A Review on the Mechanism Removal of Pesticides and Heavy Metal from Agricultural Runoff in Treatment Train
Pesticides have been used widely over the world in agriculture to protect from pests and reduce crop losses. However, it affects the environment with toxic chemicals. Exceed of toxic constituents in the ecosystem will result in bad side effects. The hydrological cycle is related to the existence of pesticides and heavy metal which it can penetrate through varieties of sources into the soil or water bodies, especially runoff. Therefore, proper mechanisms of pesticide and heavy metal removal should be studied to improve the quality of ecosystem free or reduce from unwanted substances. This paper reviews the use of treatment train and its mechanisms to minimize pesticides and heavy metal from agricultural runoff. Organochlorine (OCL) is a common pesticide that was found in the agricultural runoff. OCL is one of the toxic chemicals that can disturb the ecosystem such as inhibiting plants' growth and harm human health by having symptoms as asthma, active cancer cell, vomit, diarrhea, etc. Thus, this unwanted contaminant gives disadvantages to the environment and needs treatment system. Hence, treatment train by bioretention system is suitable because removal efficiency achieves until 90% of pesticide removal with selected vegetated plant and additive.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 335
 G. Merrington, Ed., Agricultural pollution: environmental problems and practical solutions. London: New York: Spon Press, 2002.
 W. Aktar, D. Sengupta, and A. Chowdhury, “Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards,” Interdiscip. Toxicol., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–12, Mar. 2009.
 B. S. Ismail, S. H. Haron, and Mohd. T. Latif, “Pesticide Residue Levels in the Surface Water of the Irrigation Canals in the Muda Irrigation Scheme Kedah, Malaysia,” vol. 12, no. 06, 2012.
 A. A. Rahman, C. M. Bajet, M. A. Matin, D. D. Nhan, and A. H. Sulaiman, “Ecotoxicology of pesticides in the tropical paddy field ecosystem,” Environ. Toxicol. Chem., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 59–70, 2009.
 N. A. A. Rahman and M. A. Omar, “Detection of Organochlorine Compound in Puyu, Sepat And Haruan Fish Caught From Irrigation Canals In Paddy Fields In Selangor And Perak, Malaysia,” p. 5, 2012.
 D. Gerrity, B. Pecson, R. S. Trussell, and R. R. Trussell, “Potable reuse treatment trains throughout the world,” J. Water Supply Res. Technol.-Aqua, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 321–338, Sep. 2013.
 M. Eisakhani, A. Pauzi, O. Karim, and A. Malakahmad, “Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia,” Malaysia, Dec. 2011, pp. 231–241.
 Pesticides Department Malaysia, “List of Banned Pesticides in Malaysia.” 2011.
 D. Sample and J. Liu, “Optimizing Rainwater Harvesting for the dual purposes of water supply and runoff capture,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. In press, Jul. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.03.075.
 S. Gülbaz, C. M. Kazezyılmaz-Alhan, and N. K. Copty, “Evaluation of Heavy Metal Removal Capacity of Bioretention Systems,” Water. Air. Soil Pollut., vol. 226, no. 11, p. 376, Nov. 2015.
 J. B. Braden and J. S. Shortle, “Agricultural Sources of Water Pollution,” Encyclopedia Energy. National Resource Environment Economy, pp. 81–85, 2013.
 N. V. Hariprasad and H. S. Dayananda, “Environmental Impact due to Agricultural runoff containing Heavy Metals – A Review,” vol. 3, no. 5, p. 6, 2013.
 S. Jiwan, “Effects of Heavy Metals on Soil, Plants, Human Health and Aquatic Life,” vol. 1, no. 2, p. 8, 2011.
 I. Mahmood, S. Imadi, K. Shazadi, A. Gul, and K. Hakeem, “Effects of Pesticides on Environment,” 2015.
 J. Mateo-Sagasta, S. Marjani Zadeh, and H. Turral, “Water pollution from agriculture: a global review,” Food Agric. Organ. U. N. Rome Int. Water Manag. Inst. Behalf Water Land Ecosyst. Res. Program Colombo, p. 35, 2017.
 V. Ochoa and B. Maestroni, “Pesticides in Water, Soil, and Sediments,” 2018, pp. 133–147.
 V. I. Lushchak, T. M. Matviishyn, V. V. Husak, J. M. Storey, and K. B. Storey, “Pesticide toxicity: a mechanistic approach,” EXCLI J. 17Doc1101 ISSN 1611-2156, 2018, doi: 10.17179/EXCLI2018-1710.
 M. R. Mispan, S. H. Haron, B. S. Ismail, N. F. A. Rahman, K. Khalid, and M. Z. A. Rasid, “The Use of Pesticides in Agriculture Area, Cameron Highlands,” vol. 15, p. 5, 2015.
 B. Ndayambaje, H. Amuguni, J. Coffin-Schmitt, N. Sibo, M. Ntawubizi, and E. VanWormer, “Pesticide Application Practices and Knowledge among Small-Scale Local Rice Growers and Communities in Rwanda: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health, vol. 16, no. 23, p. 4770, Nov. 2011.
 Zacharia and J. Tano, “Identity, Physical and Chemical Properties of Pesticides,” in Pesticides in the Modern World - Trends in Pesticides Analysis, M. Stoytcheva, Ed. InTech, 2011.
 V. J. Pereira, J. P. A. R. da Cunha, T. P. de Morais, J. P. R. de Oliveira, and J. B. de Morais, “Physical-chemical properties of pesticides: concepts, applications, and interactions with the environment,” Biosci. J., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 627–641, 2016.
 B. E. Osman and W. M. A. W. M. Khalik, “Data on organochlorine concentration levels in soil of lowland paddy field, Kelantan, Malaysia,” Data Brief, vol. 20, pp. 999–1003, Oct. 2018.
 M. J. M. Fuad et al., “The Impact of Pesticides On Paddy Farmers and Ecosystem,” p. 6, 2012.
 P. G. Meier, D. C. Fook, and K. F. Lagler, “Organochlorine pesticide residues in rice paddies in Malaysia, 1981,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 351–357, 2003.
 A. S. M. Sabere, Z. Zakaria, and I. B.S., “Comparison of the Level of Organochlorine Residues in Paddy Crops from Two Different Cultivation Practices,” Sains Malays., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1581–1584, 2013.
 D. D. Nhan et al., “Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the Red River Delta, North Vietnam,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 742–749, 2008.
 M. Teng, H. Zhang, Q. Fu, X. Lu, J. Chen, and F. Wei, “Irrigation-induced pollution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy field ecosystem of Liaohe River Plain, China,” Chin. Sci. Bull., vol. 58, no. 15, pp. 1751–1759, May 2013.
 K. Mishra, R. C. Sharma, and S. Kumar, “Contamination levels and spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soils from India,” Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 76, pp. 215–225, Feb. 2012.
 P. R. Salamah, “Pesticides,” WHO Training Package for the Health Sector World Health Organization, 2008.
 G. Foundation, “Pesticides and Their Applications in Agriculture,” vol. 2, no. 2, p. 8, 2018.
 I. Ali, O. M. L. Alharbi, Z. A. ALOthman, A. M. Al-Mohaimeed, and A. Alwarthan, “Modeling of fenuron pesticide adsorption on CNTs for mechanistic insight and removal in water,” Environ. Res., vol. 170, pp. 389–397, Mar. 2019.
 R. Jayaraj, P. Megha, and P. Sreedev, “Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment,” Interdiscip. Toxicol., vol. 9, no. 3–4, pp. 90–100, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1515/intox-2016-0012.
 A. A. Hermawan, A. Talei, B. Salamatinia, and L. H. C. Chua, “Seasonal performance of stormwater biofiltration system under tropical conditions,” Ecol. Eng., vol. 143, p. 105676, Jan. 2020.
 T. A. Adagunodo, L. A. Sunmonu, and M. E. Emetere, “Heavy metals’ data in soils for agricultural activities,” Data Brief, vol. 18, pp. 1847–1855, Jun. 2018.
 Qi Meng, “Research on effects of heavy metals on agricultural soil pollution and its control,” Chem. Eng. Trans., vol. 59, pp. 955–960, Jul. 2017.
 T. Arao, S. Ishikawa, M. Murakami, K. Abe, Y. Maejima, and T. Makino, “Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil and countermeasures in Japan,” Paddy Water Environ., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 247–257, Sep. 2010.
 “Heavy Metal Soil Contamination,” U. S. Dep. Agric., vol. 3, 2000.
 L. R. Alves, A. R. Dos Reis, and P. L. Gratão, “Heavy metals in agricultural soils: From plants to our daily life,” Científica, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 346, Jul. 2016, doi: 10.15361/1984-5529.2016v44n3p346-361.
 Y.-B. Guo, H. Feng, C. Chen, C.-J. Jia, F. Xiong, and Y. Lu, “Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil and Agricultural Products Near an Industrial District,” p. 6.
 A. K. Chopra, C. Pathak, and G. Prasad, “Scenario of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil and its management,” J. Appl. Nat. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 99–108, Jun. 2009.
 “Contamination of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils: Ecological and Health Risk Assessment,” vol. 2, p. 13, 2019.
 G. Tóth, T. Hermann, M. R. Da Silva, and L. Montanarella, “Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the European Union with implications for food safety,” Environ. Int., vol. 88, pp. 299–309, Mar. 2016.
 R. Proshad, S. Ahmed, M. Rahman, and T. Kumar, “Apportionment of Hazardous Elements in Agricultural Soils Around the Vicinity of Brick Kiln in Bangladesh,” J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol., vol. 07, no. 02, 2017.
 A. Singh, D. Zeng, and F. Chen, “Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India.,” J Env. Sci China, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 168–174, 2005.
 K. Ljung, A. Oomen, M. Duits, O. Selinus, and M. Berglund, “Bioaccessibility of metals in urban playground soils,” J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1241–1250, Jul. 2007.
 M. Rachwał, K. Kardel, T. Magiera, and O. Bens, “Application of magnetic susceptibility in assessment of heavy metal contamination of Saxonian soil (Germany) caused by industrial dust deposition,” Geoderma, vol. 295, pp. 10–21, Jun. 2017.
 P.-K. Lee, S.-J. Youm, and H. Y. Jo, “Heavy metal concentrations and contamination levels from Asian dust and identification of sources: A case-study,” Chemosphere, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 1018–1025, May 2013.
 N. Shaheen, N. Md. Irfan, I. N. Khan, S. Islam, Md. S. Islam, and Md. K. Ahmed, “Presence of heavy metals in fruits and vegetables: Health risk implications in Bangladesh,” Chemosphere, vol. 152, pp. 431–438, Jun. 2016.
 J. O. Duruibe, M. O. C. Ogwuegbu, and J. N. Egwurugwu, “Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects,” Int. J. Phys. Sci., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 112–118, 2007.
 H.-Y. Lai, Z.-Y. Hseu, T.-C. Chen, B.-C. Chen, H.-Y. Guo, and Z.-S. Chen, “Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3595–3614, Oct. 2010.
 J. G. Farmer et al., “A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 409, no. 23, pp. 4958–4965, Nov. 2011.
 M. B. Shakoor et al., “Heavy metal pollution, a global problem and its remediation by chemically enhanced phytoremediation: A Review,” p. 10, 2013.
 A. K. Rathoure and V. K. Dhatwalia, Eds., Toxicity and Waste Management Using Bioremediation: IGI Global, 2016.
 V. Masindi and K. L. Muedi, “Environmental Contamination by Heavy Metals,” in Heavy Metals, H. E.-D. M. Saleh and R. F. Aglan, Eds. InTech, 2018.
 F. Al-Badaii, A. A. Halim, and M. S. Othman, “Evaluation of Dissolved Heavy Metals in Water of the Sungai Semenyih (Peninsular Malaysia) using Environmetric Methods,” Sains Malays., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 841–852, 2016.
 S. K. Rudzi, Y. B. Ho, and I. I. A. Kharni, “Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil and Water and Associated Dermal Health Risk Among Farmers,” p. 9, 2018.
 A. Y. Sow, A. Ismail, and S. Z. Zulkifli, “Geofractionation of heavy metals and application of indices for pollution prediction in paddy field soil of Tumpat, Malaysia,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 8964–8973, Dec. 2013.
 C. Payus, A. F. A. Talip, and T. W. Hsiang, “Heavy Metals Accumulation in Paddy Cultivation Area of Kompipinan, Papar District, Sabah,” J. Sustain. Sci. Manag., vol. 10, pp. 76–78, 2015.
 R. Helmer, I. Hespanhol, United Nations Environment Programme, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, and World Health Organization, Eds., Water pollution control: a guide to the use of water quality management principles, 1st. ed. London; New York: E & FN Spon, 1997.
 S. Rost, D. Gerten, A. Bondeau, W. Lucht, J. Rohwer, and S. Schaphoff, “Agricultural green and blue water consumption and its influence on the global water system,” Water Resour. Res, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1–17, 2018.
 J. R. Mantena and N. Kondepudi, “Contamination of Irrigation Canals and Its Impact on Human Beings and Live Stock,” vol. 2, no. 9, p. 11, 2016.
 Y. Farina, “Pesticides Residues in Agricultural Soils and Its Health Assessment for Humans in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia,” Malays. J. Anal. Sci., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1346–1358, Dec. 2016.
 H. Abida and J. F. Sabourin, “Grass Swale-Perforated Pipe Systems for Stormwater Management,” J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 55–63, Feb. 2006, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2006)132:1(55).
 H. Takaijudin, A. M. Hashim, K. Vallyutham, A. H. A. Shahir, and A. Halim, “Implementation of Urban Stormwater Management Practices in Malaysia,” p. 6, 2015.
 A. Ab, “Challenges and developments of bioretention facilities in treating urban stormwater runoff; A review,” p. 21.
 D. L. Correll, “Principles of planning and establishment of buffer zones,” Ecol. Eng., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 433–439, May 2005.
 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research and Congress, Eds., The Role of Tropical Shrub with Enhanced Bioretention Media in Nutrient Rich Runoff Treatment. 2015.
 P. J. Favara et al., “Using a Treatment Train to Optimize DNAPL Source Zone Remediation,” p. 8.
 I. B. Jamaluddin, “Stormwater Quality Management in Malaysia,” pp. 1–41, 2014.
 Y. Zinger, G.-T. Blecken, T. D. Fletcher, M. Viklander, and A. Deletić, “Optimizing nitrogen removal in existing stormwater biofilters: Benefits and tradeoffs of a retrofitted saturated zone,” Ecol. Eng., vol. 51, pp. 75–82, Feb. 2013.
 A. Balasubramaniam and D. Nagaraju, “The Hydrologic Cycle,” University of Mysore, 2015.
 Z. M. Easton and E. Bock, “Hydrology Basics and the Hydrologic Cycle,” p. 9.
 R. E. Munn, Ed., Encyclopedia of global environmental change. Chichester; New York: Wiley, 2002.
 W. F. Ritter and A. Shirmohammadi, Eds., Agricultural nonpoint source pollution: watershed management and hydrology. Boca Raton, Fla: Lewis Publishers, 2001.
 M. Iorio, “Studies on sorption of ionic pesticides and HOCs on polymerin for potential decontamination of waste waters,” 2008.
 G. Laurenson, S. Laurenson, N. Bolan, S. Beecham, and I. Clark, “The Role of Bioretention Systems in the Treatment of Stormwater,” in Advances in Agronomy, vol. 120, Elsevier, 2013, pp. 223–274.
 M. Shafique, “A review of the bioretention system for sustainable storm water management in urban areas,” Mater. Geoenvironment, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 227–236, Oct. 2016.
 J. Liu, D. Sample, C. Bell, and Y. Guan, “Review and Research Needs of Bioretention Used for the Treatment of Urban Stormwater,” Water, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1069–1099, Apr. 2014.
 Y. Sun et al., “Organics removal, nitrogen removal and N2O emission in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems amended with/without biochar and sludge,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 249, pp. 57–61, Feb. 2018.
 J. Wang, Y. Zhao, L. Yang, N. Tu, G. Xi, and X. Fang, “Removal of Heavy Metals from Urban Stormwater Runoff Using Bioretention Media Mix,” Water, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 854, Nov. 2017.
 A. Skorobogatov, J. He, A. Chu, C. Valeo and B. V Duin, “The impact of media, plants and their interactions on bioretention performance: A review,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 715, p. 136918, May. 2020.
 S. Pascal and F. Laurent, “Phytoremediation Techniques for Pesticide Contaminations,” 2011, pp. 77–105.
 S. Yavari, A. Malakahmad, N. B. Sapari, and S. Yavari, “Nutrients balance for improvement of phytoremediation ability of teak seedlings (Tectona grandis),” J. Plant Nutr., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 545–551, Mar. 2018.
 K. S. Rajoo, A. Ismail, D. S. Karam, H. Omar, F. M. Muharam, and D. Zulperi, “Phytoremediation Studies on Arsenic Contaminated Soils in Malaysia,” p. 5, 2017.
 A. Hermawan, A. Talei, J. Leong, M. Jayatharan, H. Goh, and S. Alaghmand, “Performance Assessment of a Laboratory Scale Prototype Biofiltration System in Tropical Region,” Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 7, p. 1947, Apr. 2019.
 L. Weerasundara, C. N. Nupearachchi, P. Kumarathilaka, B. Seshadri, N. Bolan, and M. Vithanage, “Bio-retention Systems for Storm Water Treatment and Management in Urban Systems,” in Phytoremediation, A. A. Ansari, S. S. Gill, R. Gill, G. R. Lanza, and L. Newman, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 175–200.
 H. W. Goh, N. A. Zakaria, T. L. Lau, K. Y. Foo, C. K. Chang, and C. S. Leow, “Mesocosm study of enhanced bioretention media in treating nutrient rich stormwater for mixed development area,” Urban Water J., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb. 2017.
 W. F. Hunt, B. Lord, B. Loh, and A. Sia, Plant Selection for Bioretention Systems and Stormwater Treatment Practices. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2015.
 HTCKL, “The Regional Humid Tropics Hydrology and Water Resources Centre,” United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organizations & HTC, 2019.
 H. W. Goh et al., “A review of bioretention components and nutrient removal under different climates—future directions for tropics,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 14904–14919, May 2019.
 A. Jusoh, W. J. H. Hartini, N. Ali, and A. Endut, “Study on the removal of pesticide in agricultural run off by granular activated carbon,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 5312–5318, May 2011.
 M. Osman et al., “A Review of Nitrogen Removal for Urban Stormwater Runoff in Bioretention System,” Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 19, p. 5415, Sep. 2019.
 M. Ahmaruzzaman and V. K. Gupta, “Rice Husk and Its Ash as Low-Cost Adsorbents in Water and Wastewater Treatment,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 50, no. 24, pp. 13589–13613, Dec. 2011.
 H. T. Moh, I. A. W. Tan, and L. L. P. Lim, “Removal of Atrazine from Water Using Oil Palm Shell Based Adsorbents: Equilibrium and Kinetic Study,” J. Civ. Eng. Sci. Technol., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 18–23, Oct. 2013.
 P. S. Vankar, R. Sarswat, and D. S. Malik, “Biosorption of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions onto natural dye waste of Hibiscus rosa sinensis,” Environ. Prog. Sustain. Energy, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 421–427, Dec. 2010.
 S. M. Shehata, R. K. Badawy, and Y. I. E. Aboulsoud, “Phytoremediation of some heavy metals in contaminated soil,” Bull. Natl. Res. Cent., vol. 43, no. 1, p. 189, Dec. 2019.
 P. Ziarati, Shermineh Namvar, and B. Sawicka, “Heavy Metals Bio-Adsorption by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. From Contaminated Water,” May 2018.
 M. Omidvar Borna et al., “Batch and column studies for the adsorption of chromium(VI) on low-cost Hibiscus Cannabinus kenaf, a green adsorbent,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 68, pp. 80–89, Nov. 2016.
 R. Mallampati, L. Xuanjun, A. Adin, and S. Valiyaveettil, “Fruit Peels as Efficient Renewable Adsorbents for Removal of Dissolved Heavy Metals and Dyes from Water,” ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1117–1124, Jun. 2015.
 B. C. Wolverton, National Space Technology Laboratories (U.S.), and United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Aquatic Plants for Removal of Mevinphos from the Aquatic Environment. National Space Technology Laboratories, 2005.
 A. Dordio and A. Carvalho, “Constructed wetlands with light expanded clay aggregates for agricultural wastewater treatment,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 463-464C, pp. 454–461, Jul. 2013
 M. Moore et al., “Transport and Fate of Atrazine and Lambda-Cyhalothrin in an Agricultural Drainage Ditch in the Mississippi Delta, USA,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. - AGR ECOSYST Env., vol. 87, pp. 309–314, Dec. 2001.
 D. Elsaesser, C. Stang, N. Bakanov, and R. Schulz, “The Landau Stream Mesocosm Facility: Pesticide Mitigation in Vegetated Flow-Through Streams,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol. 90, Feb. 2013.
 S. Mahabali and P. Spanoghe, “Mitigation of Two Insecticides by Wetland Plants: Feasibility Study for the Treatment of Agricultural Runoff in Suriname (South America),” Water, vol. 225, Dec. 2014.