Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Artemia

6 The Efficiency of Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene (cox1) in Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relations among Some Crustacean Species

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Heba El-Sebaie Abd El-Sadek

Abstract:

Some Metapenaeus monoceros cox1 gene fragments were isolated, purified, sequenced, and comparatively analyzed with some other Crustacean Cox1 gene sequences (obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information). This work was designed for testing the efficiency of this system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among some Crustacean species belonging to four genera (Metapenaeus, Artemia, Daphnia and Calanus). The single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype diversity were calculated for all estimated mt-DNA fragments. The genetic distance values were 0.292, 0.015, 0.151, and 0.09 within Metapenaeus species, Calanus species, Artemia species, and Daphnia species, respectively. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree is clustered into some unique clades. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was a powerful system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among evaluated crustacean species.

Keywords: genetics, phylogeny, crustacean, Cox1

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5 Effect of Green Water and Mixed Zooplankton on Growth and Survival in Neon Tetra, Paracheirodon innesi (Myers, 1936) during Larval and Early Fry Rearing

Authors: S. V. Sanaye, H. S. Dhaker, R. M. Tibile, V. D. Mhatre

Abstract:

Larval rearing and seed production of most of tetra fishes (Family: Characidae) is critical due to their small size larvae and limited numbers of spawning attempts. During the present study the effect of different live foods on growth and survival of neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi larvae (length 3.1 ± 0.012mm, weight 0.048 ± 0.00015mg) and early fry (length = 6.44 ± 0.025mm, weight = 0.64 ± 0.003mg and 13 days old) was determined in two experiments. Experiment I was conducted for rearing the larvae by using mixed green water and Infusoria whereas, in Experiment II, early fry were fed with mixed zooplankton, decapsulated Artemia cyst and Artemia nauplii. The larvae fed on mixed green water showed significant (p<0.05) growth and survival when compared to those fed with infusoria. Similarly, the larvae fed with mixed zooplankton exhibited higher growth in terms of length gain (131.98%), weight gain (6658.78%), SGR (14.04%) and survival (95.23%) compared to the other treatments of decapsulated Artemia cyst and Artemia nauplii. The present study concluded that mixed green water and mixed zooplankton should be used as food for better growth and survival of the larvae and early fry of P. innesi, respectively.

Keywords: Growth, Mixed Green water, mixed zooplankton, Neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi

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4 Study on Phytochemical Properties, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera L.

Authors: K. Thu, Yin Y. Mon, Tin A. Khaing, Ohn M. Tun

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Aloe vera. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of A. vera revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids phenolic compounds, and etc. with absence of cyanogenic glycosides. Three different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide were used to screen the antimicrobial activity of A. vera leaves against four human clinical pathogens by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in methanol extract followed by ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide. It was also found that remarkable antibacterial activities with methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. vera compared with the standard antibiotic, tetracycline that was not active against E. coli and S. boydii and supported the view that A. vera is a potent antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic. Moreover, the brine shrimps (Artemia salina) toxicity test exhibited LC50 value was 569.52 ppm. The resulting data indicated that the A. vera plant have less toxic effects on brine shrimp. Hence, it is signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Cytotoxicity, brine shrimp, Aloe vera L, phytochemical properties

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3 Biometrical Comparison of Artemia urmiana G├╝nther, 1899 (Crustacea: Anostraca) Cysts between Rainy and Drought Years (1994-2003/4) from Urmia Lake, Iran

Authors: A. Asem, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, P. De Los Rios, R. Manaffar, F. Mohebbi

Abstract:

Nowadays, biometrical characterizations of Artemia cysts are used as one of the most important factors in the study of Artemia populations and intraspecific particularity; meanwhile these characters can be used as economical indices. For example, typically high hatching efficiency is possible due to the small diameter of cysts (high number per gram); therefore small diameter of cysts show someway high quality of cysts. This study was performed during a ten year period, including two different ecological conditions: rainy and drought. It is important from two different aspects because it covers alteration of A. urmiana during ten years also its variation in the best and worst environmental situations in which salinity increased from 173.8 ppt in 1994 to 280.8 ppt in 2003/4. In this study the biometrical raw data of Artemia urmiana cysts at seven stations from the Urmia Lake in 1994 and their seven identical locations at 26 studied stations in 2003/4 were reanalyzed again and compared together. Biometrical comparison of untreated and decapsulated cysts in each of the seven similar stations showed a highly significant variation between 1994 and 2003/4. Based on this study, in whole stations the untreated and decapsulated cysts from 1994 were larger than cysts of 2003/4 without any exception. But there was no logical relationship between salinity and chorion thickness in the Urmia Lake. With regard to PCA analyses the stations of two different studied years certainly have been separated with factor 1 from each other. In conclusion, the interaction between genetic and environmental factors can determine and explain variation in the range of cysts diameter in Artemia.

Keywords: Biometry, Cyst, Urmia Lake, Artemia urmiana

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2 A New Method for Rapid DNA Extraction from Artemia (Branchiopoda, Crustacea)

Authors: R. Manaffar, R. Maleki, S. Zare, N. Agh, S. Soltanian, B. Sehatnia, P. Sorgeloos, P. Bossier, G. Van Stappen

Abstract:

Artemia is one of the most conspicuous invertebrates associated with aquaculture. It can be considered as a model organism, offering numerous advantages for comprehensive and multidisciplinary studies using morphologic or molecular methods. Since DNA extraction is an important step of any molecular experiment, a new and a rapid method of DNA extraction from adult Artemia was described in this study. Besides, the efficiency of this technique was compared with two widely used alternative techniques, namely Chelex® 100 resin and SDS-chloroform methods. Data analysis revealed that the new method is the easiest and the most cost effective method among the other methods which allows a quick and efficient extraction of DNA from the adult animal.

Keywords: DNA extraction, APD, Artemia, Molecularexperiments

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1 Biological Characterization of the New Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana in Tunisia: Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel

Authors: Hachem Ben Naceur, Amel Ben Rejeb Jenhani, Mohamed Salah Romdhane

Abstract:

Endemic Artemia franciscana populations can be found throughout the American continent and also as an introduced specie in several country all over the world, such as in the Mediterranean region where Artemia franciscana was identified as an invasive specie replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. In the present study, the characterization of the new invasive Artemia franciscana reported from Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel (Tunisia) was done based on the cysts biometry, nauplii instar-I length, Adult sexual dimorphism and fatty acid profile. The mean value of the diameter of non-decapsulated and decapsulated cysts, chorion thickness and naupliar length is 235.8, 226.3, 4.75 and 426.8 μm, respectively. Sexual dimorphism for adults specimen showed that maximal distance between compound eyes, diameter for compound eyes, length of first antenna and the abdomen length compared to the total body length ratio, are the most important variables for males and females discrimination with a total contribution of 62.39 %. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profile of decapsulated cysts resulted in low levels of linolenic acid (LLA, C18:3n-3) and high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) with 3.11 and 11.10 %, respectively. Low quantity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) was also observed with 0.17 mg.g-1 dry weight.

Keywords: Biometry, Tunisia, fatty acid, Invasive Artemia franciscana, sexualdimorphism

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