Search results for: Momentum Wheel
277 Detection of Actuator Faults for an Attitude Control System using Neural Network
Authors: S. Montenegro, W. Hu
Abstract:The objective of this paper is to develop a neural network-based residual generator to detect the fault in the actuators for a specific communication satellite in its attitude control system (ACS). First, a dynamic multilayer perceptron network with dynamic neurons is used, those neurons correspond a second order linear Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter and a nonlinear activation function with adjustable parameters. Second, the parameters from the network are adjusted to minimize a performance index specified by the output estimated error, with the given input-output data collected from the specific ACS. Then, the proposed dynamic neural network is trained and applied for detecting the faults injected to the wheel, which is the main actuator in the normal mode for the communication satellite. Then the performance and capabilities of the proposed network were tested and compared with a conventional model-based observer residual, showing the differences between these two methods, and indicating the benefit of the proposed algorithm to know the real status of the momentum wheel. Finally, the application of the methods in a satellite ground station is discussed.
Keywords: Satellite, Attitude Control, Momentum Wheel, Neural Network, Fault Detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1871
276 Computational Investigation of the Combined Effects of Yaw, Rotation and Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamics of an Isolated Wheel
Authors: T. D. Kothalawala, A. Gatto, L. Wrobel
An exploratory computational investigation using RANS & URANS was carried out to understand the aerodynamics around an isolatedsingle rotating wheel with decreasing ground proximity. The wheel was initially modeled in free air conditions, then with decreasing ground proximity and increased yaw angle with rotational speeds. Three speeds of rotation were applied to the wheel so that the effect of different angular velocities can be investigated. In addition to rotation, three different yaw angles were applied to the rotating wheel in order to understand how these two variables combined affect the aerodynamic flow field around the wheel.
Keywords: Aerodynamics, CFD, Ground Proximity, Landing Gear, Wheel, Rotation, Yaw.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2244
275 The Effect of Surface Conditions on Wear of a Railway Wheel and Rail
Authors: A. Shebani, S. Iwnicki
Abstract:Understanding the nature of wheel and rail wear in the railway field is of fundamental importance to the safe and cost effective operation of the railways. Twin disc wear testing is used extensively for studying wear of wheel and rail materials. The University of Huddersfield twin disc rig was used in this paper to examine the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear measurement under a range of wheel/rail contact conditions, with and without contaminants. This work focuses on an investigation of the effect of dry, wet, and lubricated conditions and the effect of contaminants such as sand on wheel and rail wear. The wheel and rail wear measurements were carried out by using a replica material and an optical profilometer that allows measurement of wear in difficult location with high accuracy. The results have demonstrated the rate at which both water and oil reduce wheel and rail wear. Scratches and other damage were seen on the wheel and rail surfaces after the addition of sand and consequently both wheel and rail wear damage rates increased under these conditions. This work introduced the replica material and an optical instrument as effective tools to study the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear.
Keywords: Railway wheel/rail wear, surface conditions, twin disc test rig, replica material, Alicona profilometer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 955
274 Dynamic Stability Assessment of Different Wheel Sized Bicycles Based on Current Frame Design Practice with ISO Requirement for Bicycle Safety
Authors: Milan Paudel, Fook Fah Yap, Anil K. Bastola
The difficulties in riding small wheel bicycles and their lesser stability have been perceived for a long time. Although small wheel bicycles are designed using the similar approach and guidelines that have worked well for big wheel bicycles, the performance of the big wheelers and the smaller wheelers are markedly different. Since both the big wheelers and small wheelers have same fundamental geometry, most blame the small wheel for this discrepancy in the performance. This paper reviews existing guidelines for bicycle design, especially the front steering geometry for the bicycle, and provides a systematic and quantitative analysis of different wheel sized bicycles. A validated mathematical model has been used as a tool to assess the dynamic performance of the bicycles in term of their self-stability. The results obtained were found to corroborate the subjective perception of cyclists for small wheel bicycles. The current approach for small wheel bicycle design requires higher speed to be self-stable. However, it was found that increasing the headtube angle and selecting a proper trail could improve the dynamic performance of small wheel bicycles. A range of parameters for front steering geometry has been identified for small wheel bicycles that have comparable stability as big wheel bicycles. Interestingly, most of the identified geometries are found to be beyond the ISO recommended range and seem to counter the current approach of small wheel bicycle design. Therefore, it was successfully shown that the guidelines for big wheelers do not translate directly to small wheelers, but careful selection of the front geometry could make small wheel bicycles as stable as big wheel bicycles.
Keywords: Big wheel bicycle, design approach, ISO requirements, small wheel bicycle, stability and performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 666
273 A Robust Wheel Slip Controller for a Hybrid Braking System
Authors: Martin Ringdorfer, Martin Horn
Abstract:A robust wheel slip controller for electric vehicles is introduced. The proposed wheel slip controller exploits the dynamics of electric traction drives and conventional hydraulic brakes for achieving maximum energy efficiency and driving safety. Due to the control of single wheel traction motors in combination with a hydraulic braking system, it can be shown, that energy recuperation and vehicle stability control can be realized simultaneously. The derivation of a sliding mode wheel slip controller accessing two drivetrain actuators is outlined and a comparison to a conventionally braked vehicle is shown by means of simulation.
Keywords: Wheel slip control, sliding mode control, vehicle dynamics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1928
272 The Study on the Relationship between Momentum Profits and Psychological Factors: Evidence from Taiwan
Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang
Abstract:This study provides insight into the effects of investor sentiment, excess optimism, overconfidence, the disposition effect, and herding formation on momentum profits. This study contributes to the field by providing a further examination of the relationship between psychological factors and momentum profits. The empirical results show that there is no evidence of significant momentum profits in Taiwan’s stock market. Additionally, investor sentiment in Taiwan’s stock market significantly influences its momentum profits.
Keywords: Momentum profits, psychological factors, herding formation, investor sentiment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1063
271 Optimizing the Design of Radial/Axial PMSM and SRM used for Powered Wheel-Chairs
Authors: D. Fodorean, D.C. Popa, F. Jurca, M. Ruba
Abstract:the paper presents the optimization results for several electrical machines dedicated for powered electric wheel-chairs. The optimization, using the Hook-Jeeves algorithm, was employed based on a design approach which takes into consideration the road conditions. Also, through numerical simulations (based on finite element method), the analytical approach was validated. The optimization approach gave satisfactory results and the best suited variant was chosen for the motorization of the wheel-chair.
Keywords: electrical machines, numerical validation, optimization, electric wheel chair.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1965
270 A Theoretical Hypothesis on Ferris Wheel Model of University Social Responsibility
Authors: Le Kang
Abstract:According to the nature of the university, as a free and responsible academic community, USR is based on a different foundation —academic responsibility, so the Pyramid and the IC Model of CSR could not fully explain the most distinguished feature of USR. This paper sought to put forward a new model— Ferris Wheel Model, to illustrate the nature of USR and the process of achievement. The Ferris Wheel Model of USR shows the university creates a balanced, fairness and neutrality systemic structure to afford social responsibilities; that makes the organization could obtain a synergistic effect to achieve more extensive interests of stakeholders and wider social responsibilities.
Keywords: USR, Achievement model, Ferris wheel model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1270
269 Evaluating and Measuring the Performance Parameters of Agricultural Wheels
Authors: Ali Roozbahani, Aref Mardani, Roohollah Jokar, Hamid Taghavifar
Evaluating and measuring the performance parameters of wheels and tillage equipments under controlled conditions obligates the use of soil bin facility. In this research designing, constructing and evaluating a single-wheel tester has been studied inside a soil bin. The tested wheel was directly driven by the electric motor. Vertical load was applied by a power bolt on wheel. This tester can measure required draft force, the depth of tire sinkage, contact area between wheel and soil, and soil stress at different depths and in the both alongside and perpendicular to the direction of traversing. In order to evaluate the system preparation, traction force was measured by the connected S-shaped load cell as arms between the wheel-tester and carriage. Treatments of forward speed, slip, and vertical load at a constant pressure were investigated in a complete randomized block design. The results indicated that the traction force increased at constant wheel load. The results revealed that the maximum traction force was observed within the %15 of slip.
Keywords: Slip, single wheel-tester, soil bin, soil–machine, speed, traction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2176
268 Studies on Affecting Factors of Wheel Slip and Odometry Error on Real-Time of Wheeled Mobile Robots: A Review
Authors: D. Vidhyaprakash, A. Elango
In real-time applications, wheeled mobile robots are increasingly used and operated in extreme and diverse conditions traversing challenging surfaces such as a pitted, uneven terrain, natural flat, smooth terrain, as well as wet and dry surfaces. In order to accomplish such tasks, it is critical that the motion control functions without wheel slip and odometry error during the navigation of the two-wheeled mobile robot (WMR). Wheel slip and odometry error are disrupting factors on overall WMR performance in the form of deviation from desired trajectory, navigation, travel time and budgeted energy consumption. The wheeled mobile robot’s ability to operate at peak performance on various work surfaces without wheel slippage and odometry error is directly connected to four main parameters, which are the range of payload distribution, speed, wheel diameter, and wheel width. This paper analyses the effects of those parameters on overall performance and is concerned with determining the ideal range of parameters for optimum performance.
Keywords: Wheeled mobile robot (WMR), terrain, wheel slippage, odometry error, navigation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1080
267 Modeling of a Vehicle Wheel System Having a Built-in Suspension Structure Consisted of Radially Deployed Colloidal Spokes between Hub and Rim
Authors: Barenten Suciu
In this work, by replacing the traditional solid spokes with colloidal spokes, a vehicle wheel with a built-in suspension structure is proposed. Following the background and description of the wheel system, firstly, a vibration model of the wheel equipped with colloidal spokes is proposed, and based on such model the equivalent damping coefficients and spring constants are identified. Then, a modified model of a quarter-vehicle moving on a rough pavement is proposed in order to estimate the transmissibility of vibration from the road roughness to vehicle body. In the end, the optimal design of the colloidal spokes and the optimum number of colloidal spokes are decided in order to minimize the transmissibility of vibration, i.e., to maximize the ride comfort of the vehicle.
Keywords: Built-in suspension, colloidal spoke, intrinsic spring, vibration analysis, wheel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1792
266 A Comprehensive model for developing of Steer-By-Wire System
Authors: Reza Kazemi , Iman Mousavinejad
Steer-By-Wire ( SBW ) has several advantages of packaging flexibility , advanced vehicle control system ,and superior performance . SBW has no mechanical linkage between the steering gear and the steering column. It is possible to control the steering wheel and the front-wheel steering independently. SBW system is composed of two motors controlled by ECU. One motor in the steering wheel is to improve the driver's steering feel and the other motor in the steering linkage is to improve the vehicle maneuverability and stability. This paper shows a new approach at modeling of SBW system by Bond Graph theory. The mechanical parts , the steering wheel motor and the front wheel motor will be modeled by this theory. The work in the paper will help to guide further researches on control algorithm of the SBW system .
Keywords: Steer-By-Wire ( SBW ), Bond Graph theory, Electronic-Control-Unit ( ECU ) , ModelingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3482
265 The Wheel Garden: Project-Based Learning for Cross Curriculum Education
Authors: Sherry S. Herron, Douglas Magomo, Paula Gossard
In this article, we discuss project-based learning in the context of a wheel garden as an instructional tool in science and mathematics education. A wheel garden provides multiple opportunities to teach across the curriculum, to integrate disciplines, and to promote community involvement. Grounded in the theoretical framework of constructivism, the wheel garden provides a multidisciplined educational tool that provides a hands-on, non-traditional arena for learning. We will examine some of the cultural, art, science, and mathematics connections made with this project.
Keywords: Art education, cross-curriculum instruction, multicultural education, project-based learning, school gardens, task based learning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2680
264 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle
Authors: Barenten Suciu
In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.
Keywords: High-speed railway vehicle, hunting motion, wheel axle, damping, creep, vibration model, analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1007
263 Design and Analysis of MEMS based Accelerometer for Automatic Detection of Railway Wheel Flat
Authors: Rajib Ul Alam Uzzal, Ion Stiharu, Waiz Ahmed
This paper presents the modeling of a MEMS based accelerometer in order to detect the presence of a wheel flat in the railway vehicle. A haversine wheel flat is assigned to one wheel of a 5 DOF pitch plane vehicle model, which is coupled to a 3 layer track model. Based on the simulated acceleration response obtained from the vehicle-track model, an accelerometer is designed that meets all the requirements to detect the presence of a wheel flat. The proposed accelerometer can survive in a dynamic shocking environment with acceleration up to ±150g. The parameters of the accelerometer are calculated in order to achieve the required specifications using lumped element approximation and the results are used for initial design layout. A finite element analysis code (COMSOL) is used to perform simulations of the accelerometer under various operating conditions and to determine the optimum configuration. The simulated results are found within about 2% of the calculated values, which indicates the validity of lumped element approach. The stability of the accelerometer is also determined in the desired range of operation including the condition under shock.
Keywords: MEMS accelerometer, Pitch plane vehicle, wheel flat.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2939
262 Analysis of Rail Ends under Wheel Contact Loading
Authors: Nannan Zong, Manicka Dhanasekar
Abstract:The effect of the discontinuity of the rail ends and the presence of lower modulus insulation material at the gap to the variations of stresses in the insulated rail joint (IRJ) is presented. A three-dimensional wheel – rail contact model in the finite element framework is used for the analysis. It is shown that the maximum stress occurs in the subsurface of the railhead when the wheel contact occurs far away from the rail end and migrates to the railhead surface as the wheel approaches the rail end; under this condition, the interface between the rail ends and the insulation material has suffered significantly increased levels of stress concentration. The ratio of the elastic modulus of the railhead and insulation material is found to alter the levels of stress concentration. Numerical result indicates that a higher elastic modulus insulating material can reduce the stress concentration in the railhead but will generate higher stresses in the insulation material, leading to earlier failure of the insulation material
Keywords: Rail end, material interface, wheel-rail contact, stress, finite element methodProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2283
261 Ageing Deterioration of Hi gh-Density Polyethylene Cable Spacer under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
Authors: P. Kaewchanthuek, R. Rawonghad, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results of high-density polyethylene cable spacers for 22 kV distribution systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. The strength of anti-tracking and anti-erosion of cable spacer surface was studied in this study. During the test, dry band arc and corona discharge were observed on cable spacer surface. After 30,000 cycles of salt water dip wheel test, obviously surface erosion and tracking were observed especially on the ground end. Chemical analysis results by fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy showed chemical changed from oxidation and carbonization reaction on tested cable spacer. Increasing of C=O and C=C bonds confirmed occurrence of these reactions.
Keywords: Cable spacer, HDPE, ageing of cable spacer, salt water dip wheel test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3053
260 Damping and Stability Evaluation for the Dynamical Hunting Motion of the Bullet Train Wheel Axle Equipped with Cylindrical Wheel Treads
Authors: Barenten Suciu
Classical matrix calculus and Routh-Hurwitz stability conditions, applied to the snake-like motion of the conical wheel axle, lead to the conclusion that the hunting mode is inherently unstable, and its natural frequency is a complex number. In order to analytically solve such a complicated vibration model, either the inertia terms were neglected, in the model designated as geometrical, or restrictions on the creep coefficients and yawing diameter were imposed, in the so-called dynamical model. Here, an alternative solution is proposed to solve the hunting mode, based on the observation that the bullet train wheel axle is equipped with cylindrical wheels. One argues that for such wheel treads, the geometrical hunting is irrelevant, since its natural frequency becomes nil, but the dynamical hunting is significant since its natural frequency reduces to a real number. Moreover, one illustrates that the geometrical simplification of the wheel causes the stabilization of the hunting mode, since the characteristic quartic equation, derived for conical wheels, reduces to a quadratic equation of positive coefficients, for cylindrical wheels. Quite simple analytical expressions for the damping ratio and natural frequency are obtained, without applying restrictions into the model of contact. Graphs of the time-depending hunting lateral perturbation, including the maximal and inflexion points, are presented both for the critically-damped and the over-damped wheel axles.
Keywords: Bullet train, dynamical hunting, cylindrical wheels, damping, stability, creep, vibration analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 615
259 Kinematic Analysis of Roll Motion for a Strut/SLA Suspension System
Authors: Yung Chang Chen, Po Yi Tsai, I An Lai
The roll center is one of the key parameters for designing a suspension. Several driving characteristics are affected significantly by the migration of the roll center during the suspension-s motion. The strut/SLA (strut/short-long-arm) suspension, which is widely used in production cars, combines the space-saving characteristics of a MacPherson strut suspension with some of the preferred handling characteristics of an SLA suspension. In this study, a front strut/SLA suspension is modeled by ADAMS/Car software. Kinematic roll analysis is then employed to investigate how the rolling characteristics change under the wheel travel and steering input. The related parameters, including the roll center height, roll camber gain, toe change, scrub radius and wheel track width change, are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the strut/SLA suspension clearly has a higher roll center than strut and SLA suspensions do. The variations in the roll center height under roll analysis are very different as the wheel travel displacement and steering angle are added. The results of the roll camber gain, scrub radius and wheel track width change are considered satisfactory. However, the toe change is too large and needs fine-tuning through a sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: roll analysis, roll center height, steering, strut/SLA suspension, wheel travelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5197
258 Multiple Input Multiple Output Detection Using Roulette Wheel Based Ant Colony Optimization Technique
Authors: B. Rebekka, B. Malarkodi
Abstract:This paper describes an approach to detect the transmitted signals for 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) setup using roulette wheel based ant colony optimization technique. The results obtained are compared with classical zero forcing and least mean square techniques. The detection rates achieved using this technique are consistently larger than the one achieved using classical methods for 50 number of attempts with two different antennas transmitting the input stream from a user. This paves the path to use alternative techniques to improve the throughput achieved in advanced networks like Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks.
Keywords: MIMO, ant colony optimization, roulette wheel, soft computing, LTE.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 942
257 Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities
Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco
The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.
Keywords: Brake tester, wheel diameter, Ministry of transport facilities.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 851
256 Surface Pressure Distribution of a Flapped-Airfoil for Different Momentum Injection at the Leading Edge
Authors: Mohammad Mashud, S. M. Nahid Hasan
The aim of the research work is to modify the NACA 4215 airfoil with flap and rotary cylinder at the leading edge of the airfoil and experimentally study the static pressure distribution over the airfoil completed with flap and leading-edge vortex generator. In this research, NACA 4215 wing model has been constructed by generating the profile geometry using the standard equations and design software such as AutoCAD and SolidWorks. To perform the experiment, three wooden models are prepared and tested in subsonic wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out in various angles of attack. Flap angle and momentum injection rate are changed to observe the characteristics of pressure distribution. In this research, a new concept of flow separation control mechanism has been introduced to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil. Control of flow separation over airfoil which experiences a vortex generator (rotating cylinder) at the leading edge of airfoil is experimentally simulated under the effects of momentum injection. The experimental results show that the flow separation control is possible by the proposed mechanism, and benefits can be achieved by momentum injection technique. The wing performance is significantly improved due to control of flow separation by momentum injection method.
Keywords: Airfoil, momentum injection, flap and pressure distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 501
255 A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination
Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Younes Maalej
Abstract:In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.
Keywords: Air conditioning, desalination, condensation, design, desiccant wheel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1545
254 Development of a Cost Effective Two Wheel Tractor Mounted Mobile Maize Sheller for Small Farmers in Bangladesh
Authors: M. Israil Hossain, T. P. Tiwari, Ashrafuzzaman Gulandaz, Nusrat Jahan
Two-wheel tractor (power tiller) is a common tillage tool in Bangladesh agriculture for easy access in fragmented land with affordable price of small farmers. Traditional maize sheller needs to be carried from place to place by hooking with two-wheel tractor (2WT) and set up again for shelling operation which takes longer time for preparation of maize shelling. The mobile maize sheller eliminates the transportation problem and can start shelling operation instantly any place as it is attached together with 2WT. It is counterclockwise rotating cylinder, axial flow type sheller, and grain separated with a frictional force between spike tooth and concave. The maize sheller is attached with nuts and bolts in front of the engine base of 2WT. The operating power of the sheller comes from the fly wheel of the engine of the tractor through ‘V” belt pulley arrangement. The average shelling capacity of the mobile sheller is 2.0 t/hr, broken kernel 2.2%, and shelling efficiency 97%. The average maize shelling cost is Tk. 0.22/kg and traditional custom hire rate is Tk.1.0/kg, respectively (1 US$=Tk.78.0). The service provider of the 2WT can transport the mobile maize sheller long distance in operator’s seating position. The manufacturers started the fabrication of mobile maize sheller. This mobile maize sheller is also compatible for the other countries where 2WT is available for farming operation.
Keywords: Cost effective, mobile maize sheller, maize shelling capacity, small farmers, two-wheel tractor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 803
253 Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle
Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Shin-Ham Lee, Sheam-Chyun Lin
Abstract:A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.
Keywords: Balance control, synchronization control, two wheel inverted pendulum, TWIP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1390
252 An Intelligent Controller Augmented with Variable Zero Lag Compensation for Antilock Braking System
Authors: Benjamin C. Agwah, Paulinus C. Eze
Antilock braking system (ABS) is one of the important contributions by the automobile industry, designed to ensure road safety in such way that vehicles are kept steerable and stable when during emergency braking. This paper presents a wheel slip-based intelligent controller with variable zero lag compensation for ABS. It is required to achieve a very fast perfect wheel slip tracking during hard braking condition and eliminate chattering with improved transient and steady state performance, while shortening the stopping distance using effective braking torque less than maximum allowable torque to bring a braking vehicle to a stop. The dynamic of a vehicle braking with a braking velocity of 30 ms⁻¹ on a straight line was determined and modelled in MATLAB/Simulink environment to represent a conventional ABS system without a controller. Simulation results indicated that system without a controller was not able to track desired wheel slip and the stopping distance was 135.2 m. Hence, an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed with a variable zero lag compensator (VZLC) added to enhance the performance of FLC control variable by eliminating steady state error, provide improve bandwidth to eliminate the effect of high frequency noise such as chattering during braking. The simulation results showed that FLC-VZLC provided fast tracking of desired wheel slip, eliminated chattering, and reduced stopping distance by 70.5% (39.92 m), 63.3% (49.59 m), 57.6% (57.35 m) and 50% (69.13 m) on dry, wet, cobblestone and snow road surface conditions respectively. Generally, the proposed system used effective braking torque that is less than the maximum allowable braking torque to achieve efficient wheel slip tracking and overall robust control performance on different road surfaces.
Keywords: ABS, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Variable Zero Lag Compensator, Wheel Slip Tracking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 80
251 The Relationship between the Energy of Gravitational Field and the Representative Pseudotensor
Authors: R. I. Khrapko
As is known, the role of the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field is to extend the conservation law to the gravitational interaction by taking into account the energy and momentum of the gravitational field. We calculated the contribution of the Einstein pseudotensor to the total mass of a stationary material body and its gravitational field. It turned out that this contribution is positive, despite the fact that the mass-energy of a stationary gravitational field is negative. We concluded that the pseudotensor incorrectly describes the energy of the gravitational field. Nevertheless, this pseudotensor has been used in a large number of scientific works for 100 years. We explain this by the fact that the covariant component of the pseudotensor was regarded as the mass-energy. Besides, we prove the advantage of the covariant energy-momentum conservation law for matter in the Minkowski space-time.
Keywords: Conservation law, covariant integration, gravitation field, isolated system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 568
250 Scaling Strategy of a New Experimental Rig for Wheel-Rail Contact
Authors: Meysam Naeimi, Zili Li, Rolf Dollevoet
A new small–scale test rig developed for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) investigations in wheel–rail material. This paper presents the scaling strategy of the rig based on dimensional analysis and mechanical modelling. The new experimental rig is indeed a spinning frame structure with multiple wheel components over a fixed rail-track ring, capable of simulating continuous wheelrail contact in a laboratory scale. This paper describes the dimensional design of the rig, to derive its overall scaling strategy and to determine the key elements’ specifications. Finite element (FE) modelling is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the rig with two sample scale factors of 1/5 and 1/7. The results of FE models are compared with the actual railway system to observe the effectiveness of the chosen scales. The mechanical properties of the components and variables of the system are finally determined through the design process.
Keywords: New test rig, rolling contact fatigue, rail, small scale.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2204
249 Energetic Considerations for Sputter Deposition Processes
Authors: Dirk Hegemann, Martin Amberg
Sputter deposition processes, especially for sputtering from metal targets, are well investigated. For practical reasons, i.e. for industrial processes, energetic considerations for sputter deposition are useful in order to optimize the sputtering process. In particular, for substrates at floating conditions it is required to obtain energetic conditions during film growth that enables sufficient dense metal films of good quality. The influence of ion energies, energy density and momentum transfer is thus examined both for sputtering at the target as well as during film growth. Different regimes dominated by ion energy, energy density and momentum transfer were identified by using different plasma sources and by varying power input, pressure and bias voltage.
Keywords: Energy density, film growth, momentum transfer, sputtering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2319
248 Design and Motion Control of a Two-Wheel Inverted Pendulum Robot
Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Su-Shean Chen, Sheam-Chyun Lin
Two-wheel inverted pendulum robot (TWIPR) is designed with two-hub DC motors for human riding and motion control evaluation. In order to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum robot, accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are chosen. The mobile robot’s moving position and velocity were estimated based on DC motor built in hall sensors. The control kernel of this electric mobile robot is designed with embedded Arduino Nano microprocessor. A handle bar was designed to work as steering mechanism. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm for this mobile robot motion monitoring with different control purpose adjustment. The intelligent controllers were designed for balance control, and moving speed control purposes of this robot under different operation conditions and the control performance were evaluated based on experimental results.
Keywords: Balance control, speed control, intelligent controller and two wheel inverted pendulum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 881