Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: shellac

3 New Coating Materials Based on Mixtures of Shellac and Pectin for Pharmaceutical Products

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M. Tabatabaeifar, M. Helmis

Abstract:

Shellac is a natural polyester resin secreted by insects. Pectins are natural, non-toxic and water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the peels of citrus fruits or the leftovers of apples. Both polymers are allowed for the use in the pharmaceutical industry and as a food additive. SSB Aquagold® is the aqueous solution of shellac and can be used for a coating process as an enteric or controlled drug release polymer. In this study, tablets containing 10 mg methylene blue as a model drug were prepared with a rotary press. Those tablets were coated with mixtures of shellac and one of the pectin different types (i.e. CU 201, CU 501, CU 701 and CU 020) mostly in a 2:1 ratio or with pure shellac in a small scale fluidized bed apparatus. A stable, simple and reproducible three-stage coating process was successfully developed. The drug contents of the coated tablets were determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characterization of the surface and the film thickness were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the light microscopy. Release studies were performed in a dissolution apparatus with a basket. Most of the formulations were enteric coated. The dissolution profiles showed a delayed or sustained release with a lagtime of at least 4 h. Dissolution profiles of coated tablets with pure shellac had a very long lagtime ranging from 13 to 17.5 h and the slopes were quite high. The duration of the lagtime and the slope of the dissolution profiles could be adjusted by adding the proper type of pectin to the shellac formulation and by variation of the coating amount. In order to apply a coating formulation as a colon delivery system, the prepared film should be resistant against gastric fluid for at least 2 h and against intestinal fluid for 4-6 h. The required delay time was gained with most of the shellac-pectin polymer mixtures. The release profiles were fitted with the modified model of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the Hixson-Crowell model. A correlation coefficient (R²) > 0.99 was obtained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

Keywords: shellac, pectin, coating, fluidized bed, release, colon delivery system, kinetic, SEM, methylene blue

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2 Investigation of Additives' Corrosion Inhibition Effects on Dye

Authors: Abdullah Bilal Ozturk, Nil Acarali, Hediye Irem Ozgunduz, Hava Gizem Kandilci, Hanifi Sarac

Abstract:

In this study, zeolite, shellac and different boron chemicals were used as additive to dye and effects were comprehensively investigated. Considering previous studies additive materials that had not used before were determined for produce dye with physical properties. Literature research about the materials provides determining easily sufficient amount of additive materials. Accessible of additives or yearly production amounts are become important issue at selection of materials. Zeolite and boron chemicals are suitable selection in that easy access and has large amount of production in our country. Previous research about boron chemicals shows they have flame retardant effect on textile materials besides numerous usage areas. Also, from previous research, shellac was used widely for protection and insulation of metallic materials. Zeolite added to dye to increase adhesive effect of dye. In this study, corrosion tests were applied to find out if there are positive effects of zeolite, shellac, and boron chemicals to dye’s physical properties.

Keywords: dye, corrosion, zeolite, shellac, boron

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1 Strategies of Drug Discovery in Insects

Authors: Alaaeddeen M. Seufi

Abstract:

Many have been published on therapeutic derivatives from living organisms including insects. In addition to traditional maggot therapy, more than 900 therapeutic products were isolated from insects. Most people look at insects as enemies and others believe that insects are friends. Many beneficial insects rather than Honey Bees, Silk Worms and Shellac insect could insure human-insect friendship. In addition, insects could be MicroFactories, Biosensors or Bioreactors. InsectFarm is an amazing example of the applied research that transfers insects from laboratory to market by Prof Mircea Ciuhrii and co-workers. They worked for 18 years to derive therapeutics from insects. Their research resulted in production of more than 30 commercial medications derived from insects (e.g. Imunomax, Noblesse, etc.). Two general approaches were followed to discover drugs from living organisms. Some laboratories preferred biochemical approach to purify components of the innate immune system of insects and insect metabolites as well. Then the purified components could be tested for many therapeutic trials. Other researchers preferred molecular approach based on proteomic studies. Components of the innate immune system of insects were then tested for their medical activities. Our Laboratory team preferred to induce insect immune system (using oral, topical and injection routes of administration), then a transcriptomic study was done to discover the induced genes and to identify specific biomarkers that can help in drug discovery. Biomarkers play an important role in medicine and in drug discovery and development as well. Optimum biomarker development and application will require a team approach because of the multifaceted nature of biomarker selection, validation, and application. This team uses several techniques such as pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacogenomics, and functional proteomics; bioanalytical development and validation; modeling and simulation to improve and refine drug development. Our Achievements included the discovery of four components of the innate immune system of Spodoptera littoralis and Musca domestica. These components were designated as SpliDef (defesin), SpliLec (lectin), SpliCec (cecropin) and MdAtt (attacin). SpliDef, SpliLec and MdAtt were confirmed as antimicrobial peptides, while SpliCec was additionally confirmed as anticancer peptide. Our current research is going on to achieve something in antioxidants and anticoagulants from insects. Our perspective is to achieve something in the mass production of prototypes of our products and to reach it to the commercial level. These achievements are the integrated contributions of everybody in our team staff.

Keywords: AMPs, insect, innate immunitty, therappeutics

Procedia PDF Downloads 293