Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Rajan Vohra

36 Contemplating Charge Transport by Modeling of DNA Nucleobases Based Nano Structures

Authors: Rajan Vohra, Ravinder Singh Sawhney, Kunwar Partap Singh


Electrical charge transport through two basic strands thymine and adenine of DNA have been investigated and analyzed using the jellium model approach. The FFT-2D computations have been performed for semi-empirical Extended Huckel Theory using atomistic tool kit to contemplate the charge transport metrics like current and conductance. The envisaged data is further evaluated in terms of transmission spectrum, HOMO-LUMO Gap and number of electrons. We have scrutinized the behavior of the devices in the range of -2V to 2V for a step size of 0.2V. We observe that both thymine and adenine can act as molecular devices when sandwiched between two gold probes. A prominent observation is a drop in HLGs of adenine and thymine when working as a device as compared to their intrinsic values and this is comparative more visible in case of adenine. The current in the thymine based device exhibit linear increase with voltage in spite of having low conductance. Further, the broader transmission peaks represent the strong coupling of electrodes to the scattering molecule (thymine). Moreover, the observed current in case of thymine is almost 3-4 times than that of observed for adenine. The NDR effect has been perceived in case of adenine based device for higher bias voltages and can be utilized in various future electronics applications.

Keywords: adenine, DNA, extended Huckel, thymine, transmission spectra

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35 Intermetallic Phases in the Fusion Weld of CP Ti to Stainless Steel

Authors: Juzar Vohra, Ravish Malhotra, Tim Pasang, Mana Azizi, Yuan Tao, Masami Mizutani


In this paper, dissimilar welding of titanium to stainless steels is reported. Laser Beam Welding (LBW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) were employed to join CPTi to SS304. The welds were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). FeTi, Ti2Cr and Fe2Ti dendrites are formed along with beta phase titanium matrix. The hardness values of these phases are high which makes them brittle and leading to cracking along the weld pool. However, it is believed that cracking, hence, fracturing of this weld joint is largely due to the difference in thermal properties of the two alloys.

Keywords: dissimilar metals, fusion welding, intermetallics, brittle

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34 Sustainable Manufacturing Framework for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Rajan Deglurkar


The research carried out in this piece of work is on 'Framework of Sustainable Manufacturing for Small and Medium Enterprises'. It consists of elucidation of concepts about sustainable manufacturing and sustainable product development with critical review performed on seven techniques of sustainable manufacturing. The work also covers the survey about critical review of awareness in the market with respect to the manufacturers and the consumers. The factors and challenges for sustainable manufacturing implementation are reviewed and simple framework is constructed for the small and medium enterprise for successful implementation of sustainable manufacturing and sustainable product.

Keywords: sustainable development, sustainable manufacturing, resource efficiency, framework for sustainable manufacturing

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33 Challenges in Video Based Object Detection in Maritime Scenario Using Computer Vision

Authors: Dilip K. Prasad, C. Krishna Prasath, Deepu Rajan, Lily Rachmawati, Eshan Rajabally, Chai Quek


This paper discusses the technical challenges in maritime image processing and machine vision problems for video streams generated by cameras. Even well documented problems of horizon detection and registration of frames in a video are very challenging in maritime scenarios. More advanced problems of background subtraction and object detection in video streams are very challenging. Challenges arising from the dynamic nature of the background, unavailability of static cues, presence of small objects at distant backgrounds, illumination effects, all contribute to the challenges as discussed here.

Keywords: autonomous maritime vehicle, object detection, situation awareness, tracking

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32 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan


The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM

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31 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo


The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load

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30 Effect of Copper Particle on the PD Characteristics in a Coaxial Duct with Mixture of SF6 (10%) and N2 (90%) Gases

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian


Insulation performance of a gas insulated system is severely affected by particle contaminants. These metallic particles adversely affect the characteristics of insulating system. These particles can produce surface charges due to partial discharge activities. These particles which are free to move enhance the local electric fields. This paper deals with the influence of conducting particle placed in a co-axial duct on the discharge characteristics of gas mixtures. Co-axial duct placed in a high pressure chamber is used for the purpose. A gas pressure of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa have been considered with a 10:90 SF6 and N2 gas mixtures. The 2D and 3D histograms of clean duct and duct with copper particle are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: coaxial duct, gas insulated system, gas mixtures, metallic particle, partial discharges, histograms

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29 Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain: A Pictorial Essay

Authors: Mahesh Hariharan, Rajan Balasubramaniam, Sharath Kumar Shetty, Shanthala Yadavalli, Mohammed Ahetasham, Sravya Devarapalli


Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected to mandate a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis.

Keywords: acute abdomen, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, plain radiographs, ultrasound

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28 Hydraulic Studies on Core Components of PFBR

Authors: G. K. Pandey, D. Ramadasu, I. Banerjee, V. Vinod, G. Padmakumar, V. Prakash, K. K. Rajan


Detailed thermal hydraulic investigations are very essential for safe and reliable functioning of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. These investigations are further more important for components with complex profile, since there is no direct correlation available in literature to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of such components directly. In those cases available correlations for similar profile or geometries may lead to significant uncertainty in the outcome. Hence experimental approach can be adopted to evaluate these hydraulic characteristics more precisely for better prediction in reactor core components. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a sodium cooled pool type reactor is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Several components of this reactor core require hydraulic investigation before its usage in the reactor. These hydraulic investigations on full scale models, carried out by experimental approaches using water as simulant fluid are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: fast breeder reactor, cavitation, pressure drop, reactor components

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27 Gel-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) in the Knee: Multicentric Short Term Study

Authors: Shaival Dalal, Nilesh Shah, Dinshaw Pardiwala, David Rajan, Satyen Sanghavi, Charul Bhanji


Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is used worldwide since 1998 to treat cartilage defect. GEL based ACI is a new tissue-engineering technique to treat full thickness cartilage defect with fibrin and thrombin as scaffold for chondrocytes. Purpose of this study is to see safety and efficacy of gel based ACI for knee cartilage defect in multiple centres with different surgeons. Gel-based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) has shown effectiveness in treating isolated cartilage defect of knee joint. Long term results are still needed to be studied. This study was followed-up up to two years and showed benefit to patients. All enrolled patients with a mean age of 28.5 years had an average defect size of3 square centimeters, and were grade IV as per ICRS grading. All patients were followed up several times and at several intervals at 6th week, 8th week, 11th week, 17th week, 29th week, 57th week after surgery. The outcomes were measured based on the IKDC (subjective and objective) and MOCART scores.

Keywords: knee, chondrocyte, autologous chondrocyte implantation, fibrin gel based

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26 Mixed Micellization Study of Adiphenine Hydrochloride with 1-Decyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Abbul B. Khan, Neeraj Dohare, Rajan Patel


The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (∆Gex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.

Keywords: adiphenine hydrochloride, critical micelle concentration, interaction parameter, activity coefficient

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25 Understanding Parental Style and Its Effect on the Wellbeing of Adolescents with Epilepsy

Authors: Arthy Vinayakam, Emilda Judith Ezhil Rajan


Adolescents with epilepsy living in developing country like India face many difficulties on stigma towards the disease. The psychological wellbeing of adolescents who are living with epilepsy has a varied influence on their daily activities and decision-making. Parental involvement with adolescents has always been a subject of caution. The dynamics in adolescents with epilepsy is much varied as their parental aspects has been known to have an impact on their education, socialization and wellbeing. The current study aims to identify the effect of parental styles, how they tend to effect the perception of self-concept that relate to the stigma in adolescents with epilepsy. A sample of 30 adolescents with epilepsy and their parents were taken; a control group of 30 adolescents and their parents were also taken. The General Health Questionnaire -12 was used as a screening for both groups to be included in the study. Parents were evaluated with Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ). Adolescents were administered the Epilepsy Stigma Scale (ESS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS) and Adolescent Wellbeing Scale (AWS). Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study highlight the challenges of both parent and their influence on adolescent’s wellbeing. The findings also establish the impact of parenting style on the stigma in adolescents having epilepsy and how this influences their self-concept whereby their emotional strength.

Keywords: epilepsy, parenting style, stigma, wellbeing

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24 Effect of Financing Sources on Firm Performance: A Study of Indian Private Limited Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Denila Jinny Arulraj, Thillai Rajan Annamalai


This paper aims to study the relationship between funding sources and firm performance of Indian private limited SMEs using cross-sectional data obtained from a nation-wide census. A unique feature of the study is that it analyses firms that use only one form of external funding. Employing Propensity Score Matching, we find that obtaining any form of external finance has a negative influence on equivalents of profit margin and return on assets and a negative influence on asset turnover of small firms. But, the impact of institutional sources of funding on small enterprises is found to be lesser than that of non-institutional sources of funding. External/institutional sources of funding have a less negative impact on the profit margin for medium enterprises and have no significant influence on other measures of performance. The contribution of this research is the discovery of institutional sources wielding a lesser influence on performance measures considered. It is also found that institutional sources can benefit small enterprises more than medium enterprises.

Keywords: external finance, institutional finance, non-institutional finance, performance, India, SME

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23 Challenges to Collaborative Learning in Architectural Education in the Middle East

Authors: Lizmol Mathew, Divya Thomas, Shiney Rajan


Educational paradigm all over the globe is undergoing significant reform today. Because of this, so-called flipped classroom model is becoming increasingly popular in higher education. Flipped classroom has proved to be more effective than traditional lecture based model as flipped classroom model promotes active learning by encouraging students to work on in collaborative tasks and peer-led learning during the class-time. However, success of flipped classrooms relies on students’ ability and their attitudes towards collaboration and group work. This paper examines: 1) Students’ attitudes towards collaborative learning; 2) Main challenges to successful collaboration from students’ experience and 3) Students’ perception of criteria for successful team work. 4) Recommendations for enhancing collaborative learning. This study’s methodology involves quantitative analysis of surveys collected from students enrolled in undergraduate Architecture program at Qatar University. Analysis indicates that in general students enrolled in the program do not have positive perceptions or experiences associated with group work. Positive and negative factors that influence collaborative learning in higher education have been identified. Recommendations for improving collaborative work experience have been proposed.

Keywords: architecture, collaborative learning, female, group work, higher education, Middle East, Qatar, student experience

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22 Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function

Authors: M. Sreedhar Babu, Vishal Garg, S. B. Akella, Shibu Clement, N. K. S Rajan


Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.

Keywords: combustion duration (CD), crank angle (CA), mass fraction burnt (MFB), producer sas (PG), Wiebe Combustion Model (WCM), wide open throttle (WOT)

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21 Seasonal Variation of the Unattached Fraction and Equilibrium Factor of ²²²Rn, ²²⁰Rn

Authors: Rajan Jakhu, Rohit Mehra


Radon (²²²Rn) and its decay products are the major sources of natural radiation exposure to general population. The activity concentrations of radon, thoron gasses, and their unattached and attached short-lived progeny in indoor environment of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan had been calculated via passive measurements using the Pinhole cup dosimeter, deposition based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) and wire mesh capped (DRPS/DTPS) progeny sensors. The results of this study revealed that radon and thoron concentrations (CRn, CTn) are highest in the winter season. The variation of the radon and its decay products are observed to vary seasonally, but these environmental parameters seem not to be affecting the thoron and its decay product concentrations in a regular manner. The average values of the radon and its decay products are maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The equilibrium factor for radon is observed to be 0.50, 0.47 and 0.49 in winter, rainy and summer seasons. The annual average value of the unattached fraction of the radon progeny comes out to be 0.34. On the other hand, the average value of thoron (²²⁰Rn) concentration and its equilibrium factor in the studied area comes to be 74, 39, 45 Bq m⁻³ and 0.07, 0.11, 0.07 respectively for the winter, rainy and summer seasons with the annual average value of the unattached fraction of about 0.18. The annual average radiological dose from exposure to indoor radon and thoron progeny comes out to be 0.88 and 0.78 mSv.

Keywords: equilibrium factor, radon, seasonal variation, thoron, unattached fraction

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20 Application of GPRS in Water Quality Monitoring System

Authors: V. Ayishwarya Bharathi, S. M. Hasker, J. Indhu, M. Mohamed Azarudeen, G. Gowthami, R. Vinoth Rajan, N. Vijayarangan


Identification of water quality conditions in a river system based on limited observations is an essential task for meeting the goals of environmental management. The traditional method of water quality testing is to collect samples manually and then send to laboratory for analysis. However, it has been unable to meet the demands of water quality monitoring today. So a set of automatic measurement and reporting system of water quality has been developed. In this project specifies Water quality parameters collected by multi-parameter water quality probe are transmitted to data processing and monitoring center through GPRS wireless communication network of mobile. The multi parameter sensor is directly placed above the water level. The monitoring center consists of GPRS and micro-controller which monitor the data. The collected data can be monitor at any instant of time. In the pollution control board they will monitor the water quality sensor data in computer using Visual Basic Software. The system collects, transmits and processes water quality parameters automatically, so production efficiency and economy benefit are improved greatly. GPRS technology can achieve well within the complex environment of poor water quality non-monitored, and more specifically applicable to the collection point, data transmission automatically generate the field of water analysis equipment data transmission and monitoring.

Keywords: multiparameter sensor, GPRS, visual basic software, RS232

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19 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Lens Esculenta Moench, Seeds

Authors: Vivek Kumar Gupta, Kripi Vohra, Monika Gupta


Pulses have been a vital ingredient of the balanced human diet in India. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus or Lens esculenta Moench.) is a common legume known since biblical times. Lentil seeds, with or without hulls, are cooked as dhal and this has been the main dish for millennia in the South Asian region. Oxidative stress can damage lipids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and DNA in cells and tissues, resulting in membrane damage, fragmentation or random cross linking of molecules like DNA, enzymes and structural proteins and even lead to cell death induced by DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation. These consequences of oxidative stress construct the molecular basis in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and autoimmune. The aim of the present work is to assess the antioxidant potential of the peteroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water extract of the Lens esculenta seeds. In vitro antioxidant assessment of the extracts was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay. The quantitative estimation of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content in extracts and in plant material, total saponin content, total alkaloid content, crude fibre content, total volatile content, fat content and mucilage content in drug material was also carried out. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity the acetone extract was found to possess significant hydrogen donating ability in DPPH (45.83%-93.13%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging system (28.7%-46.41%) than the peteroleum ether, methanol and water extracts. Total phenolic content in the acetone and methanol extract was found to be 608 and 188 mg gallic acid equivalent of phenol/g of sample respectively. Total flavonoid content of acetone and methanol extract was found to be 128 and 30.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of sample respectively. It is evident that acetone extract of Lentil seeds possess high levels of polyphenolics and flavonoids that could be utilized as antioxidants and neutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant, flavanoids, Lens esculenta, polyphenols

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18 Performance of Bored Pile on Alluvial Deposit

Authors: K. Raja Rajan, D. Nagarajan


Bored cast in-situ pile is a popular choice amongst consultant and contractor due to the ability to adjust the pile length suitably in case if any variation found in the actual geological strata. Bangladesh geological strata are dominated by silt content. Design is normally based on field test such as Standard Penetration test N-values. Initially, pile capacity estimated through static formula with co-relation of N-value and angle of internal friction. Initial pile load test was conducted in order to validate the geotechnical parameters assumed in design. Initial pile load test was conducted on 1.5m diameter bored cast in-situ pile. Kentledge method is used to load the pile for 2.5 times of its working load. Initially, safe working load of pile has been estimated as 570T, so test load is fixed to 1425T. Max load applied is 777T for which the settlement reached around 155mm which is more than 10% of diameter of piles. Pile load test results was not satisfactory and compelled to increase the pile length approximately 20% of its total length. Due to unpredictable geotechnical parameters, length of each pile has been increased which is having a major impact on the project cost and as well as in project schedule. Extra bore holes have been planned along with lab test results in order to redefine the assumed geotechnical parameters. This article presents detailed design assumptions of geotechnical parameters in the design stage and the results of pile load test which made to redefine the assumed geotechnical properties.

Keywords: end bearing, pile load test, settlement, shaft friction

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17 Doxorubicin and Cyclosporine Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles to Combat Multidrug Resistance

Authors: Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Shamala Nadaraju, Srinivasan Ramamurthy


Doxorubicin is the most widely used anticancer drugs in chemotherapy treatment. However, problems related to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) and acute cardiotoxicity have led researchers to investigate alternative forms of administering doxorubicin for cancer therapy. Several methods have been attempted to overcome MDR, including the co-administration of a chemosensitizer inhibiting the efflux caused by ATP binding cassette transporters with anticancer drugs, and the bypass of the efflux mechanism. Co encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) and cyclosporine A (CSA) into poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was emulsification-solvent evaporation method using polyvinyl alcohol as emulsion stabilizers. The Dox-CSA loaded nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential and PDI by light scattering analysis and thermal characterizations by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Loading efficiency (LE %) and in-vitro dissolution samples were evaluated by developed and validated HPLC method. The optimum particle size obtained is 298.6.8±39.4 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) is 0.098±0.092. Zeta potential is found to be -29.9±4.23. Optimum pH to increase Dox LE% was found 7.1 which gave 42.5% and 58.9% increase of LE% for pH 6.6 and pH 8.6 compared respectively. LE% achieved for Dox is 0.07±0.01 % and CSA is 0.09±0.03%. Increased volume of PVA and weight of PLGA shows increase in size of nanoparticles. DSC thermograms showed shift in the melting peak for the nanoparticles compared to Dox and CSA indicating encapsulation of drugs. In conclusion, these preliminary studies showed the feasibility of PLGA nanoparticles to entrap Dox and CSA and require future in-vivo studies to be performed to establish its potential.

Keywords: doxorubicin, cyclosporine, PLGA, nanoparticles

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16 Role of Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Study from North India

Authors: Alka Yadav, Mayank Jain, Rajan Saxena, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani, Ashok Kumar


Purpose: To study the mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and its clinicopathological correlation in colorectal cancer patients in North India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on histologically proven 52 (38 males and 14 females) patients with adenocarcinoma of colorectum. MMR protein loss was determined by using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. Results: 52 patients (38 males and 14 females) underwent resection for colorectal cancer with the median age of 52 years (16-81 years). 35% of the patients (n=18) were younger than 50 years of the age. 3 patients had associated history of malignancy in the family. 29 (56%) patients had right colon cancer, 9 (17%) left colon cancer and 14 (27%) rectal cancer. 2 patients each had synchronous and metachronous cancer. Histology revealed well-differentiated tumour in 16, moderately differentiated in 10 and poorly differentiated tumour in 26 patients. MMR protein loss was seen in 15 (29%) patients. Seven (46%) of these patients were less than 50 years of age. Combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was seen most commonly and it was found in 6 patients. 12 (80%) patients with MMR protein loss had tumour located proximal to the splenic flexure compared to 3 (20%) located distal to the splenic flexure. There was no difference in MMR protein loss based on patients' age, gender, degree of tumour differentiation, stage of the disease and tumour histological characteristics. Conclusions: This study revealed that there was less than 30% MMR protein loss in colorectal cancer patients. The loss was most commonly seen in right sided colon cancer than left. A larger study is further required to validate these findings.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, mismatch repair protein, immunohitochemistry, clinicopathological correlation

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15 Efficacy and Safety of Probiotic Treatment in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Samir Malhotra, Rajan K. Khandotra, Rakesh K. Dhiman, Neelam Chadha


There is paucity of data about safety and efficacy of probiotic treatment on patient outcomes in cirrhosis. Specifically, it is important to know whether probiotics can improve mortality, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), number of hospitalizations, ammonia levels, quality of life, and adverse events. Probiotics may improve outcomes in patients with acute or chronic HE. However, it is also important to know whether probiotics can prevent development of HE, even in situations where patients do not have acute HE at the time of administration. It is also important to know if probiotics are useful as primary prophylaxis of HE. We aimed to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of probiotics in patients with cirrhosis. We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Scopus, SCI, Google Scholar, conference proceedings, and references of included studies till June 2017 to identify randomised clinical trials comparing probiotics with other treatments in cirrhotics. Data was analyzed using MedCalc. Probiotics had no effect on mortality but significantly reduced HE (14 trials, 1073 patients, OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.282 to 0.489). There was not enough data to conduct a meta-analysis on outcomes like hospitalizations and quality of life. The effect on plasma ammonia levels was not significant (SMD -0.429; 95%CI -1.034 – 0.177). There was no difference in adverse events. To conclude, although the included studies had a high risk of bias, the available evidence does suggest a beneficial effect on HE. Larger studies with longer periods of follow-up are needed to determine if probiotics can reduce all-cause mortality.

Keywords: cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy, meta-analysis, probiotic

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14 A Comparative Study of Public and Private School Adolescent Girls on the Issues of Menstrual Hygiene and the Management Issues

Authors: Ashok Pandey, Rajan Adhikari


Introduction: Menstruation is part of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature at the time of puberty. It is a phenomenon unique to the females. During a menstrual period, a woman bleeds from her uterus via the vagina. For decades, in many countries, academic school ‘type,’ private or public, as a predictor of or factor in future academic success has been researched and debated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative study was carried out with adolescent girls studying in both public and private schools of Kathmandu valley. A total of 100 girls participated in the survey, and out of them 21 participated in the FGD and 5 in the in- depth interview. Quantitative data from the survey was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software. Informed verbal consent with the respective head of school and the respondents were taken before data collection. Results:The age of the respondents ranges from 11 to 18 years, with mean age of menarche being 12.37 years in both school adolescent girls. 70 percent of the public school adolescent girls and 72 percent of the private school adolescent girls are feeling upset and tension during menarche. There is a statistically significant difference on take rest during the period and good hygienic practice during menstruation of public/private school, at α=0. 05 level of significance. There is a statistically significant difference on overall score of practice during menstruation between public and private adolescent girls. Conclusion: Private schools children are more knowledgeable and maintain hygiene as compere to public school even though, it can be said that among the adolescent school girls both in public and private school, menstrual knowledge and perceptions are poor and practices often not optimal for proper hygiene. Often ignored issues of privacy affect the hygienic practices and daily lives.

Keywords: Comparison, Menstruation, Private school, Public School

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13 Feasibility Study on the Use of HEMS for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Residential Buildings

Authors: K. C. Rajan, H. B. Rijal, Kazui Yoshida, Masanori Shukuya


The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.

Keywords: energy reduction, thermal comfort, HEMS utility, thermal environment

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12 Influence of Hydrophobic Surface on Flow Past Square Cylinder

Authors: S. Ajith Kumar, Vaisakh S. Rajan


In external flows, vortex shedding behind the bluff bodies causes to experience unsteady loads on a large number of engineering structures, resulting in structural failure. Vortex shedding can even turn out to be disastrous like the Tacoma Bridge failure incident. We need to have control over vortex shedding to get rid of this untoward condition by reducing the unsteady forces acting on the bluff body. In circular cylinders, hydrophobic surface in an otherwise no-slip surface is found to be delaying separation and minimizes the effects of vortex shedding drastically. Flow over square cylinder stands different from this behavior as separation can takes place from either of the two corner separation points (front or rear). An attempt is made in this study to numerically elucidate the effect of hydrophobic surface in flow over a square cylinder. A 2D numerical simulation has been done to understand the effects of the slip surface on the flow past square cylinder. The details of the numerical algorithm will be presented at the time of the conference. A non-dimensional parameter, Knudsen number is defined to quantify the slip on the cylinder surface based on Maxwell’s equation. The slip surface condition of the wall affects the vorticity distribution around the cylinder and the flow separation. In the numerical analysis, we observed that the hydrophobic surface enhances the shedding frequency and damps down the amplitude of oscillations of the square cylinder. We also found that the slip has a negative effect on aerodynamic force coefficients such as the coefficient of lift (CL), coefficient of drag (CD) etc. and hence replacing the no slip surface by a hydrophobic surface can be treated as an effective drag reduction strategy and the introduction of hydrophobic surface could be utilized for reducing the vortex induced vibrations (VIV) and is found as an effective method in controlling VIV thereby controlling the structural failures.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow past square cylinder, flow control, hydrophobic surfaces, vortex shedding

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11 Analysis of Lift Arm Failure and Its Improvement for the Use in Farm Tractor

Authors: Japinder Wadhawan, Pradeep Rajan, Alok K. Saran, Navdeep S. Sidhu, Daanvir K. Dhir


Currently, research focus in the development of agricultural equipment and tractor parts in India is innovation and use of alternate materials like austempered ductile iron (ADI). Three-point linkage mechanism of the tractor is susceptible to unpredictable load conditions in the field, and one of the critical components vulnerable to failure is lift arm. Conventionally, lift arm is manufactured either by forging or casting (SG Iron) and main objective of the present work is to reduce the failure occurrences in the lift arm, which is achieved by changing the manufacturing material, i.e ADI, without changing existing design. Effect of four pertinent variables of manufacturing ADI, viz. austenitizing temperature, austenitizing time, austempering temperature, austempering time, was investigated using Taguchi method for design of experiments. To analyze the effect of parameters on the mechanical properties, mean average and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was calculated based on the design of experiments with L9 orthogonal array and the linear graph. The best combination for achieving the desired mechanical properties of lift arm is austenitization at 860°C for 90 minutes and austempering at 350°C for 60 minutes. Results showed that the developed component is having 925 MPA tensile strength, 7.8 per cent elongation and 120 joules toughness making it more suitable material for lift arm manufacturing. The confirmatory experiment has been performed and found a good agreement between predicted and experimental value. Also, the CAD model of the existing design was developed in computer aided design software, and structural loading calculations were performed by a commercial finite element analysis package. An optimized shape of the lift arm has also been proposed resulting in light weight and cheaper product than the existing design, which can withstand the same loading conditions effectively.

Keywords: austempered ductile iron, design of experiment, finite element analysis, lift arm

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10 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Cross Flow on Discharge Coefficient of an Orifice

Authors: Mathew Saxon A, Aneeh Rajan, Sajeev P


Many fluid flow applications employ different types of orifices to control the flow rate or to reduce the pressure. Discharge coefficients generally vary from 0.6 to 0.95 depending on the type of the orifice. The tabulated value of discharge coefficients of various types of orifices available can be used in most common applications. The upstream and downstream flow condition of an orifice is hardly considered while choosing the discharge coefficient of an orifice. But literature shows that the discharge coefficient can be affected by the presence of cross flow. Cross flow is defined as the condition wherein; a fluid is injected nearly perpendicular to a flowing fluid. Most researchers have worked on water being injected into a cross-flow of water. The present work deals with water to gas systems in which water is injected in a normal direction into a flowing stream of gas. The test article used in the current work is called thermal regulator, which is used in a liquid rocket engine to reduce the temperature of hot gas tapped from the gas generator by injecting water into the hot gas so that a cooler gas can be supplied to the turbine. In a thermal regulator, water is injected through an orifice in a normal direction into the hot gas stream. But the injection orifice had been calibrated under backpressure by maintaining a stagnant gas medium at the downstream. The motivation of the present study aroused due to the observation of a lower Cd of the orifice in flight compared to the calibrated Cd. A systematic experimental investigation is carried out in this paper to study the effect of cross-flow on the discharge coefficient of an orifice in water to a gas system. The study reveals that there is an appreciable reduction in the discharge coefficient with cross flow compared to that without cross flow. It is found that the discharge coefficient greatly depends on the ratio of momentum of water injected to the momentum of the gas cross flow. The effective discharge coefficient of different orifices was normalized using the discharge coefficient without cross-flow and it is observed that normalized curves of effective discharge coefficient of different orifices with momentum ratio collapsing into a single curve. Further, an equation is formulated using the test data to predict the effective discharge coefficient with cross flow using the calibrated Cd value without cross flow.

Keywords: cross flow, discharge coefficient, orifice, momentum ratio

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9 Sustainable Development Goals and Gender Equality: Impact of Unpaid Labor on Women’s Leadership in India

Authors: Swati Vohra


A genuine economic and social transformation requires equal contribution and participation from both men and women; however, achieving this gender parity is a global concern. In the patriarchal societies around the world, women have been silenced, oppressed, and subjugated. Girls and women comprise half of the world’s population. This, however, must not be the lone reason for recognizing and providing equal opportunities to them. Every individual has a right to develop through opportunities without the biases of gender, caste, race, or ethnicity. The world today is confronted by pressing issues of climate change, economic crisis, violence against women and children, escalating conflicts, to name a few. Achieving gender parity is thus an essential component in meeting this wide array of challenges in order to create just, robust and inclusive societies. In 2015, The United Nation enunciated achieving 17 Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, one of which is SGD#5- Gender Equality, that is not merely a stand-alone goal. It is central to the achievement of all 17 SDG’s. Without progress on gender equality, the global community will not only fail to achieve the SDG5, but it will also lose the impetus towards achieving the broad 2030 agenda. This research is based on a hypothesis that aims to connect the targets laid by the UN under SDG#5 - 5.4 (Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work) and 5.5 (Ensure women participation for leadership at all levels of decision-making). The study evaluates the impact of unpaid household responsibilities on women’s leadership in India. In Indian society, women have experienced a low social status for centuries, which is reflected throughout the Indian history with preference of a male child and common occurrences of female infanticides that are still prevalent in many parts of the country. Insistence on the traditional gender roles builds patriarchal inequalities into the structure of Indian society. It is argued that a burden of unpaid labor on women is placed, which narrows the opportunities and life chances women are given and the choices they are able to make, thereby shutting them from shared participation in public and economic leadership. The study investigates theoretical framework of social construction of gender, unpaid labor, challenges to women leaders and peace theorist perspective as the core components. The methodology used is qualitative research of comprehensive literature, accompanied by the data collected through interviews of representatives of women leaders from various fields within Delhi-National Capital Region (NCR). The women leaders interviewed had the privilege of receiving good education and a conducive family support; however, post marriage and children it was not the case and the social obligations weighed heavy on them. The research concludes by recommending the importance of gender-neutral parenting and education along with government ratified paternal leaves for at least six months and childcare facilities available for both the parents at workplace.

Keywords: gender equality, gender roles, peace studies, sustainable development goals, social construction, unpaid labor, women’s leadership

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8 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar


Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

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7 Numerical Investigation of Effect of Throat Design on the Performance of a Rectangular Ramjet Intake

Authors: Subrat Partha Sarathi Pattnaik, Rajan N.K.S.


Integrated rocket ramjet engines are highly suitable for long range missile applications. Designing the fixed geometry intakes for such missiles that can operate efficiently over a range of operating conditions is a highly challenging task. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate the effect of throat design on the performance of a rectangular mixed compression intake for operation in the Mach number range of 1.8 – 2.5. The analysis has been carried out at four different Mach numbers of 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.5 and two angle-of-attacks of +5 and +10 degrees. For the throat design, three different throat heights have been considered, one corresponding to a 3- external shock design and two heights corresponding to a 2-external shock design leading to different internal contraction ratios. The on-design Mach number for the study is M 2.2. To obtain the viscous flow field in the intake, the theoretical designs have been considered for computational fluid dynamic analysis. For which Favre averaged Navier- Stokes (FANS) equations with two equation SST k-w model have been solved. The analysis shows that for zero angle of attack at on-design and high off-design Mach number operations the three-ramp design leads to a higher total pressure recovery (TPR) compared to the two-ramp design at both contraction ratios maintaining same mass flow ratio (MFR). But at low off-design Mach numbers the total pressure shows an opposite trend that is maximum for the two-ramp low contraction ratio design due to lower shock loss across the external shocks similarly the MFR is higher for low contraction ratio design as the external ramp shocks move closer to the cowl. At both the angle of attack conditions and complete range of Mach numbers the total pressure recovery and mass flow ratios are highest for two ramp low contraction design due to lower stagnation pressure loss across the detached bow shock formed at the ramp and lower mass spillage. Hence, low contraction design is found to be suitable for higher off-design performance.

Keywords: internal contraction ratio, mass flow ratio, mixed compression intake, performance, supersonic flows

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