Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3359

Search results for: agricultural sector

3359 Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.

Keywords: youth employment, the agricultural sector, unemployment rate, youth migration, agricultural education

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
3358 Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, J. O. Soetan

Abstract:

The study determined Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 respondents with a well-structured questionnaire. The result of the findings showed that there is need for private sector participation in extension services (=4.313), private extension services has facilities than public extension services (=4.97). Private sector participated in extension services by: giving of loans and credits to farmers (=4.50). Major constraints identified by the respondents were: Transportation problem (=2.88) and lack of fund (=2.77) A significant relationship (P<0.05) exists between factors affecting public extension services(r = 0.641, p = 0.00) and private sector participation in extension services. It was concluded from the study that there is need for private sector to participate in extension service in order to improve productivity of the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3357 Assessment of Investment Programs in Agriculture in Georgia

Authors: M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper presents the analysis of the current situation of agricultural development in Georgia. The investment environment that supports development of the agricultural sector is evaluated and the key priorities are identified. The analysis of the projects already implemented with state and EU support, as well as those that are being currently implemented is presented. The policy and the programs supporting development of agricultural sector are analyzed. Based on an analysis of the evaluations of experts and the primary accounting documents, the outcomes of investment programs, their advantages and disadvantages, are studied. Through identifying investment programs in the agricultural sector of Georgia, corresponding conclusions are made, based on which some recommendations are developed.

Keywords: agriculture, investments, investment programs, projects

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3356 Agriculture and Global Economy vis-à-vis the Climate Change

Authors: Assaad Ghazouani, Ati Abdessatar

Abstract:

In the world, agriculture maintains a social and economic importance in the national economy. Its importance is distinguished by its ripple effects not only downstream but also upstream vis-à-vis the non-agricultural sector. However, the situation is relatively fragile because of weather conditions. In this work, we propose a model to highlight the impacts of climate change (CC) on economic growth in the world where agriculture is considered as a strategic sector. The CC is supposed to directly and indirectly affect economic growth by reducing the performance of the agricultural sector. The model is tested for Tunisia. The results validate the hypothesis that the potential economic damage of the CC is important. Indeed, an increase in CO2 concentration (temperatures and disruption of rainfall patterns) will have an impact on global economic growth particularly by reducing the performance of the agricultural sector. Analysis from a vector error correction model also highlights the magnitude of climate impact on the performance of the agricultural sector and its repercussions on economic growth

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, Economic Growth, World, VECM, Cointegration.

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
3355 Consumer Market of Agricultural Products and Agricultural Policy in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, M. Kobalava, T. Lazariashvili, M. Saghareishvili

Abstract:

The article discusses the consumer market of agricultural products and agricultural policy in Georgia. It is noted that development of the strategic areas of the agricultural sector needs a special support. These strategic areas should create the country's major export potential. It is important to develop strategies to access to the international markets, form extensive marketing network etc., which will become the basis for the promotion and revenue growth of the country. The Georgian agricultural sector, with the right state policy and support, can achieve success and gain access to the world market with competitive agricultural products. The paper discusses the current condition of agriculture, export and import of agricultural products and agricultural policy in Georgia. The conducted research concludes the information that there is an increasing demand on the green goods in the world market. Natural and climatic conditions of Georgia give a serious possibility of implementing it. The research presents an agricultural development strategy in Georgia and the findings and based on them recommendations are proposed.

Keywords: agriculture, export-import of agricultural products, agricultural cooperative society, agricultural policy, agricultural insurance

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
3354 Integrated Farming Barns as a Strategy for National Food Security

Authors: Ilma Ulfatul Janah, Ibnu Rizky Briwantara, Muhammad Afif

Abstract:

The agricultural sector is one of the sectors that contribute to national development. The benefit of the agricultural sector can be felt directly by the majority of Indonesian people. Indonesia is one of the agricultural countries and most of the people working in the agricultural sector. Hence, the agricultural sector’s become the second sector which has contributed greatly to the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) after the manufacture sector. Based on the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) from 2015 to 2019, one of the targets to be achieved by the Indonesian government is rice’s self-sufficient. Rice is the main food commodities which as most people in Indonesia, and it is making Indonesian government attempt self-sufficient in rice. Indonesia as an agricultural country becomes one of the countries that have a lower percentage of food security than other ASEAN countries. Rice self-sufficiency can be created through agricultural productivity and the availability of a market for the output. There are some problems still to be faced by the farmers such as farmer exchange rate is low. The low exchange rate of farmers showed that the level of the welfare’s Indonesian farmers is still low. The aims of this paper are to resolve problems related to food security and improve the welfare of the national rice farmers. The method by using materials obtained from the analysis of secondary data with the descriptive approach and conceptual framework. Integrated Farmers barn raising rice production is integrated and managed by the government coupled with the implementation of technology in the form of systems connected and accessible to farmers, namely 'SIBUNGTAN'.

Keywords: agriculture, self-sufficiency, technology, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3353 The Effect of Resource Misallocation on the Productivity of Rice Farming in Thailand: Evidence from Household-Level Data

Authors: Siwapong Dheera-Aumpon

Abstract:

Resource misallocation is known to be prevalent in many countries. Such misallocation in the manufacturing sector is large and has a considerable negative effect on aggregate productivity. Thailand is one of the countries having large resource misallocation in the manufacturing sector. Resource misallocation is also known to be widespread in the agricultural sector. It is, therefore, likely that resource misallocation exists in the agricultural sector of Thailand as well. This study aims to evaluate the extent of resource misallocation in Thai rice farming. Using household-level data from 2013 Thai Agricultural Census, this study calculates farm total factor productivity (TFP) controlling for land quality and rain. Similar to the case of Malawi, marginal products of land and capital are found to be related to farm TFP implying large resource misallocation. The output gain from a reallocation of resources to their best use is 67 percent. The gain from reallocation is highest for farms in the southern region and followed by the northeastern region.

Keywords: agriculture, misallocation, productivity, rice

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3352 The Continuing Saga of Poverty Reduction and Food Security in the Philippines

Authors: Shienna Marie Esteban

Abstract:

The economic growth experience of the Philippines is one of the fastest in Asia. However, the said growth has not yet trickled down to every Filipino. This is evident to agricultural-dependent population. Moreover, the contribution of the agriculture sector to GDP has been dwindling while large number of labor force is still dependent on a relatively small share of GDP. As a result, poverty incidence worsened among rural poor causing hunger and malnutrition. Therefore, the existing agricultural policies in the Philippines are pushing to achieve greater food production and productivity to alleviate poverty and food insecurity. Through a review of related literature and collection and analysis of secondary data from DA, DBM, BAS - CountrySTAT, PSA, NSCB, PIDS, IRRI, UN-FAO, IFPRI, and World Bank among others, the study revealed that Philippines is still far from its goals of poverty reduction and food security. In addition, the agricultural sector is underperforming. The productivity growth of the sector comes out mediocre. The common observation is that weakness is attributed to the failures of policy and institutional environments of the agriculture sector. The policy environment failed to create a structure appropriate for the rapid growth of the sector due to institutional and governance weaknesses. A recommendation is to go through institutional and policy reforms through legislative or executive mandates should take form to improve the implementation and enforcement of existing policies.

Keywords: agriculture, food security, policy, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3351 Problems Faced by the Agricultural Sector and Agribusiness Development Strategy in Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, G. Erkomaishvili, M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The importance of agribusiness development is proved in accordance with the trends in the agricultural sector of Georgia. Agribusiness environment and the consequences of the agricultural reforms are evaluated. The factors hindering the development of agribusiness are revealed and the ways for overcoming these problems are suggested. SWOT analysis is done in order to identify the needs of agribusiness. The needs of agribusiness development in Georgia are evaluated by priorities: prevention of diseases and reduction of the harm caused by these diseases, accessibility of long-term agricultural loans with low interest rates, improving qualification of farmers, the level of education and usage of modern technologies, changes in legislation, accessibility to high quality agricultural machinery, and the development of infrastructure. Based on the outcomes of the research, agribusiness development strategies in Georgia are suggested and appropriate priorities of economic policy are determined. Conclusions are made and based on these conclusions, some recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: agribusiness development, agribusiness strategy, agribusiness in Georgia

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
3350 Indirect Environmental Benefits from Cloud Computing Information and Communications Technology Integration in Rural Agricultural Communities

Authors: Jeana Cadby, Kae Miyazawa

Abstract:

With rapidly expanding worldwide adoption of mobile technologies, Information and Communication Technology (ITC) is a major energy user and a contributor to global carbon emissions, due to infrastructure and operational energy consumption. The agricultural sector is also significantly responsible for contributing to global carbon emissions. However, ICT cloud computing using mobile technology can directly reduce environmental impacts in the agricultural sector through applications and mobile connectivity, such as precision fertilizer and pesticide applications, or access to weather data, for example. While direct impacts are easily calculated, indirect environmental impacts from ICT cloud computing usage have not been thoroughly investigated. For example, while women may be more poorly equipped for adaptation to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices due to resource constraints, this research concludes that indirect environmental benefits can be achieved by improving rural access to mobile technology for women. Women in advanced roles and secure land tenure are more likely to invest in long-term agricultural conservation strategies, which protect against environmental degradation. This study examines how ICT using mobile technology advances the role of women in rural agricultural systems and indirectly reduces environmental impacts from agricultural production, through literature examination from secondary sources. Increasing access for women to ICT mobile technology provides indirect environmental and social benefits in the rural agricultural sector.

Keywords: cloud computing, environmental benefits, mobile technology, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
3349 Modern Conditions and Tendencies of Development of Agro-Industrial Complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: А. А. Yessekeyeva, А. S. Moldagaliyeva, G. K. Shulanbekova

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to describe challenges associated with enhancement of government control over agro industrial sector in order to maintain food security. The need for government control over agricultural industry stems from the fact that the State is accountable to its citizens for establishing their standard living conditions, food and other agricultural product supplies. Agro industrial sector is in a special position within the market place preventing its full and equal participation in an interdisciplinary competition. Low-profit agricultural industry that is dependent on the natural and strongly marked seasonal and cyclical production factors is more underdeveloped in terms of technology and relatively static industry as compared to the manufacturing industry. Therefore, agricultural industry development directly affects food security of the country.

Keywords: food security, agro-industry, Kazakhstan, food security

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3348 Key Performance Indicators of Cold Supply Chain Practices in the Agriculture Sector: An Empirical Study on Egyptian Export Companies

Authors: Ahmed Barakat, Nourhan A. Saad, Mahmoud Hammad

Abstract:

Tracking and monitoring agricultural products, cold chain activities, and transportation in real-time can effectively ensure both the quality and safety of agricultural products, as well as reduce overall logistics costs. Effective supply chain practices are one of the main requirements for enhancing agricultural business in Egypt. Cold chain is among the best practices for the storage and transportation of perishable goods and has potential within the agricultural sector in Egypt. This practice has the scope of reducing the wastage of food and increasing the profitability with a reduction in costs. Even though it has several implementation challenges for the farmers, traders, and people involved in the entire supply chain, it has highlighted better benefits for all and for the export of goods for the economic progression for Egypt. The aim of this paper is to explore cold supply chain practices for the agriculture sector in Egypt, to enhance the export performance of fresh goods. In this context, this study attempts to explore those aspects of the performance of cold supply chain practices that can enhance the functioning of the agriculture sector in Egypt from the perspective of export companies (traders) and farmers. Based on the empirical results obtained by data collection from the farmers and traders, the study argues that there is a significant association between cold supply chain practices and enhancement of the agriculture value chain. The paper thus highlights the contribution of the study with final conclusions and limitations with scope for future research.

Keywords: agriculture sector, cold chain management, export companies, non-traded goods, supply chain management

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3347 Simulation Model for Evaluating the Impact of Adaptive E-Learning in the Agricultural Sector

Authors: Maria Nabakooza

Abstract:

Efficient agricultural production is very significant in attaining food sufficiency and security in the world. Many methods are employed by the farmers while attending to their gardens, from manual to mechanized, with Farmers range from subsistence to commercial depending on the motive. This creates a lacuna in the modes of operation in this field as different farmers will take different approaches. This has led to many e-Learning courses being introduced to address this gap. Many e-learning systems use advanced network technologies like Web services, grid computing to promote learning at any time and any place. Many of the existing systems have not inculcated the applicability of the modules in them, the tools to be used and further access whether they are the right tools for the right job. A thorough investigation into the applicability of adaptive eLearning in the agricultural sector has not been taken into account; enabling the assumption that eLearning is the right tool for boosting productivity in this sector. This study comes in to provide an insight and thorough analysis as to whether adaptive eLearning is the right tool for boosting agricultural productivity. The Simulation will adopt a system dynamics modeling approach as a way of examining causality and effect relationship. This study will provide teachers with an insight into which tools they should adopt in designing, and provide students the opportunities to achieve an orderly learning experience through adaptive navigating e-learning services.

Keywords: agriculture, adaptive, e-learning, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
3346 Comparative Analysis of Change in Vegetation in Four Districts of Punjab through Satellite Imagery, Land Use Statistics and Machine Learning

Authors: Mirza Waseem Abbas, Syed Danish Raza

Abstract:

For many countries agriculture is still the major force driving the economy and a critically important socioeconomic sector, despite exceptional industrial development across the globe. In countries like Pakistan, this sector is considered the backbone of the economy, and most of the economic decision making revolves around agricultural outputs and data. Timely and accurate facts and figures about this vital sector hold immense significance and have serious implications for the long-term development of the economy. Therefore, any significant improvements in the statistics and other forms of data regarding agriculture sector are considered important by all policymakers. This is especially true for decision making for the betterment of crops and the agriculture sector in general. Provincial and federal agricultural departments collect data for all cash and non-cash crops and the sector, in general, every year. Traditional data collection for such a large sector i.e. agriculture, being time-consuming, prone to human error and labor-intensive, is slowly but gradually being replaced by remote sensing techniques. For this study, remotely sensed data were used for change detection (machine learning, supervised & unsupervised classification) to assess the increase or decrease in area under agriculture over the last fifteen years due to urbanization. Detailed Landsat Images for the selected agricultural districts were acquired for the year 2000 and compared to images of the same area acquired for the year 2016. Observed differences validated through detailed analysis of the areas show that there was a considerable decrease in vegetation during the last fifteen years in four major agricultural districts of the Punjab province due to urbanization (housing societies).

Keywords: change detection, area estimation, machine learning, urbanization, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3345 Trends of Agri-Food Production and Export Stimulating Economic Policy in Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, G. Erkomaishvili, M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper evaluates the natural and resource potential of agriculture, a traditional sector for Georgia. It is concluded that despite favorable conditions the rate of development of the sector is lower compared to other sectors of the economy, self-sufficiency rate for locally produced agricultural products is low; on average, import of food is 4 times higher compared to export, and the country faces considerable challenges in this regard. Tendencies of self-sufficiency rates are studied, and it is concluded that the indicators of export and import of agro-food products increase in accordance with the tendency of increasing production in agricultural sector. The paper substantiates stimulating impact of international trade on agricultural development. Two alternative strategies are assessed in this respect: 1) export stimulation, and 2) import replacement strategies. It is concluded that significant tendencies are observed in agro-food sector of Georgia; in particular, productivity is low; import volume significantly exceeds the export volume. It is considered that the growth of export will allow Georgia to overcome limited opportunities of local market and encourage increasing competitiveness. Various tools of economic policy are suggested for achieving these goals; in particular to subsidize export, optimize trade barriers, manage exchange rates effectively, offer special financial services, provide insurance for export, etc.

Keywords: agro-food sector, trend of production, export stimulation, economic policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
3344 The Role of the General Budget in the Agricultural and Rural Development as an Alternative Economic outside the Hydrocarbons Sector

Authors: Kherbache Radhwane

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the nature of the strategy of agricultural and rural development, through the fiscal policy adopted by the government throughout programs included in the general budget of the state represented in the national program of agricultural and rural development. This study concluded that the general balance play an important role in the design of the strategy of agricultural and rural development despite the numerous problems clear in the result of the precedent plans of agricultural and rural development. Based on that we suggest that more importance should be accorded to the agricultural and rural field and that it should be one among economic alternatives to the collection of petroleum, as the countryside is the future.

Keywords: general balance, political economy, strategy of agricultural and rural development, economic alternatives, collection of petroleum

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
3343 A Shift in the Structure of Economy and Synergy of University: Developing Potential Through Research and Development Center of SMEs in Jember

Authors: Muhamad Nugraha

Abstract:

Economic growth always correlate positively with the magnitude of the unemployment rate. This is caused by labor which one of important variable to keep growth in the real sector of the region. Meanwhile, the economic structure in districts of Jember showed an increase of economic activity began to shift towards the industrial sector and some other economic sectors, so they have an affects to considerations for policy makers to increase economic growth in Jember as an autonomous region in East Java Province. At the fact, SMEs is among the factors driving economic growth in the region. This is shown by the high amount of SMEs. However, employment in the sector grew slightly slowed. It is caused by a lack of productivity in SMEs. Through the analysis of the transformation of economic structure theory, and the theory of Triple Helix using descriptive analytical method Location Quotient and Shift - Share, found that the results of the economic structure in Jember slowly shifting from the agricultural sector to the industrial sector, because it is dominated by trade sector, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, SMEs is the potential sector of economic growth in Jember. While to maximizing role and functions of the institution's Research and Development Center of SMEs, there are three points to be known, that are Business Landscape, Business Architecture and Value Added.

Keywords: economic growth, SMEs, labor, Research and Development Center of SMEs

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
3342 The Relationship between Value-Added and Energy Consumption in Iran’s Industry Sector

Authors: Morteza Raei Dehaghi, Mojtaba Molaahmadi, Seyed Mohammad Mirhashemi

Abstract:

This study aimed to explore the relationship between energy consumption and value-added in Iran’s industry sector during the time period 1973-2011. Annual data related to energy consumption and value added in the industry sector were used. The results of the study revealed a positive relationship between energy consumption and value-added of the industry sector. Similarly, the results showed that there is one-way causality between energy consumption and value-added in the industry sector.

Keywords: economic growth, energy consumption, granger causality test, industry sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
3341 A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge Integration in Agricultural Knowledge Management System Development

Authors: Dejen Alemu, Murray E. Jennex, Temtim Assefa

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy; however, the sector is dominated by smallholder farmers resulting in land fragmentation and suffering from low productivity. Due to these issues, much effort has been put into the transformation of the sector to bring about more sustainable rural economic development. Technological advancements have been applied for the betterment of farmers resulting in the design of tools that are potentially capable of supporting the agricultural sector; however, their use and relevance are still alien to the local rural communities. The notion of the creating, capturing and sharing of knowledge has also been repetitively raised by many international donor agencies to transform the sector, yet the most current approaches to knowledge dissemination focus on knowledge that originates from the western view of scientific rationality while overlooking the role of indigenous knowledge (IK). Therefore, in agricultural knowledge management system (KMS) development, the integration of IKS with scientific knowledge is a critical success factor. The present study aims to contribute in the discourse on how to best integrate scientific and IK in agricultural KMS development. The conceptual framework of the research is anchored in concepts drawn from the theory of situated learning in communities of practice (CoPs): knowledge brokering. Using the KMS development practices of Ethiopian agricultural transformation agency as a case area, this research employed an interpretive analysis using primary and secondary qualitative data acquired through in-depth semi-structured interviews and participatory observations. As a result, concepts are identified for understanding the integration of the two major knowledge systems (i.e., indigenous and scientific knowledge) and participation of relevant stakeholders in particular the local farmers in agricultural KMS development through the roles of extension agent as a knowledge broker including crossing boundaries, in-between position, translation and interpretation, negotiation, and networking. The research shall have a theoretical contribution in addressing the incorporation of a variety of knowledge systems in agriculture and practically to provide insight for policy makers in agriculture regarding the importance of IK integration in agricultural KMS development and support marginalized small-scale farmers.

Keywords: communities of practice, indigenous knowledge, knowledge management system development, knowledge brokering

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3340 Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Contrasting Perspectives of Actors in the Agricultural Sector

Authors: Bruce Small, Martin Espig, Alyssa Ryan

Abstract:

In the agricultural sector, the rapid expansion of herbicide resistant weeds is a major threat to the global sustainability of food and fibre production. Efforts to avoid herbicide resistance have primarily focused on new technologies and farmer education. Yet, despite decades of advice to growers from agricultural scientists and extension professionals of the need for management strategies for herbicide use, herbicide resistance continues to increase. Technological options are running out and current extension efforts to change farmer behaviour are failing to curb the problem. As part of a five-year, government funded, research programme to address herbicide resistance in New Zealand, social science theory and practice are being utilised to investigate the complexities of managing herbicide use and controlling resistance. As an initial step, we are utilising a transdisciplinary, multi-level systems approach to examine the problem definition, knowledge beliefs, attitudes and values of different important actors in the agri-business sector. In this paper, we report early project results from qualitative research examining the similarities and contrasts in the perceptions of scientists, farmer/growers, and rural professionals.

Keywords: behaviour change, herbicide resistant weeds, knowledge beliefs, systems perspective

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3339 Challenges to Effective Public Sector Management in Developing Countries: The Networking and Communication Functions of Public Sector Managers in Nigeria and Ghana

Authors: Ethelbert Chinedu Nwokorie

Abstract:

This empirical study analyzes the impact of communication and networking functions of Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector managers’ on public sector effectiveness. The focus is on which of these management functions public sector managers’ in these countries perform most, why, how and how does it affect effectiveness of public sector organizations in the two countries. This qualitative analysis was done by interviewing middle and top level managers in some selected public sector organizations in the two countries on their practical experiences. Findings reveal that ineffectiveness of public sector organizations in Ghana persists because public sector managers perform more of networking functions to promote their individual carrier success and progression in their various organizations, rather than achieving the organizations goals and objectives. In Nigeria, though majority of the interviewed public sector managers perform more communication functions than networking, they do this mostly by treating files and correspondences, instead of face-to-face communication and interaction with employees’. Hence, they hardly relate directly with their employees’ to find out how they are performing their jobs, their challenges, where they are having problems and why. The findings and recommendations of this study will help in improving effectiveness, quality and service delivery in Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector organizations and beyond.

Keywords: effectiveness, communication, employees, management, networking, organization, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3338 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, tourism sector in Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
3337 Analysing the Influence of COVID-19 on Major Agricultural Commodity Prices in South Africa

Authors: D. Mokatsanyane, J. Jansen Van Rensburg

Abstract:

This paper analyses the influence and impact of COVID-19 on major agricultural commodity prices in South Africa. According to a World Bank report, the agricultural sector in South Africa has been unable to reduce the domestic food crisis that has been occurring over the past years, hence the increased rate of poverty, which is currently at 55.5 percent as of April 2020. Despite the significance of this sector, empirical findings concluded that the agricultural sector now accounts for 1.88 percent of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP). Suggesting that the agricultural sector's contribution to the economy has diminished. Despite the low contribution to GDP, this primary sector continues to play an essential role in the economy. Over the past years, multiple factors have contributed to the soaring commodities prices, namely, climate shocks, biofuel demand, demand and supply shocks, the exchange rate, speculation in commodity derivative markets, trade restrictions, and economic growth. The COVID-19 outbursts have currently disturbed the supply and demand of staple crops. To address the disruption, the government has exempted the agricultural sector from closure and restrictions on movement. The spread of COVID-19 has caused turmoil all around the world, but mostly in developing countries. According to Statistic South Africa, South Africa's economy decreased by seven percent in 2020. Consequently, this has arguably made the agricultural sector the most affected sector since slumped economic growth negatively impacts food security, trade, farm livelihood, and greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa is sensitive to the fruitfulness of global food chains. Restrictions in trade, reinforced sanitary control systems, and border controls have influenced food availability and prices internationally. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the behavior of agricultural commodity prices pre-and during-COVID to determine the impact of volatility drivers on these crops. Historical secondary data of spot prices for the top five major commodities, namely white maize, yellow maize, wheat, soybeans, and sunflower seeds, are analysed from 01 January 2017 to 1 September 2021. The timeframe was chosen to capture price fluctuations between pre-COVID-19 (01 January 2017 to 23 March 2020) and during-COVID-19 (24 March 2020 to 01 September 2021). The Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) statistical model will be used to measure the influence of price fluctuations. The results reveal that the commodity market has been experiencing volatility at different points. Extremely high volatility is represented during the first quarter of 2020. During this period, there was high uncertainty, and grain prices were very volatile. Despite the influence of COVID-19 on agricultural prices, the demand for these commodities is still existing and decent. During COVID-19, analysis indicates that prices were low and less volatile during the pandemic. The prices and returns of these commodities were low during COVID-19 because of the government's actions to respond to the virus's spread, which collapsed the market demand for food commodities.

Keywords: commodities market, commodity prices, generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH), Price volatility, SAFEX

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3336 Engaging African Youth in Agribusiness through ICT

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 per cent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youths and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. The youth is vibrant, energetic, creative, and innovative and has the potential to play a significant role sustainable agriculture. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths in agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information. ICT has become a key factor in economic development in most developing countries. The exchange of information is essential for stakeholders in the agricultural sector, as it is the tool to establish, develop and manage efforts to improve performance, productivity and economic competitiveness in local and international markets. In this regard, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is a powerful tool, fast and innovative to facilitate the exchange of information among all stakeholders in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Africa, agriculture, ICT, tool, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
3335 Agro-Insurance and Farming Development Opportunities in Georgia

Authors: Tamar Lazariashvili

Abstract:

Introduction: The agro-insurance has great importance for agricultural development in the country. In the article, the insurance market of the Georgian agricultural sector has been studied, the level of interest of farmers with insurance products and the trend of demand for those products are revealed; also, the importance of insurance is substantiated. Methodology: The following research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical (selection, grouping, observation, trend) and qualitative research (in-depth interview with farmers). They claim that the main reason for aggravation is the low level of trust, less awareness about the conditions of the insurance contract. In order to eradicate distrust towards agro-insurance, it is recommended to increase awareness of insured farmers in terms of an insurance agreement. In the case of disputable issues between insurance companies and the customers (farmers), it is advisable to enact the Mediation Service, which will be able to protect the rights of insured farmers. Main Findings: Insurance companies prefer to deal with large farmers, the number of them is very small in Georgia as the credit market. The government interference in this sector is also a very cautious topic. However, the government can strengthen the awareness of farmers about the characteristics and advantages of the insurance system in order to increase the number of insured and reduce insurance premiums for farmers. Conclusion: Enactment of agro-insurance will increase the interest and confidence of financial institutions in the farming sector, financial resources will be accessible to the farmers that will facilitate the stable development of the sector in the country. The size of the agro-insurance market in the country should be increased, and the new territories should be covered. The State must have an obligation to ensure the risk of farmers and subsidize insurance companies. Based on the analysis of the insurance market, the conclusions on agro-insurance issues and the relevant recommendations are proposed.

Keywords: Agro-insurance, agricultural product, Agro-market, farming

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3334 Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon, Olabanji Ewetan

Abstract:

Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.

Keywords: modern agriculture, industrialization, structural change model, unbalanced growth

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3333 Analysis of Marketing: Frozen Fruit and Vegetables Sector in Turkey

Authors: Pınar Aydın, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

Today, with the change of people's consumption habits, the importance of frozen fruit and vegetable sector has been increased. In Turkey, sector is based on export. It is growing very fast and external demand is constantly increasing. About 80% of frozen fruits and vegetables produced in Turkey are being exported. More than 90% of the exports go to European Union countries. About 49% of frozen fruits and vegetables in Turkey is being exported to Germany, England and France. In the sector which the abroad demand is continuously increasing, although it has been estimated that around 25% of the average annual growth rate, the domestic consumption is very low. Although the frozen food consumption per person in Turkey is about %2 of United States, the growing rate of the sector is higher than the United States and Europe. This situation reflects that it is such a sector that has a growing demand in both domestic and foreign markets.

Keywords: frozen food, fruit and vegetable sector, exports, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3332 The Application of Lean-Kaizen in Course Plan and Delivery in Malaysian Higher Education Sector

Authors: Nur Aishah Binti Awi, Zulfiqar Khan

Abstract:

Lean-kaizen has always been applied in manufacturing sector since many years ago. What about education sector? This paper discuss on how lean-kaizen can also be applied in education sector, specifically in academic area of Malaysian’s higher education sector. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of lean kaizen in course plan and delivery. Lean-kaizen techniques have been used to identify waste in the course plan and delivery. A field study has been conducted to obtain the data. This study used both quantitative and qualitative data. The researcher had interviewed the chosen lecturers regarding to the problems of course plan and delivery that they encountered. Secondary data of students’ feedback at the end of semester also has been used to improve course plan and delivery. The result empirically shows that lean-kaizen helps to improve the course plan and delivery by reducing the wastes. Thus, this study demonstrates that lean-kaizen can also help education sector to improve their services as achieved by manufacturing sector.

Keywords: course delivery, education, Kaizen, lean

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
3331 60 GHz Multi-Sector Antenna Array with Switchable Radiation-Beams for Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: N. Ojaroudi Parchin, H. Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Y. Al-Yasir, A. M. Abdulkhaleq, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, P. S. Excell

Abstract:

A compact design of multi-sector patch antenna array for 60 GHz applications is presented and discussed in details. The proposed design combines five 1×8 linear patch antenna arrays, referred to as sectors, in a multi-sector configuration. The coaxial-fed radiation elements of the multi-sector array are designed on 0.2 mm Rogers RT5880 dielectrics. The array operates in the frequency range of 58-62 GHz and provides switchable directional/omnidirectional radiation beams with high gain and high directivity characteristics. The designed multi-sector array exhibits good performances and could be used in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks.

Keywords: mm-wave communications, multi-sector array, patch antenna, small cell networks

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3330 Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The West African Experience

Authors: Sunday Odunaiya

Abstract:

The statistics of banks in operation in this current dispensation compared to some decades ago has brought about a lot of changes on the face of the financial system. The demand of customers, technological advancement, and government policies among others has therefore generated a lot of heat for financial sector’s growth, sustenance and survival. This paper discusses mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in banking sector using West Africa as a yardstick of evaluation. It explains rigorously the conditions that warrant mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector, its effect, and how to ensure mergers and acquisitions effectiveness in the banking sector. The conceptual and empirical review of the relevant literature were done systematically while value-increasing and value-decreasing theories were used to substantiate the discourse. Findings of this paper show that mergers and acquisitions is a practical and conscious activity in Nigeria, Ghana and Ivory Coast from earliest time till date with tremendous turnaround in the financial sector. It was found out that M&A is consensually arrived at by the targets and the acquirer on a value-based account. In other words, merger and acquisition is a deliberate decision reached by the management of such bank for a ‘just cause’.

Keywords: acquisitions, merger, management, financial sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 136