Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: J. O’Donoghue

10 Efficacy of Carvacrol as an Antimicrobial Wash Treatment for Reducing Both Campylobacter jejuni and Aerobic Bacterial Counts on Chicken Skin

Authors: Sandip Shrestha, Ann M. Donoghue, Komala Arsi, Basanta R. Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Dan J. Donoghue


Campylobacter, one of the major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry. Many strategies are currently being investigated to reduce Campylobacter counts on commercial poultry during processing with limited success. This study investigated the efficacy of the generally recognized as safe compound, carvacrol (CR), a component of wild oregano oil as a wash treatment for reducing C. jejuni and aerobic bacteria on chicken skin. A total of two trials were conducted, and in each trial, a total of 75 skin samples (4cm × 4cm each) were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% CR). Skin samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni (~ 8 log10 CFU/skin). After 30 min of attachment, inoculated skin samples were dipped in the respective treatment solution for 1 min, allowed to drip dry for 2 min and processed at 0, 8, 24 h post treatment for enumeration of C. jejuni and aerobic bacterial counts (n=5/treatment/time point). The data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. All the tested doses of CR suspension consistently reduced C. jejuni counts across all time points. The 2% CR wash was the most effective treatment and reduced C. jejuni counts by ~4 log₁₀ CFU/sample (P < 0.05). Aerobic counts were reduced for the 0.5% CR dose at 0 and 24h in Trial 1 and at 0, 8 and 24h in Trial 2. The 1 and 2% CR doses consistently reduced aerobic counts in both trials up to 2 log₁₀ CFU/skin.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, carvcrol, chicken skin, postharvest

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9 On-Farm Evaluation of Fast and Slow Growing Genotypes for Organic and Pasture Poultry Production Systems

Authors: Komala Arsi, Terrel Spencer, Casey M. Owens, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue


Organic poultry production is becoming increasingly popular in the United States with approximately 17% increase in the sales of organic meat and poultry in 2016. As per the National Organic Program (NOP), organic poultry production system should operate according to specific standards, including access to outdoors. In the United States, organic poultry farmers are raising both fast growing and slow growing genotypes for alternative productive systems. Even though heritage breed birds grow much slower compared to commercial breeds, many free range producers believe that they are better suited for outdoor production systems. We conducted an on-farm trial on a working pasture poultry farm to compare the performance and meat quality characteristics of a slow-growing heritage breed (Freedom Rangers, FR), and two commonly used fast growing types of chickens (Cornish cross, CC and Naked Neck, NN), raised on pasture, in side by side pens segregated by breed (n=70/breed). CC and NN group birds were reared for eight weeks whereas FR group birds were reared for 10 weeks and all the birds were commercially processed. By the end of the rearing period, the final body weight of FR group birds was significantly lower than both the fast growing genotypes (CC and NN). Both CC and NN birds showed significantly higher live weight, carcass weight as well as fillet, tender and leg yield (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the wing and rack yield among the different groups. Color of the meat was measured using CEILAB method and expressed as lightness (L), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The breast meat from FR birds was much redder (higher a* values) and less yellow (lesser b* values) compared to both the fast growing type of chickens (P < 0.05). Overall, fast growing genotypes produced higher carcass weight and meat yield compared to slow growing genotypes and appear to be an economical option for alternative production systems.

Keywords: fast growing chickens, meat quality, pasture, slow growing chickens

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8 Dry-Extrusion of Asian Carp, a Sustainable Source of Natural Methionine for Organic Poultry Production

Authors: I. Upadhyaya, K. Arsi, A. M. Donoghue, C. N. Coon, M. Schlumbohm, M. N. Riaz, M. B. Farnell, A. Upadhyay, A. J. Davis, D. J. Donoghue


Methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, is essential for healthy poultry production. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry. However, for organic poultry, a natural, cost effective source of methionine that can replace synthetic methionine is unavailable. Invasive Asian carp (AC) are a potential natural methionine source; however, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish methionine. Commercially available rendering is environmentally challenging due to the offensive smell produced during production. We explored extrusion technology as a potential cost effective alternative to fish rendering. We also determined the amino acid composition, digestible amino acids and total metabolizable energy (TMEn) for the extruded AC fish meal. Dry extrusion of AC was carried out by mixing the fish with soybean meal (SBM) in a 1:1 proportion to reduce high moisture in the fishmeal using an Insta Pro Jr. dry extruder followed by drying and grinding of the product. To determine the digestible amino acids and TMEn of the extruded product, a colony of cecectomized Bovans White Roosters was used. Adult roosters (48 weeks of age) were fasted for 30 h and tube fed 35 grams of 3 treatments: (1) extruded AC fish meal, (2) SBM and (3) corn. Excreta from each individual bird was collected for the next 48 h. An additional 10 unfed roosters served as endogenous controls. The gross energy and protein content of the feces from the treatments were determined to calculate the TMEn. Fecal samples and treatment feeds were analyzed for amino acid content and percent digestible amino acid. Results from the analysis suggested that addition of Asian carp increased the methionine content of SBM from 0.63 to 0.83%. Also, the digestibility of amino acid and the TMEn values were greater for the AC meal with SBM than SBM alone. The dry extruded AC meal analysis is indicative that the product can replace SBM alone and enhance natural methionine in a standard poultry ration. The results from feed formulation using different concentrations of the AC fish meal depict a potential diet which can supplement the required methionine content in organic poultry production.

Keywords: Asian carp, extrusion, natural methionine, organic poultry

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7 Invasive Asian Carp Fish Species: A Natural and Sustainable Source of Methionine for Organic Poultry Production

Authors: Komala Arsi, Ann M. Donoghue, Dan J. Donoghue


Methionine is an essential dietary amino acid necessary to promote growth and health of poultry. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry diets and is temporarily allowed in organic poultry feed for lack of natural and organically approved sources of methionine. It has been a challenge to find a natural, sustainable and cost-effective source for methionine which reiterates the pressing need to explore potential alternatives of methionine for organic poultry production. Fish have high concentrations of methionine, but wild-caught fish are expensive and adversely impact wild fish populations. Asian carp (AC) is an invasive species and its utilization has the potential to be used as a natural methionine source. However, to our best knowledge, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish as a methionine source. In this study, we co-extruded Asian carp and soybean meal to form a dry-extruded, methionine-rich AC meal. In order to formulate rations with the novel extruded carp meal, the product was tested on cecectomized roosters for its amino acid digestibility and total metabolizable energy (TMEn). Excreta was collected and the gross energy, protein content of the feces was determined to calculate Total Metabolizable Energy (TME). The methionine content, digestibility and TME values were greater for the extruded AC meal than control diets. Carp meal was subsequently tested as a methionine source in feeds formulated for broilers, and production performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was assessed in comparison with broilers fed standard commercial diets supplemented with synthetic methionine. In this study, broiler chickens were fed either a control diet with synthetic methionine or a treatment diet with extruded AC meal (8 replicates/treatment; n=30 birds/replicate) from day 1 to 42 days of age. At the end of the trial, data for body weights, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Fisher LSD test for multiple comparisons. Results revealed that birds on AC diet had body weight gains and feed intake comparable to diets containing synthetic methionine (P > 0.05). Results from the study suggest that invasive AC-derived fish meal could potentially be an effective and inexpensive source of sustainable natural methionine for organic poultry farmers.

Keywords: Asian carp, methionine, organic, poultry

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6 Exploring Time-Series Phosphoproteomic Datasets in the Context of Network Models

Authors: Sandeep Kaur, Jenny Vuong, Marcel Julliard, Sean O'Donoghue


Time-series data are useful for modelling as they can enable model-evaluation. However, when reconstructing models from phosphoproteomic data, often non-exact methods are utilised, as the knowledge regarding the network structure, such as, which kinases and phosphatases lead to the observed phosphorylation state, is incomplete. Thus, such reactions are often hypothesised, which gives rise to uncertainty. Here, we propose a framework, implemented via a web-based tool (as an extension to Minardo), which given time-series phosphoproteomic datasets, can generate κ models. The incompleteness and uncertainty in the generated model and reactions are clearly presented to the user via the visual method. Furthermore, we demonstrate, via a toy EGF signalling model, the use of algorithmic verification to verify κ models. Manually formulated requirements were evaluated with regards to the model, leading to the highlighting of the nodes causing unsatisfiability (i.e. error causing nodes). We aim to integrate such methods into our web-based tool and demonstrate how the identified erroneous nodes can be presented to the user via the visual method. Thus, in this research we present a framework, to enable a user to explore phosphorylation proteomic time-series data in the context of models. The observer can visualise which reactions in the model are highly uncertain, and which nodes cause incorrect simulation outputs. A tool such as this enables an end-user to determine the empirical analysis to perform, to reduce uncertainty in the presented model - thus enabling a better understanding of the underlying system.

Keywords: κ-models, model verification, time-series phosphoproteomic datasets, uncertainty and error visualisation

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5 An Audit on the Quality of Pre-Operative Intra-Oral Digital Radiographs Taken for Dental Extractions in a General Practice Setting

Authors: Gabrielle O'Donoghue


Background: Pre-operative radiographs facilitate assessment and treatment planning in minor oral surgery. Quality assurance for dental radiography advocates the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle in collecting accurate diagnostic information. Aims: To audit the quality of digital intraoral periapicals (IOPAs) taken prior to dental extractions in a metropolitan general dental practice setting. Standards: The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) guidance outlines three grades of radiograph quality: excellent (Grade 1 > 70% of total exposures), diagnostically acceptable (Grade 2 <20%), and unacceptable (Grade 3 <10%). Methodology: A study of pre-operative radiographs taken prior to dental extractions across 12 private general dental practices in a large metropolitan area by 44 practitioners. A total of 725 extractions were assessed, allowing 258 IOPAs to be reviewed in one audit cycle. Results: First cycle: Of 258 IOPAs: 223(86.4%) scored Grade 1, 27(10.5%) Grade 2, and 8(3.1%) Grade 3. The standard was met. 35 dental extractions were performed without an available pre-operative radiograph. Action Plan & Recommendations: Results were distributed to all staff and a continuous professional development evening organized to outline recommendations to improve image quality. A second audit cycle is proposed at a six-month interval to review the recommendations and appraise results. Conclusion: The overall standard of radiographs met the published guidelines. A significant improvement in the number of procedures undertaken without pre-operative imaging is expected at a six-month interval period. An investigation into undiagnostic imaging and associated adverse patient outcomes is being considered. Maintenance of the standards achieved is predicted in the second audit cycle to ensure consistent high quality imaging.

Keywords: audit, oral radiology, oral surgery, periapical radiographs, quality assurance

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4 Eco-Efficient Cementitious Materials for Construction Applications in Ireland

Authors: Eva Ujaczki, Rama Krishna Chinnam, Ronan Courtney, Syed A. M. Tofail, Lisa O'Donoghue


Concrete is the second most widely used material in the world and is made of cement, sand, and aggregates. Cement is a hydraulic binder which reacts with water to form a solid material. In the cement manufacturing process, the right mix of minerals from mined natural rocks, e.g., limestone is melted in a kiln at 1450 °C to form a new compound, clinker. In the final stage, the clinker is milled into a fine cement powder. The principal cement types manufactured in Ireland are: 1) CEM I – Portland cement; 2) CEM II/A – Portland-fly ash cement; 3) CEM II/A – Portland-limestone cement and 4) CEM III/A – Portland-round granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The production of eco-efficient, blended cement (CEM II, CEM III) reduces CO₂ emission and improves energy efficiency compared to traditional cements. Blended cements are produced locally in Ireland and more than 80% of produced cement is blended. These eco-efficient, blended cements are a relatively new class of construction materials and a kind of geopolymer binders. From a terminological point of view, geopolymer cement is a binding system that is able to harden at room temperature. Geopolymers do not require calcium-silicate-hydrate gel but utilize the polycondensation of SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ precursors to achieve a superior strength level. Geopolymer materials are usually synthesized using an aluminosilicate raw material and an activating solution which is mainly composed of NaOH or KOH and Na₂SiO₃. Cement is the essential ingredient in concrete which is vital for economic growth of countries. The challenge for the global cement industry is to reach to increasing demand at the same time recognize the need for sustainable usage of resources. Therefore, in this research, we investigated the potential for Irish wastes to be used in geopolymer cement type applications through a national stakeholder workshop with the Irish construction sector and relevant stakeholders. This paper aims at summarizing Irish stakeholder’s perspective for introducing new secondary raw materials, e.g., bauxite residue or increasing the fly ash addition into cement for eco-efficient cement production.

Keywords: eco-efficient, cement, geopolymer, blending

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3 Service Blueprint for Improving Clinical Guideline Adherence via Mobile Health Technology

Authors: Y. O’Connor, C. Heavin, S. O’ Connor, J. Gallagher, J. Wu, J. O’Donoghue


Background: To improve the delivery of paediatric healthcare in resource-poor settings, Community Health Workers (CHW) have been provided with a paper-based set of protocols known as Community Case Management (CCM). Yet research has shown that CHW adherence to CCM guidelines is poor, ultimately impacting health service delivery. Digitising the CCM guidelines via mobile technology is argued in extant literature to improve CHW adherence. However, little research exist which outlines how (a) this process can be digitised and (b) adherence could be improved as a result. Aim: To explore how an electronic mobile version of CCM (eCCM) can overcome issues associated with the paper-based CCM protocol (poor adherence to guidelines) vis-à-vis service blueprinting. This service blueprint will outline how (a) the CCM process can be digitised using mobile Clinical Decision Support Systems software to support clinical decision-making and (b) adherence can be improved as a result. Method: Development of a single service blueprint for a standalone application which visually depicts the service processes (eCCM) when supporting the CHWs, using an application known as Supporting LIFE (Low cost Intervention For disEase control) as an exemplar. Results: A service blueprint is developed which illustrates how the eCCM solution can be utilised by CHWs to assist with the delivery of healthcare services to children. Leveraging smartphone technologies can (a) provide CHWs with just-in-time data to assist with their decision making at the point-of-care and (b) improve CHW adherence to CCM guidelines. Conclusions: The development of the eCCM opens up opportunities for the CHWs to leverage the inherent benefit of mobile devices to assist them with health service delivery in rural settings. To ensure that benefits are achieved, it is imperative to comprehend the functionality and form of the eCCM service process. By creating such a service blueprint for an eCCM approach, CHWs are provided with a clear picture regarding the role of the eCCM solution, often resulting in buy-in from the end-users.

Keywords: adherence, community health workers, developing countries, mobile clinical decision support systems, CDSS, service blueprint

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2 Analyzing Competitive Advantage of Internet of Things and Data Analytics in Smart City Context

Authors: Petra Hofmann, Dana Koniel, Jussi Luukkanen, Walter Nieminen, Lea Hannola, Ilkka Donoghue


The Covid-19 pandemic forced people to isolate and become physically less connected. The pandemic hasnot only reshaped people’s behaviours and needs but also accelerated digital transformation (DT). DT of cities has become an imperative with the outlook of converting them into smart cities in the future. Embedding digital infrastructure and smart city initiatives as part of the normal design, construction, and operation of cities provides a unique opportunity to improve connection between people. Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology and one of the drivers in DT. It has disrupted many industries by introducing different services and business models, and IoT solutions are being applied in multiple fields, including smart cities. As IoT and data are fundamentally linked together, IoT solutions can only create value if the data generated by the IoT devices is analysed properly. Extracting relevant conclusions and actionable insights by using established techniques, data analytics contributes significantly to the growth and success of IoT applications and investments. Companies must grasp DT and be prepared to redesign their offerings and business models to remain competitive in today’s marketplace. As there are many IoT solutions available today, the amount of data is tremendous. The challenge for companies is to understand what solutions to focus on and how to prioritise and which data to differentiate from the competition. This paper explains how IoT and data analytics can impact competitive advantage and how companies should approach IoT and data analytics to translate them into concrete offerings and solutions in the smart city context. The study was carried out as a qualitative, literature-based research. A case study is provided to validate the preservation of company’s competitive advantage through smart city solutions. The results of the researchcontribution provide insights into the different factors and considerations related to creating competitive advantage through IoT and data analytics deployment in the smart city context. Furthermore, this paper proposes a framework that merges the factors and considerations with examples of offerings and solutions in smart cities. The data collected through IoT devices, and the intelligent use of it, can create a competitive advantage to companies operating in smart city business. Companies should take into consideration the five forces of competition that shape industries and pay attention to the technological, organisational, and external contexts which define factors for consideration of competitive advantages in the field of IoT and data analytics. Companies that can utilise these key assets in their businesses will most likely conquer the markets and have a strong foothold in the smart city business.

Keywords: internet of things, data analytics, smart cities, competitive advantage

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1 Impact of Six-Minute Walk or Rest Break during Extended GamePlay on Executive Function in First Person Shooter Esport Players

Authors: Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue, Seth E. Jenny, Peter C. Douris, Sophia Ahmad, Kyle Yuen, Hillary Gan, Kenney Abraham, Amber Sousa


Background: Guidelines for the maintenance of health of esports players and the cognitive changes that accompany competitive gaming are understudied. Executive functioning is an important cognitive skill for an esports player. The relationship between executive functions and physical exercise has been well established. However, the effects of prolonged sitting regardless of physical activity level have not been established. Prolonged uninterrupted sitting reduces cerebral blood flow. Reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with lower cognitive function and fatigue. This decrease in cerebral blood flow has been shown to be offset by frequent and short walking breaks. These short breaks can be as little as 2 minutes at the 30-minute mark and 6 minutes following 60 minutes of prolonged sitting. The rationale is the increase in blood flow and the positive effects this has on metabolic responses. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate executive function changes following 6-minute bouts of walking and complete rest mid-session, compared to no break, during prolonged gameplay in competitive first-person shooter (FPS) esports players. Methods: This study was conducted virtually due to the Covid-19 pandemic and was approved by the New York Institute of Technology IRB. Twelve competitive FPS participants signed written consent to participate in this randomized pilot study. All participants held a gold ranking or higher. Participants were asked to play for 2 hours on three separate days. Outcome measures to test executive function included the Color Stroop and the Tower of London tests which were administered online each day prior to gaming and at the completion of gaming. All participants completed the tests prior to testing for familiarization. One day of testing consisted of a 6-minute walk break after 60-75 minutes of play. The Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) was recorded. The participant continued to play for another 60-75 minutes and completed the tests again. Another day the participants repeated the same methods replacing the 6-minute walk with lying down and resting for 6 minutes. On the last day, the participant played continuously with no break for 2 hours and repeated the outcome tests pre and post-play. A Latin square was used to randomize the treatment order. Results: Using descriptive statistics, the largest change in mean reaction time incorrect congruent pre to post play was seen following the 6-minute walk (662.0 (609.6) ms pre to 602.8 (539.2) ms post), followed by the 6-minute rest group (681.7(618.1) ms pre to 666.3 (607.9) ms post), and with minimal change in the continuous group (594.0(534.1) ms pre to 589.6(552.9) ms post). The mean solution time was fastest in the resting condition (7774.6(6302.8)ms), followed by the walk condition (7929.4 (5992.8)ms), with the continuous condition being slowest (9337.3(7228.7)ms). the continuous group 9337.3(7228.7) ms; 7929.4 (5992.8 ) ms 774.6(6302.8) ms. Conclusion: Short walking breaks improve blood flow and reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism during prolonged sitting. This pilot study demonstrated that a low intensity 6 -minute walk break, following 60 minutes of play, may also improve executive function in FPS gamers.

Keywords: executive function, FPS, physical activity, prolonged sitting

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