Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Alshemaa Lotfy

8 Study of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Sharf Eldeen-Shazly, Alshemaa Lotfy

Abstract:

Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been the third leading cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. Patients with cardiac diseases are particularly at risk especially with repeated injections of contrast media. CIN is generally defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of > 0.5 mg/dL or 25% above baseline within 48 hours after contrast administration. Aim of work: To examine the frequency of CIN for patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at Sohag University Hospital (Upper Egypt) and to identify possible risk factors for CIN in these patients. Material and methods: The study included 104 patients with mean age 56.11 ±10.03, 64(61.5%) are males while 40(38.5%) are females. 44(42.3%) patients are diabetics, 43(41%) patients are hypertensive, 6(5.7%) patients have congestive heart failure, 69(66.3%) patients on statins, 74 (71.2 %) are on ACEIs or ARBs, 19(15.4%) are on metformin, 6 (5.8%) are on NSAIDs, 30(28.8%) are on diuretics. RESULTS: Patients were classified at the end of the study into two groups: Group A: Included 91 patients who did not develop CIN. Group B: Included 13 patients who developed CIN, of which serum creatinine raised > 0.5mg/dl in 6 patients and raised > 25% from the baseline after the procedure in 13 patients. The overall incidence of CIN was 12.5%. CIN increased with older age. There was an increase in the incidence of CIN in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients (20.5% and 6.7%) respectively. (p< 0.03). There was a highly significant increase in the incidence of CIN in patients with CHF versus those without CHF (100% and 71%) respectively, (P<0001). Patients on diuretics showed a significant increase in the incidence of CIN representing 61.5% of all patients who developed CIN. Conclusion: Older patients, diabetic patients, patients with CHF and patients on diuretics have higher risk of developing CIN during coronary catheterization and should receive reno-protective measures before contrast exposure.

Keywords: cardiac diseases, contrast-induced nephropathy, coronary catheterization, CIN

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7 Development of Al-5%Cu/Si₃N₄, B₄C or BN Composites for Piston Applications

Authors: Ahmed Lotfy, Andrey V. Pozdniakov, Vadim C. Zolotorevskiy

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to provide a competitive alternative to aluminum silicon alloys used in automotive applications. This alternative was created by developing three types of composites Al-5%Cu- (B₄C, BN or Si₃N₄) particulates with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Stir casting was used to synthesis composites containing 2, 5 and 7 wt. % of B₄C, Si₃N₄ and 2, 5 of BN followed by squeeze casting. The squeeze casting process decreased the porosity of the final composites. The composites exhibited a fairly uniform particle distribution throughout the matrix alloy. The microstructure and XRD results of the composites suggested a significant reaction occurred at the interface between the particles and alloy. Increasing the aging temperature from 200 to 250°C decreased the hardness values of the matrix and the composites and decreased the time required to reach the peak. Turner model was used to calculate the expected values of thermal expansion coefficient CTE of matrix and its composites. Deviations between calculated and experimental values of CTE were not exceeded 10%. Al-5%Cu-B₄C composites experimentally showed the lowest values of CTE (17-19)·10-6 °С-1 and (19-20) ·10-6 °С-1 in the temperature range 20-100 °С and 20-200 °С respectively.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, coefficient of thermal expansion, X-ray diffraction, squeeze casting, electron microscopy,

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6 Spectral Analysis Approaches for Simultaneous Determination of Binary Mixtures with Overlapping Spectra: An Application on Pseudoephedrine Sulphate and Loratadine

Authors: Sara El-Hanboushy, Hayam Lotfy, Yasmin Fayez, Engy Shokry, Mohammed Abdelkawy

Abstract:

Simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine sulphate (PSE) and loratadine (LOR) in combined dosage form based on spectral analysis technique. Pseudoephedrine (PSE) in binary mixture could be analyzed either by using its resolved zero order absorption spectrum at its λ max 256.8 nm after subtraction of LOR spectrum or in presence of LOR spectrum by absorption correction method at 256.8 nm, dual wavelength (DWL) method at 254nm and 273nm, induced dual wavelength (IDWL) method at 256nm and 272nm and ratio difference (RD) method at 256nm and 262 nm. Loratadine (LOR) in the mixture could be analyzed directly at 280nm without any interference of PSE spectrum or at 250 nm using its recovered zero order absorption spectrum using constant multiplication(CM).In addition, simultaneous determination for PSE and LOR in their mixture could be applied by induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM).

Keywords: dual wavelength (DW), induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM), loratadine, pseudoephedrine sulphate, ratio difference (RD)

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5 A Novel Multi-Objective Park and Ride Control Scheme Using Renewable Energy Sources: Cairo Case Study

Authors: Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy Elsayed Abouzeid, Tomonobu Senjyu

Abstract:

A novel multi-objective park and ride control approach is presented in this research. Park and ride will encourage the owners of the vehicles to leave their cars in the nearest points (on the edges of the crowded cities) and use public transportation facilities (train, bus, metro, or mon-rail) to reach their work inside the crowded city. The proposed control scheme is used to design electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) to charge 1000 electric vehicles (EV) during their owners' work time. Cairo, Egypt is used as a case study. Photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) are used to meet the EVCS demand. Two multi-objective optimization techniques (MOGA and epsilon-MOGA) are utilized to get the optimal sizes of PV and BESS so as to meet the load demand and minimize the total life cycle cost. Detailed analysis and comparison are held to investigate the performance of the proposed control scheme using MATLAB.

Keywords: Battery Energy Storage System, Electric Vehicle, Park and Ride, Photovoltaic, Multi-objective

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4 Effect of Papaverine on Neurospheres

Authors: Noura Shehab-Eldeen, Mohamed Elsherbeeny, Hossam Elmetwally, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Elgamal, Hussein Sheashaa, Mohamed Sobh

Abstract:

Mitochondrial toxins including papaverine may be implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim was to detect the effect of papaverine on the proliferation and viability of neural stem cells. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryos (E14) brains. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle, then, The supernatant was centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and Hams F12 (3:1) supplemented with B27 (Invitrogen GmBH, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF; Biosource, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF; R&D Systems, Wiesbaden-Nordenstadt, Germany), and penicillin and streptomycin (1:100; Invitrogen) at 37°C with 7.5% CO2 . Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. The neurospheres were fed every 2-3 days by replacing 50% of the culture media with fresh media. The culture suspension was transferred to a dish containing 16 wells. The wells were divided as follows: 4 wells received no papaverine (control), 4 wells 1 u, 4 wells 5 u and 4 wells 10 u of papaverine solution. In the next 2 weeks, photography (0,4,5,11days) and viability test were done. The photographs were analysed. Results : papaverine didn't affect proliferation of neurospheres, while it affected viability compared to control , this was dose related. Conclusion: This indicates the harmful effect of papaverine suggesting it to be a candidate neurotoxin causing Parkinsonism.

Keywords: neurospheres, neural stem cells, papaverine, Parkinsonism

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3 Development and Validation of Selective Methods for Estimation of Valaciclovir in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Authors: Eman M. Morgan, Hayam M. Lotfy, Yasmin M. Fayez, Mohamed Abdelkawy, Engy Shokry

Abstract:

Two simple, selective, economic, safe, accurate, precise and environmentally friendly methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of valaciclovir (VAL) in the presence of its related substances R1 (acyclovir), R2 (guanine) in bulk powder and in the commercial pharmaceutical product containing the drug. Method A is a colorimetric method where VAL selectively reacts with ferric hydroxamate and the developed color was measured at 490 nm over a concentration range of 0.4-2 mg/mL with percentage recovery 100.05 ± 0.58 and correlation coefficient 0.9999. Method B is a reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic technique (UPLC) which is considered superior in technology to the high-performance liquid chromatography with respect to speed, resolution, solvent consumption, time, and cost of analysis. Efficient separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax CN column using ammonium acetate (0.1%) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in a linear gradient program. Elution time for the separation was less than 5 min and ultraviolet detection was carried out at 256 nm over a concentration range of 2-50 μg/mL with mean percentage recovery 100.11±0.55 and correlation coefficient 0.9999. The proposed methods were fully validated as per International Conference on Harmonization specifications and effectively applied for the analysis of valaciclovir in pure form and tablets dosage form. Statistical comparison of the results obtained by the proposed and official or reported methods revealed no significant difference in the performance of these methods regarding the accuracy and precision respectively.

Keywords: hydroxamic acid, related substances, UPLC, valaciclovir

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2 Effect of Papaverine on Developmental Neurotoxicity: Neurosphere as in vitro Model

Authors: Mohammed Y. Elsherbeny, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Hossam Fareed, Nora Mohammed

Abstract:

Background: Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) entails the toxic effects imparted by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood when human brains are vulnerable during this period. DNT study in vivo cannot determine the effect of the neurotoxins, as it is not applicable, so using the neurosphere cells of lab animals as an alternative is applicable and time saving. Methods: Cell culture: Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from rat embryos’ brain. The cortices were aseptically dissected out and the tissues were triturated. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle. The supernatant was then transferred to a fresh tube and centrifuged. The pellet was placed in Hank’s balanced salt solution and cultured as free-floating neurospheres in proliferation medium. Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal in differentiation medium and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. Chemical Exposure: Neurospheres were treated for 2 weeks with papaverine in proliferation medium. Proliferation analyses: Spheres were cultured. After 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days, sphere size was determined by software analyses (CellProfiler, version 2.1; Broad Institute). Diameter of each neurosphere was measured and exported to excel file further to statistical analysis. Viability test: Trypsin-EDTA solution was added to neurospheres to dissociate neurospheres into single cells suspension, then viability evaluated by the Trypan Blue exclusion test. Result: As regards proliferation analysis and percentage of viable cells of papaverin treated groups: There was no significant change in cells proliferation compared to control at 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days with concentrations 1, 5 and 10 µM of papaverine, but there is a significant change in cell viability compared to control after 1 week and 2 weeks with the same concentrations of papaverine. Conclusion: Papaverine has toxic effect on viability of neural cell, not on their proliferation, so it may produce focal neural lesions not growth morphological changes.

Keywords: developmental neurotoxicity, neurotoxin, papaverine, neuroshperes

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1 Epoxomicin Affects Proliferating Neural Progenitor Cells of Rat

Authors: Bahaa Eldin A. Fouda, Khaled N. Yossef, Mohamed Elhosseny, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Salama, Mohamed Sobh

Abstract:

Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) entails the toxic effects imparted by various chemicals on the brain during the early childhood period. As human brains are vulnerable during this period, various chemicals would have their maximum effects on brains during early childhood. Some toxicants have been confirmed to induce developmental toxic effects on CNS e.g. lead, however; most of the agents cannot be identified with certainty due the defective nature of predictive toxicology models used. A novel alternative method that can overcome most of the limitations of conventional techniques is the use of 3D neurospheres system. This in-vitro system can recapitulate most of the changes during the period of brain development making it an ideal model for predicting neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we verified the possible DNT of epoxomicin which is a naturally occurring selective proteasome inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from rat embryos (E14) extracted from placental tissue. The cortices were aseptically dissected out from the brains of the fetuses and the tissues were triturated by repeated passage through a fire-polished constricted Pasteur pipette. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle for 3 min. The supernatant was, then, transferred to a fresh tube and centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s balanced salt solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres in proliferation medium. Two doses of epoxomicin (1µM and 10µM) were used in cultured neuropsheres for a period of 14 days. For proliferation analysis, spheres were cultured in proliferation medium. After 0, 4, 5, 11, and 14 days, sphere size was determined by software analyses. The diameter of each neurosphere was measured and exported to excel file further to statistical analysis. For viability analysis, trypsin-EDTA solution were added to neurospheres for 3 min to dissociate them into single cells suspension, then viability evaluated by the Trypan Blue exclusion test. Epoxomicin was found to affect proliferation and viability of neuropsheres, these effects were positively correlated to doses and progress of time. This study confirms the DNT effects of epoxomicin on 3D neurospheres model. The effects on proliferation suggest possible gross morphologic changes while the decrease in viability propose possible focal lesion on exposure to epoxomicin during early childhood.

Keywords: neural progentor cells, epoxomicin, neurosphere, medical and health sciences

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