerobic digestion (AD); however, production efficiency is still low. Several techniques have been studied to increase its performance, such as co-digestion, the variation of digestion conditions, and nanomaterials used. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) concentration, synthesized by co-precipitation, on the biogas and methane production in AD using chicken litter as a substrate. Synthesis of NPs was performed according to the co-precipitation method, for which a fractional factorial experimental design 25⁻² with two replications was used. The study factors were concentrations (precursors and passivating), time of sonication and dissolution temperatures, and the response variables were size, hydrodynamic diameter (HD) and zeta potential. Subsequently, the treatment that presented the smallest NPs was chosen for their use on AD. The AD was established in serological bottles with a working volume of 250 mL, incubated at 36 ± 1 °C for 80 days. The treatments consisted of the addition of different concentrations of NPs in the microcosms: chicken litter only (control), 20 mg∙L⁻¹ of NPs + chicken litter, 40 mg∙L⁻¹ of NPs + chicken litter and 60 mg∙L⁻¹ of NPs + chicken litter, all by triplicate. Methane and biogas production were evaluated daily. The smallest HD (49.5 nm) and the most stable NPs (21.22 mV) were obtained with the highest passivating concentration and the lower precursors dissolution temperature, which were the only factors that had a significant effect on the HD. In the transmission electron microscopy performed to these NPs, an average size of 4.2 ± 0.73 nm was observed. The highest biogas and methane production was obtained with the treatment that had 20 mg∙L⁻¹ of NPs, being 29.5 and 73.9%, respectively, higher than the control, while the treatment with the highest concentration of NPs was not statistically different from the control. From the above, it can be concluded that the magnetite NPs promote the biogas and methane production in AD; however, high concentrations may cause inhibitory effects among methanogenic microorganisms.

Keywords: agricultural sector, anaerobic digestion, nanotechnology, waste management

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3 Basil Plants Attract and Benefit Generalist Lacewing Predator Ceraeochrysa cubana Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) by Providing Nutritional Resources

Authors: Michela C. Batista Matos, Madelaine Venzon, Elem F. Martins, Erickson C. Freitas, Adenir V. Teodoro, Maira C. M. Fonseca, Angelo Pallini

Abstract:

Aromatic plant species are capable of producing and releasing volatile organic compounds spontaneously, which can repel or attract beneficial insects such as generalist predators of herbivores. Attractive plants could be used as crop companion plants to promote biological control of pests. In order to select such plants for future use in horticulture fields, we assessed the attractiveness of the aromatic plants Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Mentha piperita L. (peppermint), Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) and Cordia verbenacea DC (black sage) to adults of the generalist lacewing predator Ceraeochrysa cubana Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). This predator is commonly found in agroecosystems in Brazil and it feeds on aphids, mites, small caterpillars, insect eggs and scales. We further tested the effect of these plant species on the survival, development and oviposition of C. cubana. Finally, we evaluated the survival of larvae and adults of C. cubana when only flowers of basil were offered. Females of C. cubana were attracted to basil but not to the remaining aromatic plants. Larvae survival was higher when individuals had access only to basil leaf than when they had access to peppermint, lemon balm, black sage or water. Adult survival on leaf treatments and on water was no longer than three days. Flowers of basil enhanced predator larvae survival, yet they did not reach adulthood. Adults fed on basil flowers lived longer compared with water, but they did not reproduce. Basil is a promising aromatic plant species to be considered for conservation biological control programs. Besides being attractive to adults of the generalist predator, it benefits larvae and adults by providing nutritional resources when prey or other resources are absent. Financial support: CNPq, FAPEMIG and CAPES (Brazil).

Keywords: basil, chrysopidae, conservation biological control, companion plants

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2 Effects of Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fiber

Authors: Paulo Teodoro De Luna Carada, Toru Fujii, Kazuya Okubo

Abstract:

Natural fibers have wide variety of uses (e.g., rope, paper, and building materials). One specific application of it is in the field of composite materials (i.e., green composites). Huge amount of research are being done in this field due to rising concerns in the harmful effects of synthetic materials to the environment. There are several natural fibers used in this field, one of which can be extracted from a plant called kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf fiber is regarded as a good alternative because the plant is easy to grow and the fiber is easy to extract. Additionally, it has good properties. Treatments, which are classified as mechanical or chemical in nature, can be done in order to improve the properties of the fiber. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of heat treatment in kenaf fiber. It specifically aims to observe the effect in the tensile strength and modulus of the fiber. Kenaf fiber bundles with an average diameter of at most 100μm was used for this purpose. Heat treatment was done using a constant temperature oven with the following heating temperatures: (1) 160̊C, (2) 180̊C, and (3) 200̊C for a duration of one hour. As a basis for comparison, tensile test was first done to kenaf fibers without any heat treatment. For every heating temperature, three groups of samples were prepared. Two groups of which were for doing tensile test (one group was tested right after heat treatment while the remaining group was kept inside a closed container with relative humidity of at least 95% for two days). The third group was used to observe how much moisture the treated fiber will absorb when it is enclosed in a high moisture environment for two days. The results showed that kenaf fiber can retain its tensile strength when heated up to a temperature of 160̊C. However, when heated at a temperature of about 180̊C or higher, the tensile strength decreases significantly. The same behavior was observed for the tensile modulus of the fiber. Additionally, the fibers which were stored for two days absorbed nearly the same amount of moisture (about 20% of the dried weight) regardless of the heating temperature. Heat treatment might have damaged the fiber in some way. Additional test was done in order to see if the damage due to heat treatment is attributed to changes in the viscoelastic property of the fiber. The findings showed that kenaf fibers can be heated for at most 160̊C to attain good tensile strength and modulus. Additionally, heating the fiber at high temperature (>180̊C) causes changes in its viscoelastic property. The results of this study is significant for processes which requires heat treatment not only in kenaf fiber but might also be helpful for natural fibers in general.

Keywords: heat treatment, kenaf fiber, natural fiber, mechanical properties

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1 Enhancement of Mass Transport and Separations of Species in a Electroosmotic Flow by Distinct Oscillatory Signals

Authors: Carlos Teodoro, Oscar Bautista

Abstract:

In this work, we analyze theoretically the mass transport in a time-periodic electroosmotic flow through a parallel flat plate microchannel under different periodic functions of the applied external electric field. The microchannel connects two reservoirs having different constant concentrations of an electro-neutral solute, and the zeta potential of the microchannel walls are assumed to be uniform. The governing equations that allow determining the mass transport in the microchannel are given by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the modified Navier-Stokes equations, where the Debye-Hückel approximation is considered (the zeta potential is less than 25 mV), and the species conservation. These equations are nondimensionalized and four dimensionless parameters appear which control the mass transport phenomenon. In this sense, these parameters are an angular Reynolds, the Schmidt and the Péclet numbers, and an electrokinetic parameter representing the ratio of the half-height of the microchannel to the Debye length. To solve the mathematical model, first, the electric potential is determined from the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, which allows determining the electric force for various periodic functions of the external electric field expressed as Fourier series. In particular, three different excitation wave forms of the external electric field are assumed, a) sawteeth, b) step, and c) a periodic irregular functions. The periodic electric forces are substituted in the modified Navier-Stokes equations, and the hydrodynamic field is derived for each case of the electric force. From the obtained velocity fields, the species conservation equation is solved and the concentration fields are found. Numerical calculations were done by considering several binary systems where two dilute species are transported in the presence of a carrier. It is observed that there are different angular frequencies of the imposed external electric signal where the total mass transport of each species is the same, independently of the molecular diffusion coefficient. These frequencies are called crossover frequencies and are obtained graphically at the intersection when the total mass transport is plotted against the imposed frequency. The crossover frequencies are different depending on the Schmidt number, the electrokinetic parameter, the angular Reynolds number, and on the type of signal of the external electric field. It is demonstrated that the mass transport through the microchannel is strongly dependent on the modulation frequency of the applied particular alternating electric field. Possible extensions of the analysis to more complicated pulsation profiles are also outlined.

Keywords: electroosmotic flow, mass transport, oscillatory flow, species separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 103