Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2249

Search results for: heat sink

2249 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-Type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5°C by the holes.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, flow holes

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2248 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks

Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, symmetrical arrangement

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2247 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer of Flow around a Radial Heat Sink

Authors: Benkherbache Souad

Abstract:

This work presents the numerical results of the mixed convective heat transfer of a three-dimensional flow around a radial heat sink composed of horizontal circular base fitted with rectangular fins. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy equation are solved by the finite volume method using the commercially available CFD software Fluent 6.3.26. The circular base of the heat sink is subjected to uniform heat generation; the flow enters through the sides of the heat sink around the fins then the heat is transmitted from the base to the fins afterwards the fluid. In this study two fluids are utilized, in the first case, the air for the following Reynolds numbers Re=600,900,1200 and a Grashof number Gr=3.7x10⁶, in the second case a water based nano fluid for which two types of nano particles (Cu and Al₂O₃) are carried out for Re=25 and a Richardson number Ri=2.7(Ri=Gr/Re²). The effect of the number of the fins of the heat sink as well as the type and the volume fraction of nano particles of the nano fluid were investigated. Results have been presented for N=15 and N=20 fins. The effect of the nano particles concentrations and the number of fins on the temperature in the heat sink and the Nusselt number has been studied.

Keywords: heat sink, mixed convection, nano fluid, volumetric heat generation

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2246 Thermal Performance of Radial Heat Sinks for LED Applications

Authors: Jongchul Park, Chan Byon

Abstract:

In this study, the thermal performance of radial heat sinks for LED applications is investigated numerically and experimentally. The effect of geometrical parameters such as inner radius, fin height, fin length, and fin spacing, as well as the Elenbaas number, is considered. In addition, the effects of augmentation of concentric ring, perforation, and duct are extensively explored in order to enhance the thermal performance of conventional radial heat sink. The results indicate that the Elenbaas number and the fin radius have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the heat sink. The concentric ring affects the performance much, but the degree of affection is highly dependent on the orientation. The perforation always brings about higher thermal performance. The duct can effectively prevent the bypass of the natural convection flow, which in turn reduces the thermal resistance of the radial heat sink significantly.

Keywords: heat transfer, radial heat sink, LED, Elenbaas

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
2245 Thermal Performance of Plate-Fin Heat Sink with Lateral Perforation

Authors: Sakkarin Chingulpitak, Somchai Wongwises

Abstract:

Over the past several decades, the development of electronic devices has led to higher performance. Therefore, an electronic cooling system is important for the electronic device. A heat sink which is a part of the electronic cooling system is continuously studied in the research field to enhance the heat transfer. To author’s best knowledge, there have been only a few articles which reported the thermal performance of plate-fin heat sink with perforation. This research aims to study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the solid-fin heat sink (SFHS) and laterally perforated plate-fin heat sink (LAP-PFHS). The SFHS and LAP-PFHSs are investigated on the same fin dimensions. The LAP-PFHSs are performed with a 27 perforation number and two different diameters of circular perforation (3 mm and 5 mm). The experimental study is conducted under various Reynolds numbers from 900 to 2,000 and the heat input of 50W. The experimental results show that the LAP-PFHS with perforation diameter of 5 mm gives the minimum thermal resistance about 25% lower than SFHS. The thermal performance factor which takes into account the ratio of the Nusselt number and ratio of friction factor is used to find the suitable design parameters. The experimental results show that the LAP-PFHS with the perforation diameter of 3 mm provides the thermal performance of 15% greater than SFHS. In addition, the simulation study is presented to investigate the effect of the air flow behavior inside the perforation on the thermal performance of LAP-PFHS.

Keywords: heat sink, parallel flow, circular perforation, non-bypass flow

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2244 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Built-In Thermoelectric Generator Modules with Elliptical Pin-Fin Heat Sink

Authors: J. Y Jang, C. Y. Tseng

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical model of thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules attached to a large chimney plate is proposed and solved numerically using a control volume based finite difference formulation. The TEG module consists of a thermoelectric generator, an elliptical pin-fin heat sink, and a cold plate for water cooling. In the chimney, the temperature of flue gases is 450-650K. Therefore, the effects of convection and radiation heat transfer are considered. Although the TEG hot-side temperature and thus the electric power output can be increased by inserting an elliptical pin-fin heat sink into the chimney tunnel to increase the heat transfer area, the pin fin heat sink would cause extra pumping power at the same time. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of geometrical parameters on the electric power output and chimney pressure drop characteristics. In addition, the effects of different operating conditions, including various inlet velocities (Vin = 1, 3, 5 m/s) and inlet temperatures (Tgas = 450, 550, 650K) are discussed in detail. The predicted numerical data for the power vs. current (P-I) curve are in good agreement (within 11%) with the experimental data.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, waste heat recovery, pin-fin heat sink, experimental and numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2243 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-type Heat sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in the inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8 m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47, and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6, and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of the mass flow rates caused by different cross-sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.

Keywords: solar Inverter, heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2242 Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Plate-Fin Heat Sink

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Chung-Hou Lai

Abstract:

This study applies the inverse method and three-dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a rectangular closed enclosure. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the approximate heat transfer coefficient. Later, based on the obtained results, the zero-equation turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics between two fins. To validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the heat transfer coefficient is made. The obtained temperature at selected measurement locations of the fin is also compared with experimental data. The effect of the height of the rectangular enclosure on the obtained results is discussed.

Keywords: inverse method, fluent, heat transfer characteristics, plate-fin heat sink

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2241 Heat Sink Optimization for a High Power Wearable Thermoelectric Module

Authors: Zohreh Soleimani, Sally Salome Shahzad, Stamatis Zoras

Abstract:

As a result of current energy and environmental issues, the human body is known as one of the promising candidate for converting wasted heat to electricity (Seebeck effect). Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is one of the most prevalent means of harvesting body heat and converting that to eco-friendly electrical power. However, the uneven distribution of the body heat and its curvature geometry restrict harvesting adequate amount of energy. To perfectly transform the heat radiated by the body into power, the most direct solution is conforming the thermoelectric generators (TEG) with the arbitrary surface of the body and increase the temperature difference across the thermoelectric legs. Due to this, a computational survey through COMSOL Multiphysics is presented in this paper with the main focus on the impact of integrating a flexible wearable TEG with a corrugated shaped heat sink on the module power output. To eliminate external parameters (temperature, air flow, humidity), the simulations are conducted within indoor thermal level and when the wearer is stationary. The full thermoelectric characterization of the proposed TEG fabricated by a wavy shape heat sink has been computed leading to a maximum power output of 25µW/cm2 at a temperature gradient nearly 13°C. It is noteworthy that for the flexibility of the proposed TEG and heat sink, the applicability and efficiency of the module stay high even on the curved surfaces of the body. As a consequence, the results demonstrate the superiority of such a TEG to the most state of the art counterparts fabricated with no heat sink and offer a new train of thought for the development of self-sustained and unobtrusive wearable power suppliers which generate energy from low grade dissipated heat from the body.

Keywords: device simulation, flexible thermoelectric module, heat sink, human body heat

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2240 Optimisation of Pin Fin Heat Sink Using Taguchi Method

Authors: N. K. Chougule, G. V. Parishwad

Abstract:

The pin fin heat sink is a novel heat transfer device to transfer large amount of heat through with very small temperature differences and it also possesses large uniform cooling characteristics. Pin fins are widely used as elements that provide increased cooling for electronic devices. Increasing demands regarding the performance of such devices can be observed due to the increasing heat production density of electronic components. For this reason, extensive work is being carried out to select and optimize pin fin elements for increased heat transfer. In this paper, the effects of design parameters and the optimum design parameters for a Pin-Fin heat sink (PFHS) under multi-jet impingement case with thermal performance characteristics have been investigated by using Taguchi methodology based on the L9 orthogonal arrays. Various design parameters, such as pin-fin array size, gap between nozzle exit to impingement target surface (Z/d) and air velocity are explored by numerical experiment. The average convective heat transfer coefficient is considered as the thermal performance characteristics. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is applied to find the effect of each design parameter on the thermal performance characteristics. Then the results of confirmation test with the optimal level constitution of design parameters have obviously shown that this logic approach can effective in optimizing the PFHS with the thermal performance characteristics. The analysis of the Taguchi method reveals that, all the parameters mentioned above have equal contributions in the performance of heat sink efficiency. Experimental results are provided to validate the suitability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Pin Fin Heat Sink (PFHS), Taguchi method, CFD, thermal performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2239 Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids over Stretching Sheet with a Non Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Bandari Shankar, Yohannes Yirga

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD boundary-layer flow of nanofluids over stretching sheet with a non uniform heat source/sink is considered. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Keller box method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles were obtained and utilized to compute the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number for different values of the governing parameters viz. solid volume fraction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, space-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters for heat source/sink. A comparison of the numerical results of the present study with previously published data revealed an excellent agreement

Keywords: unsteady, heat and mass transfer, manetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, non-uniform heat source/sink, stretching sheet

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2238 Estimation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Plate-Fin Heat Sinks in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Chung-Hou Lai, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Ge-Jang He

Abstract:

This study applies the inverse method and three-dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a closed rectangular enclosure for various values of fin height. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the heat transfer coefficient. The k-ε turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics within the fins. To validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the average heat transfer coefficient is made. The calculated temperature at selected measurement locations on the plate-fin is also compared with experimental data.

Keywords: inverse method, FLUENT, k-ε model, heat transfer characteristics, plate-fin heat sink

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2237 Heat Transfer Characteristics of Aluminum Foam Heat Sinks Subject to an Impinging Jet

Authors: So-Ra Jeon, Chan Byon

Abstract:

This study investigates the heat transfer characteristics of aluminum foam heat sink and pin fin heat sink subjected to an impinging air jet under a fixed pumping power condition as well as fixed flow rate condition. The effects of dimensionless pumping power or the Reynolds number and the impinging distance ratio on the Nusselt number are considered. The result shows that the effect of the impinging distance on the Nusselt number is negligible under a fixed pumping power condition, while the Nusselt number increases with decreasing the impinging distance under a fixed pumping power condition. A correlation for the pressure drop is obtained as a function of the flow rate and the impinging distance ratio. And correlations for the stagnation Nusselt number of the impinging jet are developed as a function of the pumping power. The aluminum foam heat sinks did not show higher thermal performance compared to a conventional pin fin heat sink under a fixed pumping power condition.

Keywords: aluminum foam, heat sinks, impinging jet, pumping power

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2236 Determination of Forced Convection Heat Transfer Performance in Lattice Geometric Heat Sinks

Authors: Bayram Sahin, Baris Gezdirici, Murat Ceylan, Ibrahim Ates

Abstract:

In this experimental study, the effects of heat transfer and flow characteristics on lattice geometric heat sinks, where high rates of heat removal are required, were investigated. The design parameters were Reynolds number, the height of heat sink (H), horizontal (Sy) and vertical (Sx) distances between heat sinks. In the experiments, the Reynolds number ranged from 4000 to 20000; heat sink heights were (H) 20 mm and 40 mm; the distances (Sy) between the heat sinks in the flow direction were45 mm, 32 mm, 23.3 mm; the distances (Sx) between the heat sinks perpendicular to the flow direction were selected to be 23.3 mm, 12.5 mm and 6 mm. A total of 90 experiments were conducted and the maximum Nusselt number and minimum friction coefficient were targeted. Experimental results have shown that heat sinks in lattice geometry have a significant effect on heat transfer enhancement. Under the different experimental conditions, the highest increase in Nusselt number was 283% while the lowest increase was calculated as 66% as compared with the straight channel results. The lowest increase in the friction factor was also obtained as 173% according to the straight channel results. It is seen that the increase in heat sink height and flow velocity increased the level of turbulence in the channel, leading to higher Nusselt number and friction factor values.

Keywords: forced convection, heat transfer enhancement, lattice geometric heat sinks, pressure drop

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2235 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Serpentine Channel Water Cooler Heat Sink

Authors: Hao Xiaohong, Wu Zongxiang, Chen Xuefeng

Abstract:

With the high power density and high integration of electronic devices, their heat flux has been increasing rapidly. Therefore, an effective cooling technology is essential for the reliability and efficient operation of electronic devices. Liquid cooling is studied increasingly widely for its higher heat transfer efficiency. Serpentine channels are superior in the augmentation of single-phase convective heat transfer because of their better channel velocity distribution. In this paper, eight different frame sizes water-cooled serpentine channel heat sinks are designed to study the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. With water as the working fluid, experiment setup is established and the results showed the effect of different channel width, fin thickness and number of channels on thermal resistance and pressure drop.

Keywords: heat transfer, experiment, serpentine heat sink, pressure drop

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2234 Free Convective Flow in a Vertical Cylinder with Heat Sink: A Numerical Study

Authors: Emmanuel Omokhuale

Abstract:

A mathematical model is presented to study free convective boundary layer flow in a semi-infinite vertical cylinder with heat sink effect in a porous medium. The governing dimensional governing partial differential equations (PDEs) with corresponding initial and boundary conditions are approximated and solved numerically employing finite difference method (FDM) the implicit type. Stability and convergence of the scheme are also established. Furthermore, the influence of significant physical parameters on the flow characteristics was analysed and shown graphically. The obtained results are benchmarked with previously published works in order to access the accuracy of the numerical method and found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: free convection flow, vertical cylinder, implicit finite difference method, heat sink and porous medium

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2233 Influence of Shield Positions on Thermo/Fluid Performance of Pin Fin Heat Sink

Authors: Ramy H. Mohammed

Abstract:

In heat sinks, the flow within the core exhibits separation and hence does not lend itself to simple analytical boundary layer or duct flow analysis of the wall friction. In this paper, I present some findings from an experimental and numerical study aimed to obtain physical insight into the influence of the presence of the shield and its position on the hydraulic and thermal performance of square pin fin heat sink without top by-pass. The variations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained under varied parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the shield position. The numerical code is validated by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. It is shown that, there is a good agreement between the temperature predictions based on the model and the experimental data. Results show that, as the presence of the shield, the heat transfer of fin array is enhanced and the flow resistance increased. The surface temperature distribution of the heat sink base is more uniform when the dimensionless shield position equals to 1/3 or 2/3. The comprehensive performance evaluation approach based on identical pumping power criteria is adopted and shows that the optimum shield position is at x/l=0.43 where energy is saved.

Keywords: shield, fin array, performance evaluation, heat transfer, energy

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2232 An Experimental Study on the Coupled Heat Source and Heat Sink Effects on Solid Rockets

Authors: Vinayak Malhotra, Samanyu Raina, Ajinkya Vajurkar

Abstract:

Enhancing the rocket efficiency by controlling the external factors in solid rockets motors has been an active area of research for most of the terrestrial and extra-terrestrial system operations. Appreciable work has been done, but the complexity of the problem has prevented thorough understanding due to heterogenous heat and mass transfer. On record, severe issues have surfaced amounting to irreplaceable loss of mankind, instruments, facilities, and huge amount of money being invested every year. The coupled effect of an external heat source and external heat sink is an aspect yet to be articulated in combustion. Better understanding of this coupled phenomenon will induce higher safety standards, efficient missions, reduced hazard risks, with better designing, validation, and testing. The experiment will help in understanding the coupled effect of an external heat sink and heat source on the burning process, contributing in better combustion and fire safety, which are very important for efficient and safer rocket flights and space missions. Safety is the most prevalent issue in rockets, which assisted by poor combustion efficiency, emphasizes research efforts to evolve superior rockets. This signifies real, engineering, scientific, practical, systems and applications. One potential application is Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M). The study may help in: (i) Understanding the effect on efficiency of core engines due to the primary boosters if considered as source, (ii) Choosing suitable heat sink materials for space missions so as to vary the efficiency of the solid rocket depending on the mission, (iii) Giving an idea about how the preheating of the successive stage due to previous stage acting as a source may affect the mission. The present work governs the temperature (resultant) and thus the heat transfer which is expected to be non-linear because of heterogeneous heat and mass transfer. The study will deepen the understanding of controlled inter-energy conversions and the coupled effect of external source/sink(s) surrounding the burning fuel eventually leading to better combustion thus, better propulsion. The work is motivated by the need to have enhanced fire safety and better rocket efficiency. The specific objective of the work is to understand the coupled effect of external heat source and sink on propellant burning and to investigate the role of key controlling parameters. Results as of now indicate that there exists a singularity in the coupled effect. The dominance of the external heat sink and heat source decides the relative rocket flight in Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M).

Keywords: coupled effect, heat transfer, sink, solid rocket motors, source

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2231 Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscoelastic Nanofluid and Heat Transfer over a Stretching Surface with Non-Uniform Heat Source/Sink and Non-Linear Radiation

Authors: Md. S. Ansari, S. S. Motsa

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis has been made on the flow of non-Newtonian viscoelastic nanofluid over a linearly stretching sheet under the influence of uniform magnetic field. Heat transfer characteristics is analyzed taking into the effect of nonlinear radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink. Transport equations contain the simultaneous effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nanoparticles. The relevant partial differential equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity transformations. The transformed, highly nonlinear, ordinary differential equations are solved by spectral local linearisation method. The numerical convergence, error and stability analysis of iteration schemes are presented. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, radiation, space and temperature-dependent heat source/sink, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, viscoelastic, Lewis number and the magnetic force parameter on the flow field, heat transfer characteristics and nanoparticles concentration are examined. The present investigation has many industrial and engineering applications in the fields of coatings and suspensions, cooling of metallic plates, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal–oil slurries, heat exchangers’ technology, and materials’ processing and exploiting.

Keywords: magnetic field, nonlinear radiation, non-uniform heat source/sink, similar solution, spectral local linearisation method, Rosseland diffusion approximation

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2230 Numerical Optimization of Trapezoidal Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Yue-Tzu Yang, Shu-Ching Liao

Abstract:

This study presents the numerical simulation of three-dimensional incompressible steady and laminar fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink using water as a cooling fluid in a silicon substrate. Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate energy equation are discretized by finite-volume method. We perform numerical computations for a range of 50 ≦ Re ≦ 600, 0.05W ≦ P ≦ 0.8W, 20W/cm2 ≦ ≦ 40W/cm2. The present study demonstrates the numerical optimization of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink design using the response surface methodology (RSM) and the genetic algorithm method (GA). The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in the Reynolds number or pumping power, and the thermal resistance decreases as the pumping power increases. The thermal resistance of a trapezoidal microchannel is minimized for a constant heat flux and constant pumping power.

Keywords: microchannel heat sinks, conjugate heat transfer, optimization, genetic algorithm method

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2229 The Effect of CPU Location in Total Immersion of Microelectronics

Authors: A. Almaneea, N. Kapur, J. L. Summers, H. M. Thompson

Abstract:

Meeting the growth in demand for digital services such as social media, telecommunications, and business and cloud services requires large scale data centres, which has led to an increase in their end use energy demand. Generally, over 30% of data centre power is consumed by the necessary cooling overhead. Thus energy can be reduced by improving the cooling efficiency. Air and liquid can both be used as cooling media for the data centre. Traditional data centre cooling systems use air, however liquid is recognised as a promising method that can handle the more densely packed data centres. Liquid cooling can be classified into three methods; rack heat exchanger, on-chip heat exchanger and full immersion of the microelectronics. This study quantifies the improvements of heat transfer specifically for the case of immersed microelectronics by varying the CPU and heat sink location. Immersion of the server is achieved by filling the gap between the microelectronics and a water jacket with a dielectric liquid which convects the heat from the CPU to the water jacket on the opposite side. Heat transfer is governed by two physical mechanisms, which is natural convection for the fixed enclosure filled with dielectric liquid and forced convection for the water that is pumped through the water jacket. The model in this study is validated with published numerical and experimental work and shows good agreement with previous work. The results show that the heat transfer performance and Nusselt number (Nu) is improved by 89% by placing the CPU and heat sink on the bottom of the microelectronics enclosure.

Keywords: CPU location, data centre cooling, heat sink in enclosures, immersed microelectronics, turbulent natural convection in enclosures

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
2228 Turbulence Modeling of Source and Sink Flows

Authors: Israt Jahan Eshita

Abstract:

Flows developed between two parallel disks have many engineering applications. Two types of non-swirling flows can be generated in such a domain. One is purely source flow in disc type domain (outward flow). Other is purely sink flow in disc type domain (inward flow). This situation often appears in some turbo machinery components such as air bearings, heat exchanger, radial diffuser, vortex gyroscope, disc valves, and viscosity meters. The main goal of this paper is to show the mesh convergence, because mesh convergence saves time, and economical to run and increase the efficiency of modeling for both sink and source flow. Then flow field is resolved using a very fine mesh near-wall, using enhanced wall treatment. After that we are going to compare this flow using standard k-epsilon, RNG k-epsilon turbulence models. Lastly compare some experimental data with numerical solution for sink flow. The good agreement of numerical solution with the experimental works validates the current modeling.

Keywords: hydraulic diameter, k-epsilon model, meshes convergence, Reynolds number, RNG model, sink flow, source flow, wall y+

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2227 Optimization of Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Tu-Chieh Hung, Wei-Mon Yan, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yu-Xian Huang

Abstract:

This work employs a combined optimization procedure including a simplified conjugate-gradient method and a three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer model to study the optimal geometric parameter design of double-layered microchannel heat sinks. The overall thermal resistance RT is the objective function to be minimized with number of channels, N, the channel width ratio, β, the bottom channel aspect ratio, αb, and upper channel aspect ratio, αu, as the search variables. It is shown that, for the given bottom area (10 mm×10 mm) and heat flux (100 W cm-2), the optimal (minimum) thermal resistance of double-layered microchannel heat sinks is about RT=0.12 ℃/m2W with the corresponding optimal geometric parameters N=73, β=0.50, αb=3.52, and, αu= 7.21 under a constant pumping power of 0.05 W. The optimization process produces a maximum reduction by 52.8% in the overall thermal resistance compared with an initial guess (N=112, β=0.37, αb=10.32 and, αu=10.93). The results also show that the optimal thermal resistance decreases rapidly with the pumping power and tends to be a saturated value afterward. The corresponding optimal values of parameters N, αb, and αu increase while that of β decrease as the pumping power increases. However, further increasing pumping power is not always cost-effective for the application of heat sink designs.

Keywords: optimization, double-layered microchannel heat sink, simplified conjugate-gradient method, thermal resistance

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2226 Cascaded Transcritical/Supercritical CO2 Cycles and Organic Rankine Cycles to Recover Low-Temperature Waste Heat and LNG Cold Energy Simultaneously

Authors: Haoshui Yu, Donghoi Kim, Truls Gundersen

Abstract:

Low-temperature waste heat is abundant in the process industries, and large amounts of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy are discarded without being recovered properly in LNG terminals. Power generation is an effective way to utilize low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy simultaneously. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and CO2 power cycles are promising technologies to convert low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy into electricity. If waste heat and LNG cold energy are utilized simultaneously in one system, the performance may outperform separate systems utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy, respectively. Low-temperature waste heat acts as the heat source and LNG regasification acts as the heat sink in the combined system. Due to the large temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, cascaded power cycle configurations are proposed in this paper. Cascaded power cycles can improve the energy efficiency of the system considerably. The cycle operating at a higher temperature to recover waste heat is called top cycle and the cycle operating at a lower temperature to utilize LNG cold energy is called bottom cycle in this study. The top cycle condensation heat is used as the heat source in the bottom cycle. The top cycle can be an ORC, transcritical CO2 (tCO2) cycle or supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle, while the bottom cycle only can be an ORC due to the low-temperature range of the bottom cycle. However, the thermodynamic path of the tCO2 cycle and sCO2 cycle are different from that of an ORC. The tCO2 cycle and the sCO2 cycle perform better than an ORC for sensible waste heat recovery due to a better temperature match with the waste heat source. Different combinations of the tCO2 cycle, sCO2 cycle and ORC are compared to screen the best configurations of the cascaded power cycles. The influence of the working fluid and the operating conditions are also investigated in this study. Each configuration is modeled and optimized in Aspen HYSYS. The results show that cascaded tCO2/ORC performs better compared with cascaded ORC/ORC and cascaded sCO2/ORC for the case study.

Keywords: LNG cold energy, low-temperature waste heat, organic Rankine cycle, supercritical CO₂ cycle, transcritical CO₂ cycle

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2225 Reliable and Energy-Aware Data Forwarding under Sink-Hole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ebrahim Alrashed

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to attacks from adversaries attempting to disrupt their operations. Sink-hole attacks are a type of attack where an adversary node drops data forwarded through it and hence affecting the reliability and accuracy of the network. Since sensor nodes have limited battery power, it is essential that any solution to the sinkhole attack problem be very energy-aware. In this paper, we present a reliable and energy efficient scheme to forward data from source nodes to the base station while under sink-hole attack. The scheme also detects sink-hole attack nodes and avoid paths that includes them.

Keywords: energy-aware routing, reliability, sink-hole attack, WSN

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2224 Mathematical Modelling and Parametric Study of Water Based Loop Heat Pipe for Ground Application

Authors: Shail N. Shah, K. K. Baraya, A. Madhusudan Achari

Abstract:

Loop Heat Pipe is a passive two-phase heat transfer device which can be used without any external power source to transfer heat from source to sink. The main aim of this paper is to have modelling of water-based LHP at varying heat loads. Through figures, how the fluid flow occurs within the loop has been explained. Energy Balance has been done in each section. IC (Iterative Convergence) scheme to find out the SSOT (Steady State Operating Temperature) has been developed. It is developed using Dev C++. To best of the author’s knowledge, hardly any detail is available in the open literature about how temperature distribution along the loop is to be evaluated. Results for water-based loop heat pipe is obtained and compared with open literature and error is found within 4%. Parametric study has been done to see the effect of different parameters on pressure drop and SSOT at varying heat loads.

Keywords: loop heat pipe, modelling of loop heat pipe, parametric study of loop heat pipe, functioning of loop heat pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
2223 Developing Alternative Recovery Technology of Waste Heat in Automobile Factory

Authors: Kun-Ping Cheng, Dong-Shang Chang, Rou-Wen Wang

Abstract:

Pre-treatment of automobile paint-shop procedures are the preparation of warm water rinsing tank, hot water rinsing tank, degreasing tank, phosphate tank. The conventional boiler steam fuel is natural gas, producing steam to supply the heat exchange of each tank sink. In this study, the high-frequency soldering economizer is developed for recovering waste heat in the automotive paint-shop (RTO, Regenerative Thermal Oxidation). The heat recovery rate of the new economizer is 20% to 30% higher than the conventional embedded heat pipe. The adaptive control system responded to both RTO furnace exhaust gas and heat demands. In order to maintain the temperature range of the tanks, pre-treatment tanks are directly heated by waste heat recovery device (gas-to-water heat exchanger) through the hot water cycle of heat transfer. The performance of developed waste heat recovery system shows the annual recovery achieved to 1,226,411,483 Kcal of heat (137.8 thousand cubic meters of natural gas). Boiler can reduce fuel consumption by 20 to 30 percent compared to without waste heat recovery. In order to alleviate environmental impacts, the temperature at the end of the flue is further reduced from 160 to 110°C. The innovative waste heat recovery is helpful to energy savings and sustainable environment.

Keywords: waste heat recovery system, sustainability, RTO (Regenerative Thermal Oxidation), economizer, automotive industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
2222 Electric Power Generation by Thermoelectric Cells and Parabolic Solar Concentrators

Authors: A. Kianifar, M. Afzali, I. Pishbin

Abstract:

In this paper, design details, theoretical analysis and thermal performance analysis of a solar energy concentrator suited to combined heat and thermoelectric power generation are presented. The thermoelectric device is attached to the absorber plate to convert concentrated solar energy directly into electric energy at the focus of the concentrator. A cooling channel (water cooled heat sink) is fitted to the cold side of the thermoelectric device to remove the waste heat and maintain a high temperature gradient across the device to improve conversion efficiency.

Keywords: concentrator thermoelectric generator, CTEG, solar energy, thermoelectric cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2221 Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Based Thermosyphon System

Authors: Kiran Kumar K., Ramesh Babu Bejjam, Atul Najan

Abstract:

A thermosyphon system is a heat transfer loop which operates on the basis of gravity and buoyancy forces. It guarantees a good reliability and low maintenance cost as it does not involve any mechanical pump. Therefore it can be used in many industrial applications such as refrigeration and air conditioning, electronic cooling, nuclear reactors, geothermal heat extraction, etc. But flow instabilities and loop configuration are the major problems in this system. Several previous researchers studied that stabilities can be suppressed by using nanofluids as loop fluid. In the present study a rectangular thermosyphon loop with end heat exchangers are considered for the study. This configuration is more appropriate for many practical applications such as solar water heater, geothermal heat extraction, etc. In the present work, steady-state analysis is carried out on thermosyphon loop with parallel flow coaxial heat exchangers at heat source and heat sink. In this loop nano fluid is considered as the loop fluid and water is considered as the external fluid in both hot and cold heat exchangers. For this analysis one-dimensional homogeneous model is developed. In this model, conservation equations like conservation of mass, momentum, energy are discretized using finite difference method. A computer code is written in MATLAB to simulate the flow in thermosyphon loop. A comparison in terms of heat transfer is made between water and nano fluid as working fluids in the loop.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer, nanofluid, thermosyphon loop

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
2220 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study

Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.

Keywords: Navier’s condition, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink

Procedia PDF Downloads 49