Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: pear Psylla

31 Profiling the Volatile Metabolome in Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to the Pear Psylla Cacopsylla bidens (Sulc) and Characterization of Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase

Authors: Mwafaq Ibdah, Mossab, Yahyaa, Dor Rachmany, Yoram Gerchman, Doron Holland, Liora Shaltiel-Harpaz


Pear Psylla is the most important pest of pear in all pear-growing regions, in Asian, European, and the USA. Pear psylla damages pears in several ways: high-density populations of these insects can cause premature leaf and fruit drop, diminish plant growth, and reduce fruit size. In addition, their honeydew promotes sooty mold on leaves and russeting on fruit. Pear psyllas are also considered vectors of pear pathogens such as Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri causing pear decline that can lead to loss of crop and tree vigor, and sometimes loss of trees. Psylla control is a major obstacle to efficient integrated pest management. Recently we have identified two naturally resistance pear accessions (Py.760-261 and Py.701-202) in the Newe Ya’ar live collection. GC-MS volatile metabolic profiling identified several volatile compounds common in these accessions but lacking, or much less common, in a sensitive accession, the commercial Spadona variety. Among these volatiles were styrene and its derivatives. When the resistant accessions were used as inter-stock, the volatile compounds appear in commercial Spadona scion leaves, and it showed reduced susceptibility to pear psylla. Laboratory experiments and applications of some of these volatile compounds were very effective against psylla eggs, nymphs, and adults. The genes and enzymes involved in the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of styrene in plant are unknown. We have identified a phenolic acid decarboxylase that catalyzes the formation of p-hydroxystyrene, which occurs as a styrene analog in resistant pear genotypes. The His-tagged and affinity chromatography purified E. coli-expressed pear PyPAD1 protein could decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid to p-hydroxystyrene and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxystyrene. In addition, PyPAD1 had the highest activity toward p-coumaric acid. Expression analysis of the PyPAD gene revealed that its expressed as expected, i.e., high when styrene levels and psylla resistance were high.

Keywords: pear Psylla, volatile, GC-MS, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
30 Refinery Sulfur as an Alternative Agent to Decrease Pesticide Exposure in Pistachio Orchards and Common Pistachio Psylla’s Control

Authors: Mehdi Basirat, Mohammad Rouhani, Shahla Borzouei, Majid Zarangi, Asma Abolghasemi, Mohammad Fazel Soltani, Mohammad Gorji, Mohammad Amin Samih


The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), as one of the most detrimental pests in all pistachio producing regions, causes great economic damages to pistachio trees. Nowadays, various pesticides are used to control the common pistachio psylla and robust pesticide exposure has occurred in orchards. In this study, field experiments were conducted during 2018–2021 to assess the effects of sulfur on A. pistaciae. This study compared sulfur with asafoetida extract and pesticide (acetamiprid) on A. pistaciae based on complete randomized blocks with three replications. The analysis results of variance showed that the effect of treatments on egg (F2,24 = 17.61, P = 0.00) and nymphs (F2,24 = 18.29, P = 0.00) had a significant difference at a 1% level. The results demonstrated that sulfur had the highest measure of control on eggs and nymphs significantly compared to the plant extract and pesticide (negative control). These results provide support to the potential use of sulfur as an alternative pest management tool against A. pistaciae. The results clearly indicated that sulfur could control the common pistachio psylla population for six weeks at least.

Keywords: Agonoscena pistaciae, pesticide exposure, pistachio, sulfur

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
29 Spatial Distribution of Cellular Water in Pear Fruit: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Md. Imran H. Khan, T. Farrell, M. A. Karim


Highly porous and hygroscopic characteristics of pear make it complex to understand the cellular level water distribution. In pear tissue, water is mainly distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. Understanding of these three types of water in pear tissue is crucial for predicting actual heat and mass transfer during drying. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the pear tissue. During this study, Green Anjou Pear was taken for the investigation. The experiment was performed using 1H-NMR- T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multi-component fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in pear tissue 78-82% water exist in intracellular space; 12-16% water in intercellular space and only 2-4% water exist in the cell wall space. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. It was also investigated that the physical properties of pear and the proportion of the different types of water has a strong relationship. Cell wall water depends on the proportion of solid in the sample tissue whereas free water depends on the porosity of the material.

Keywords: intracellular water, intercellular water, cell wall water, physical property, pear

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
28 Evolution of Bioactive Components of Prickly Pear Juice (Opuntia ficus indica) and Cocktails with Orange Juice

Authors: T. Hadj Sadok, R. Hattab Bey, K. Rebiha


The valuation of juice from prickly pear of Opuntia ficus indica inermis as cocktails appears an attractive alternative because of their nutritional intake and functional compound has anti-radical activity (polyphenols, vitamin C, carotenoids, Betalaines, fiber and minerals). The juice from the fruit pulp is characterized by a high pH 5.85 which makes it difficult for its conservation and preservation requires a thermal treatment at high temperatures (over 100 °C) harmful for bioactive constituents compared to juice orange more acidic and processed at temperatures < 100 °C. The valuation as fig cocktails-orange is particularly interesting thanks to the contribution of polyph2nols, fiber, vitamin C, reducing sugar (sweetener) and betalaine, minerals while allowing lower temperature processing to decrease pH. The heat treatment of these juices: orange alone or in cocktails showed that the antioxidant power decreases by 12% in presence of 30% of juice treated by the heat and of 28 and 32% in the presence of 10 and 20% juice which shows the effect prickly pear juice of Opuntia. During storage for 4 weeks the loss of vitamin C is 40 and 38% in the presence of 10 and 20% juice and 33% in the presence of 30% pear juice parallel, a treatment of stabilization by heat affects relatively the polyphenols rate which decreases from 10.5% to 30% in the cocktail, and 6.11-6.71pour cocktails at 10% and 20%. Vitamin C decreases to 12 to 24 % after a heat treatment at 85°C for 30 minutes respectively for the orange juice and pear juice; this reduction is higher when the juice is in the form of cocktails composed of 10 to 30 % pear juice.

Keywords: prickly pear juice, orange cocktail, polyphenol, Opuntia ficus indica, vitamin

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
27 Characterization and Geographical Differentiation of Yellow Prickly Pear Produced in Different Mediterranean Countries

Authors: Artemis Louppis, Michalis Constantinou, Ioanna Kosma, Federica Blando, Michael Kontominas, Anastasia Badeka


The aim of the present study was to differentiate yellow prickly pear according to geographical origin based on the combination of mineral content, physicochemical parameters, vitamins and antioxidants. A total of 240 yellow prickly pear samples from Cyprus, Spain, Italy and Greece were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity, protein, moisture, ash, fat, antioxidant activity, individual antioxidants, sugars and vitamins by UPLC-MS/MS as well as minerals by ICP-MS. Statistical treatment of the data included multivariate analysis of variance followed by linear discriminant analysis. Based on results, a correct classification of 66.7% was achieved using the cross validation by mineral content while 86.1% was achieved using the cross validation method by combination of all analytical parameters.

Keywords: geographical differentiation, prickly pear, chemometrics, analytical techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
26 Assessment of Physico-Chemical Properties and Acceptability of Avocado Pear (Persea americana) Skin Inclusion in Ruminant Diets

Authors: Gladys Abiemwense Ibhaze, Anthony Henry Ekeocha, Adebowale Noah Fajemisin, Tope Oke, Caroline Tosin Alade,


The study was conducted to evaluate the silage quality and acceptability of ensiled avocado pear skin (APS) with cassava peel (CSP) and brewers’ grain (BG) using eighteen (18) West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 7.0±1.5 kg. The experimental diets; 1) 50% cassava peel+ 50% brewers’ grain, 2) 50% brewers’ grain+ 50% avocado pear skin, 3) 50% cassava peel +25% brewers’ grain+ 25% avocado pear skin were ensiled for 21 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD). The chemical composition of the diets was investigated. The acceptability of the diets was evaluated for twelve (12) days. Results obtained showed that the crude protein content ranged from 12.18 – 12.47%, crude fiber (15.99-22.67%). Results obtained showed that diet 1 had the least pH value (4.0), followed by diet 3 (4.5) and diet 2 (5.2). All diets were firm in texture and maintained their initial color. The temperature ranged from 27-29 ⁰C with diet 2 having the highest temperature of 29 ⁰C. Acceptability of experimental diets varied (p < 0.05) significantly. Dry matter intake ranged from (426.22-686.73g/day) with animals on a diet one recording the highest dry matter intake. The coefficient of preference and percentage preference, also differed (p <0.05) significantly among the diets. Diet 1 had a coefficient of preference greater than unity. However, this was not significantly (p>0.05) different from diet two but differed from diet 3. Conclusively, APS could be included in goats’ diets in the absence of CSP during feed scarcity provided a rich source of protein is available.

Keywords: avocado pear skin, Brewers' grain, Cassava peel, preference

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
25 Field Environment Sensing and Modeling for Pears towards Precision Agriculture

Authors: Tatsuya Yamazaki, Kazuya Miyakawa, Tomohiko Sugiyama, Toshitaka Iwatani


The introduction of sensor technologies into agriculture is a necessary step to realize Precision Agriculture. Although sensing methodologies themselves have been prevailing owing to miniaturization and reduction in costs of sensors, there are some difficulties to analyze and understand the sensing data. Targeting at pears ’Le Lectier’, which is particular to Niigata in Japan, cultivation environmental data have been collected at pear fields by eight sorts of sensors: field temperature, field humidity, rain gauge, soil water potential, soil temperature, soil moisture, inner-bag temperature, and inner-bag humidity sensors. With regard to the inner-bag temperature and humidity sensors, they are used to measure the environment inside the fruit bag used for pre-harvest bagging of pears. In this experiment, three kinds of fruit bags were used for the pre-harvest bagging. After over 100 days continuous measurement, volumes of sensing data have been collected. Firstly, correlation analysis among sensing data measured by respective sensors reveals that one sensor can replace another sensor so that more efficient and cost-saving sensing systems can be proposed to pear farmers. Secondly, differences in characteristic and performance of the three kinds of fruit bags are clarified by the measurement results by the inner-bag environmental sensing. It is found that characteristic and performance of the inner-bags significantly differ from each other by statistical analysis. Lastly, a relational model between the sensing data and the pear outlook quality is established by use of Structural Equation Model (SEM). Here, the pear outlook quality is related with existence of stain, blob, scratch, and so on caused by physiological impair or diseases. Conceptually SEM is a combination of exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression. By using SEM, a model is constructed to connect independent and dependent variables. The proposed SEM model relates the measured sensing data and the pear outlook quality determined on the basis of farmer judgement. In particularly, it is found that the inner-bag humidity variable relatively affects the pear outlook quality. Therefore, inner-bag humidity sensing might help the farmers to control the pear outlook quality. These results are supported by a large quantity of inner-bag humidity data measured over the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. The experimental and analytical results in this research contribute to spreading Precision Agriculture technologies among the farmers growing ’Le Lectier’.

Keywords: precision agriculture, pre-harvest bagging, sensor fusion, structural equation model

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24 Effectiveness of Diflubenzuron (DIMILIN) on Various Biological Stages and Behavior of Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hemiptera, anthocoridae) Under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Baboo Ali, Avni Ugur


Pesticide namely, Diflubenzuron, is tremendously used in pear orchards against different insect pests of pear fruit trees in Turkey. The predatory bug, Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) is found in pear orchard feeding on Cacopsylla pyri (L.) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), is an insect pest of pear fruit trees. In this study, the effectiveness of the above mentioned pesticide on various biological stages of predatory bug were investigated under laboratory conditions of 25±1˚C, 75±5% RH, and photoperiod of 16L: 8D h. Newly emerged 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instars as well as the female and male stages of the predatory bug were placed on treated petri dishes and their mortality was checked after every 24 hours till the survival of the last individual. Prey consumption of surviving instars as well as the adult stages was determined simultaneously. All biological stages of the predatory bug were fed with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella during the whole research work. Percent hatch of treated eggs was recorded after every 24 hours, and the behavioral test of the male and female stages against Diflubenzuron was also determined using Y-tube olfactometer. Consequently, the mortality rate of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th instars was 61.32 %, 67.50%, 74. 91%, 80.11%, and 83.04%, respectively. In case of male and female stages, it has been recorded as 95.47% and 95.50%, respectively. Thus, a significant difference was not found between female and male mortality rates. Prey consumption of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th surviving instars was noted as 8.01, 11. 72, 13.24, 16.93 and 20.49 number of eggs/day while in females and males, it was 12.05 and 12.71 number of eggs/day, respectively. Hatching ratio of treated eggs of predator was 25.32±4.08. As far as the behavioral test is concerned, it has been indicated that Diflubenzuron has 65% repellent effect on the newly emerged male and female stages of the predatory bug while using Y-tube olfactometer under laboratory conditions.

Keywords: behavior, biological stages, diflubenzuron, effectiveness, pesticide, predatory bug

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23 Nutritional and Functional Composition of Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: Kamel Cheriet


In Algeria, Opuntia ficus Indica production is important. This seasonal fruit is a characteristic of arid and semi-arid regions. Taking into account its high content in antioxidants, it has an excellent nutritional value. The aim of this research is the prickly pear morphological and physicochemical characterization study which is widely present in the Arris (Batna, Algeria) area. The results of this experimental study are comparative to those of the same species from other world regions. The whole fruit weight is estimated to reach 63.38 g with a juice ratio of 71.42%, a pH of 5.54, moisture of 89.3% and a brix of 10.4°. The quantitative amount of the phenolic compounds of the fruit revealed contents of 20.65-45.70 mg / 100 g of MF for total polyphenols and 0.519 -0.591 mg / 100 g of MF for the flavonoids.

Keywords: functional composition, nutritionals properties, opuntia ficus indica, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
22 Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards

Authors: Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas


Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.

Keywords: bacteria, eco-friendly management, organic, pear, plant extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
21 Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten on Glucose Uptake and Insulin Sensitivity in Pancreatic β Cell

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim


The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and have been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. However, very little information is currently available for their mechanism. The prikly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. Present study investigated the effects of OFS on pancreatic β-cell function using pancreatic islet β cells (HIT cell). Alpha-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell proliferation were determined. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of OFS stem on α-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system. Glucose uptake was determined using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA assay. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity as well as glucose uptake. Insulinotrophic effect of OFS extract was observed at high glucose media in pancreatic β-islet cells. Furthermore, pancreatic β cell regeneration was also observed.These results suggest that OFS mediates the antidiabetic activity mainly via α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, and improved insulin sensitivity.

Keywords: prickly pear cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, pancreatic islet HIT cells, α-glucosidase, glucose uptake, insulinotrophic

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
20 Statistical Optimization and Production of Rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa PAO1 Using Prickly Pear Peel as a Carbon Source

Authors: Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud, Heba I. Elkhouly, Nagwa M. Sidkey


Production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has attracted a growing interest during the last few decades due to its high productivity compared with other microorganisms. In the current work, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 was statistically modeled using Taguchi orthogonal array, numerically optimized and validated. Prickly Pear Peel (Opuntia ficus-indica) has been used as a carbon source for production of rhamnolipid. Finally, the optimum conditions for rhamnolipid production were applied in 5L working volume bioreactors at different aerations, agitation and controlled pH for maximum rhamnolipid production. In addition, kinetic studies of rhamnolipids production have been reported. At the end of the batch bioreactor optimization process, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 has reached the worldwide levels and can be applied for its industrial production.

Keywords: rhamnolipids, pseudomonas aeruginosa, statistical optimization, tagushi, opuntia ficus-indica

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
19 Opportunities for Reducing Post-Harvest Losses of Cactus Pear (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) to Improve Small-Holder Farmers Income in Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Value Chain Approach

Authors: Meron Zenaselase Rata, Euridice Leyequien Abarca


The production of major crops in Northern Ethiopia, especially the Tigray Region, is at subsistence level due to drought, erratic rainfall, and poor soil fertility. Since cactus pear is a drought-resistant plant, it is considered as a lifesaver fruit and a strategy for poverty reduction in a drought-affected area of the region. Despite its contribution to household income and food security in the area, the cactus pear sub-sector is experiencing many constraints with limited attention given to its post-harvest loss management. Therefore, this research was carried out to identify opportunities for reducing post-harvest losses and recommend possible strategies to reduce post-harvest losses, thereby improving production and smallholder’s income. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were employed to collect the data. Ganta Afeshum district was selected from Eastern Tigray, and two peasant associations (Buket and Golea) were also selected from the district purposively for being potential in cactus pear production. Simple random sampling techniques were employed to survey 30 households from each of the two peasant associations, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Moreover, in this research 2 collectors, 2 wholesalers, 1 processor, 3 retailers, 2 consumers were interviewed; and two focus group discussion was also done with 14 key farmers using semi-structured checklist; and key informant interview with governmental and non-governmental organizations were interviewed to gather more information about the cactus pear production, post-harvest losses, the strategies used to reduce the post-harvest losses and suggestions to improve the post-harvest management. To enter and analyze the quantitative data, SPSS version 20 was used, whereas MS-word were used to transcribe the qualitative data. The data were presented using frequency and descriptive tables and graphs. The data analysis was also done using a chain map, correlations, stakeholder matrix, and gross margin. Mean comparisons like ANOVA and t-test between variables were used. The analysis result shows that the present cactus pear value chain involves main actors and supporters. However, there is inadequate information flow and informal market linkages among actors in the cactus pear value chain. The farmer's gross margin is higher when they sell to the processor than sell to collectors. The significant postharvest loss in the cactus pear value chain is at the producer level, followed by wholesalers and retailers. The maximum and minimum volume of post-harvest losses at the producer level is 4212 and 240 kgs per season. The post-harvest loss was caused by limited farmers skill on-farm management and harvesting, low market price, limited market information, absence of producer organization, poor post-harvest handling, absence of cold storage, absence of collection centers, poor infrastructure, inadequate credit access, using traditional transportation system, absence of quality control, illegal traders, inadequate research and extension services and using inappropriate packaging material. Therefore, some of the recommendations were providing adequate practical training, forming producer organizations, and constructing collection centers.

Keywords: cactus pear, post-harvest losses, profit margin, value-chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
18 Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem


The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and has been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. The prickly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, the southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. The present study investigated the effects of OFS on adipogenesis, lipolysis, glucose uptake, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression using preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Adipogenesis was determined by preadipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipolysis was determined as the rate of glycerol release. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression were measured using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG, and ELISA, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to investigate the effects of OFS on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently enhanced adipocyte differentiation and cellular triglyceride levels indicating the enhancement of the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression were also dose-dependently increased by OFS treatment. Furthermore, OFS treatment also increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ. These effects of OFS on adipocytes suggest that OFS is potentially beneficial for type 2 diabetes by due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

Keywords: 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell, adipogenesis, GLUT4, lipolysis, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, PPARγ, prickly pear cactus

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17 Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: Asma Temagoult, Bariza Zitouni, Yassin Noui


Cactus fruit contains different nutritional and functional components, which are used because of their benefits to human health, such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamins C. It has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action, and antioxidant properties related to anticarcinogenic, antiulcerogenic and immunomodulatory effects. The antioxidant and nutritional properties have been characterized in cactus prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.), cultivar yellow, grown in Arris area; Eastern of Algeria. The antioxidant properties of this cactus cultivar were higher than the others cactus cultivar in the world. The amount of fruit phenolic compounds revealed contents between 20.65 and 45.70 mg / 100 g of FW for total polyphenols and 0.519 - 0.591 mg / 100 g of FW for the flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The average recorded to the potassium content is about 1070 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight; sodium is 60.7 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight and 80 mg / 100g for the calcium. According to the high value of this cactus, it was considered as a good nutrient and important pharmaceutical resource. It could be used as a natural additive or substituted food supplement in many foodstuffs production, to benefit from these benefits.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, DPPH, FRAP, nutritional properties, Opuntia ficus indica

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16 Antagonistic Potential of Epiphytic Bacteria Isolated in Kazakhstan against Erwinia amylovora, the Causal Agent of Fire Blight

Authors: Assel E. Molzhigitova, Amankeldi K. Sadanov, Elvira T. Ismailova, Kulyash A. Iskandarova, Olga N. Shemshura, Ainur I. Seitbattalova


Fire blight is a very harmful for commercial apple and pear production quarantine bacterial disease. To date, several different methods have been proposed for disease control, including the use of copperbased preparations and antibiotics, which are not always reliable or effective. The use of bacteria as biocontrol agents is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternative methods. Bacteria with protective activity against the causal agent of fire blight are often present among the epiphytic microorganisms of the phyllosphere of host plants. Therefore, the main objective of our study was screening of local epiphytic bacteria as possible antagonists against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Samples of infected organs of apple and pear trees (shoots, leaves, fruits) were collected from the industrial horticulture areas in various agro-ecological zones of Kazakhstan. Epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by standard and modified methods on specific nutrient media. The primary screening of selected microorganisms under laboratory conditions to determine the ability to suppress the growth of Erwinia amylovora was performed by agar-diffusion-test. Among 142 bacteria isolated from the fire blight host plants, 5 isolates, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus and Pantoea showed higher antagonistic activity against the pathogen. The diameters of inhibition zone have been depended on the species and ranged from 10 mm to 48 mm. The maximum diameter of inhibition zone (48 mm) was exhibited by B. amyloliquefaciens. Less inhibitory effect was showed by Pantoea agglomerans PA1 (19 mm). The study of inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus species against E. amylovora showed that among 7 isolates tested only one (Lactobacillus plantarum 17M) demonstrated inhibitory zone (30 mm). In summary, this study was devoted to detect the beneficial epiphytic bacteria from plants organs of pear and apple trees due to fire blight control in Kazakhstan. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments showed that the most efficient bacterial isolates are Lactobacillus plantarum 17M, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB40, and Pantoea agglomerans PA1. These antagonists are suitable for development as biocontrol agents for fire blight control. Their efficacies will be evaluated additionally, in biological tests under in vitro and field conditions during our further study.

Keywords: antagonists, epiphytic bacteria, Erwinia amylovora, fire blight

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15 Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

Authors: Abeer M. Algeblawi


Fifteen isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were obtained from crown gall samples collected from six locations (Tripoli, Alzahra, Ain-Zara, Alzawia, Alazezia in Libya) from Grape (Vitis vinifera L.), Pear (Pyrus communis L.), Peach (Prunus persica L.) and Alexandria in Egypt from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees, Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.) and Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Total DNA was extracted from the eight isolates as well as the identification of six isolates used into Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique were used. High similarity (55.5%) was observed among the eight A. tumefaciens isolates (Agro1, Agro2, Agro3, Agro4, Agro5, Agro6, Agro7, and Agro8). The PCR amplification products were resulting from the use of two specific primers (virD2A-virD2C). Analysis induction six isolates of A. tumefaciens obtained from different hosts. A visible band was specific to A. tumefaciens of (220 bp, 224 bp) and 338 bp produced with total DNA extracted from bacterial cells.

Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, crown gall, identification, molecular characterization, PCR, RAPD

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14 Sex Differentiation of Elm Nymphalid (Nymphalis polychloros Linnaeus, 1758) on Pupal Stage

Authors: Hanife Genç


This study was conducted to determine sex differentiation of laboratory reared Elm nymphalid (Nymphalis polychloros Linnaeus, 1758) by examining the morphological structure of pupal stage. Laboratory colony of elm nymphalid, reared on pear leaves, were used to set up experiments. It was performed with 5 replications having 8 pupae for each replication. Dorsal, ventral and lateral parts of external morphological structures of pupae were examined by Olympus SZX9 microscope and photographed. When fully grown, mature larvae wander the highest part of the rearing cage and pupae were formed hanging by cremaster. After completing prepupa stage about 1.5±0.3 days, they all pupated. Pupal stage was completed at 25±1°C about 4.38±1.20 days. Pupal weights were 0.483±0.05 g in females and 0.392±0.08 g (n=40) in males respectively. Pupal emergence rate was 95%, with 22 females and 16 males. Examinations of ventral parts of 8th, 9th, and 10th abdominal segments revealed that anal opening were found at 10th abdominal segment in both sexes, 3 lumbs were determined at 9th abdominal segments then the specific opening structure at 8th segment was only found on female pupae.

Keywords: sex differentiation, Nymphalis polychloros, pupa, Linnaeus

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13 Impact of HLA-C*03:04 Allele Frequency Screening Test in Preventing Dapsone-induced SCARs in Thais

Authors: Pear-Rarin Leelakunakorn, Patompong Satapornpong


Introduction: Dapsone is an anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drug that was widely used for the treatment of leprosy, acne fulminans, and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). However, dapsone is the main cause that triggers severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), with a possibility of 0.4 to 3.6% of patients after initiating treatment. In fact, the mortality rate of dapsone-induced SCARs is approximately 9.9%. In previous studies, HLA-B*13:01 was strongly associated with dapsone-induced SCARs in Han Chinese, Thais, and Koreans. Nevertheless, the distribution of HLA-B*13:01 marker in each population might differ. Moreover, there were found that the association between HLA-C*03:04 and dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome in Han Chinese leprosy patients by OR = 9.00 and p-value = 2.23×10⁻¹⁹. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HLA-C* 03:04 in Thailand's healthy population. Method: A total of 350 participants were HLA-C genotyping used sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Rangsit University Result : The most frequency of HLA -C alleles in Thais, consist of HLA -C* 01:02 (17.00 %), -C*08:01 (11.00%) , -C*07:02 (10.70%) , -C* 03:04 ( 9.10%) , -C* 03:02 (8.00%) , -C* 07:01 (6.30%), -C* 07:04 (4.60%), -C* 04:01 (4.40%) ,-C* 12:02 ( 4.30% ) ,and -C* 04:03(3.90%). Interestingly, HLA -C* 03:04 allele was similar to the distribution among Thais and other populations such as Eastern Europe (6.09%), Vietnam (7.42% ), East Croatia (2.25%), and Han Chinese (11.70%). Conclusion: Consequently, HLA-C*03:04 might serve as a pharmacogenetic marker for screening prior to initiation therapy with dapsone for prevention of dapsone-induced SCARs in Thai population.

Keywords: HLA-C*03:04, SCARs, thai population, allele frequency

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12 Correlation between Total Polyphenol Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Opuntia ficus indica Extracts against Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

Authors: N. Chikhi-Chorfi, L. Arbia, S. Zenia, H.Lounici


Opuntia ficus-indica belongs to the Cactaceae family. The cactus is mainly cultivated for its fruit (prickly pear) that, eaten after pealing, is sweet and juicy, and rich in nutritional compounds, such as ascorbic acid and polyphenols. Different parts of O. ficus-indica are used in the traditional medicine of several countries: the cladodes are utilized to reduce serum cholesterol level and blood pressure, for treatment of ulcers, rheumatic pain, wounds, fatigue, capillary fragility, and liver conditions. This original study, investigate the effect of polyphenols of O. ficus indica (cactus) cladodes against periodontal bacteria collected from patients with periodontitis. The quantitative analysis of total polyphenols (TPP) was determined with Follin-Ciocalteu method. Different concentrations of extracts of O. ficus indica were tested by the disk method on two bacterial strains: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia responsible for periodontal disease. The results showed a good correlation between the concentration of total polyphenols and the antibacterial activity of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia with R² = 0.94 and R² = 0.90 respectively. This observation suggests that these extracts could be used in the treatment and prevention of periodontitis.

Keywords: periodontal disease, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, polyphenols, Opuntia ficus indica

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11 Using Deep Learning Real-Time Object Detection Convolution Neural Networks for Fast Fruit Recognition in the Tree

Authors: K. Bresilla, L. Manfrini, B. Morandi, A. Boini, G. Perulli, L. C. Grappadelli


Image/video processing for fruit in the tree using hard-coded feature extraction algorithms have shown high accuracy during recent years. While accurate, these approaches even with high-end hardware are computationally intensive and too slow for real-time systems. This paper details the use of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs), specifically an algorithm (YOLO - You Only Look Once) with 24+2 convolution layers. Using deep-learning techniques eliminated the need for hard-code specific features for specific fruit shapes, color and/or other attributes. This CNN is trained on more than 5000 images of apple and pear fruits on 960 cores GPU (Graphical Processing Unit). Testing set showed an accuracy of 90%. After this, trained data were transferred to an embedded device (Raspberry Pi gen.3) with camera for more portability. Based on correlation between number of visible fruits or detected fruits on one frame and the real number of fruits on one tree, a model was created to accommodate this error rate. Speed of processing and detection of the whole platform was higher than 40 frames per second. This speed is fast enough for any grasping/harvesting robotic arm or other real-time applications.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, computer vision, deep learning, fruit recognition, harvesting robot, precision agriculture

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10 Structural Modeling and Experimental-Numerical Correlation of the Dynamic Behavior of the Portuguese Guitar by Using a Structural-Fluid Coupled Model

Authors: M. Vieira, V. Infante, P. Serrão, A. Ribeiro


The Portuguese guitar is a pear-shaped plucked chordophone particularly known for its role in Fado, the most distinctive traditional Portuguese musical style. The acknowledgment of the dynamic behavior of the Portuguese guitar, specifically of its modal and mode shape response, has been the focus of different authors. In this research, the experimental results of the dynamic behavior of the guitar, which were previously obtained, are correlated with a vibro-acoustic finite element model of the guitar. The modelling of the guitar offered several challenges which are presented in this work. The results of the correlation between experimental and numerical data are presented and indicate good correspondence for the studied mode shapes. The influence of the air inside the chamber, for the finite element analysis, is shown to be crucial to understand the low-frequency modes of the Portuguese guitar, while, for higher frequency modes, the geometry of the guitar assumes greater relevance. Comparison is made with the classical guitar, providing relevant information about the intrinsic differences between the two, such as between its tones and other acoustical properties. These results represent a sustained base for future work, which will allow the study of the influence of different location and geometry of diverse components of the Portuguese guitar, being as well an asset to the comprehension of its musical properties and qualities and may, furthermore, represent an advantage for its players and luthiers.

Keywords: dynamic behavior of guitars, instrument acoustics, modal analysis, Portuguese guitar

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9 Fruit Growing in Romania and Its Role for Rural Communities’ Development

Authors: Maria Toader, Gheorghe Valentin Roman


The importance of fruit trees and bushes growing for Romania is due the concordance that exists between the different ecological conditions in natural basins, and the requirements of different species and varieties. There are, in Romania, natural areas dedicated to the main trees species: plum, apple, pear, cherry, sour cherry, finding optimal conditions for harnessing the potential of fruitfulness, making fruit quality both in terms of ratio commercial, and content in active principles. The share of fruits crops in the world economy of agricultural production is due primarily to the role of fruits in nourishment for human, and in the prevention and combating of diseases, in increasing the national income of cultivator countries and to improve comfort for human life. For Romania, the perspectives of the sector are positive, and are due to European funding opportunities, which provide farmers a specialized program that meets the needs of development and modernization of fruit growing industry, cultivation technology and equipment, organization and grouping of producers, creating storage facilities, conditioning, marketing and the joint use of fresh fruit. This paper shows the evolution of fruit growing, in Romania compared to other states. The document presents the current situation of the main tree species both in terms of surface but also of the productions and the role that this activity may have for the development of rural communities.

Keywords: fruit growing, fruits trees, productivity, rural development

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8 Optimization of Digestive Conditions of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten using Food-Grade Enzymes

Authors: Byung Wook Yang, Sae Kyul Kim, Seung Il Ahn, Jae Hee Choi, Heejung Jung, Yejin Choi, Byung Yong Kim, Young Tae Hahm


Opuntia ficus-indica is a member of the Cactaceae family that is widely grown in all the semiarid countries throughout the world. Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS), commonly known as prickly pear cactus, is commercially cultivated as a dietary foodstuffs and medicinal stuffs in Jeju Island, Korea. Owing to high viscosity of OFS’ pad, its application to the commercial field has been limited. When the low viscosity of OFS’s pad is obtained, it is useful for the manufacture of healthy food in the related field. This study was performed to obtain the optimal digestion conditions of food-grade enzymes (Pectinex, Viscozyme and Celluclast) with the powder of OFS stem. And also, the contents of water-soluble dietary fiber (WSDF) of the dried powder prepared by the extraction of OFS stem were monitored and optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM), which included 20 experimental points with 3 replicates for two independent variables (fermentation temperature and time). A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of fermentation temperature (30-90 °C, X1) and fermentation time (1-10h, X2) on dependent variables, such as viscosity (Y1), water-soluble dietary fiber (Y2) and dietary fiber yield (Y3). Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in agreement with experimental values. Optimum temperature and duration were 50°C and 12 hours, respectively. Viscosity value reached 3.4 poise. Yield of water-soluble dietary fiber is determined in progress.

Keywords: Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten, enzymatic fermentation, response surface methodology, water-soluble dietary fiber, viscosity

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7 Water Droplet Impact on Vibrating Rigid Superhydrophobic Surfaces

Authors: Jingcheng Ma, Patricia B. Weisensee, Young H. Shin, Yujin Chang, Junjiao Tian, William P. King, Nenad Miljkovic


Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both nature and industry. The transfer of mass, momentum and energy can be influenced by the time of contact between droplet and surface. In order to reduce the contact time, we study the influence of substrate motion prior to impact on the dynamics of droplet recoil. Using optical high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics of macroscopic water droplets (~ 2mm) on rigid nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces vibrating at 60 – 300 Hz and amplitudes of 0 – 3 mm. In addition, we studied the influence of the phase of the substrate at the moment of impact on total contact time. We demonstrate that substrate vibration can alter droplet dynamics, and decrease total contact time by as much as 50% compared to impact on stationary rigid superhydrophobic surfaces. Impact analysis revealed that the vibration frequency mainly affected the maximum contact time, while the amplitude of vibration had little direct effect on the contact time. Through mathematical modeling, we show that the oscillation amplitude influences the possibility density function of droplet impact at a given phase, and thus indirectly influences the average contact time. We also observed more vigorous droplet splashing and breakup during impact at larger amplitudes. Through semi-empirical mathematical modeling, we describe the relationship between contact time and vibration frequency, phase, and amplitude of the substrate. We also show that the maximum acceleration during the impact process is better suited as a threshold parameter for the onset of splashing than a Weber-number criterion. This study not only provides new insights into droplet impact physics on vibrating surfaces, but develops guidelines for the rational design of surfaces to achieve controllable droplet wetting in applications utilizing vibration.

Keywords: contact time, impact dynamics, oscillation, pear-shape droplet

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6 Inhibition Effect of Natural Junipers Extract towards Steel Corrosion in HCl Solution

Authors: L. Bammou, M. Belkhaouda R. Salghi, L. Bazzi, B. Hammouti


Steel and steel-based alloys of different grades steel are extensively used in numerous applications where acid solutions are widely applied such as industrial acid pickling, industrial acid cleaning and oil-well acidizing. The use of chemical inhibitors is one of the most practical methods for the protection against corrosion in acidic media. Most of the excellent acid inhibitors are organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. The use of non-toxic inhibitors called green or eco-friendly environmental inhibitors is one of the solutions possible to prevent the corrosion of the material. These advantages have incited us to draw a large part of program of our laboratory to examine natural substances as corrosion inhibitors such as: prickly pear seed oil, Argan oil, Argan extract, Fennel oil, Rosemary oil, Thymus oil, Lavender oil, Jojoba oil, Pennyroyal Mint oil, and Artemisia. In the present work, we investigate the corrosion inhibition of steel in 1 M HCl by junipers extract using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The result obtained of junipers extract (JE) shows excellent inhibition properties for the corrosion of C38 steel in 1M HCl at 298K, and the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing of the JE concentration. The inhibitor efficiencies determined by weight loss, Tafel polarisation and EIS methods are in reasonable agreement. Based on the polarisation results, the investigated junipers extract can be classified as mixed inhibitor. The calculated structural parameters show increase of the obtained Rct values and decrease of the capacitance, Cdl, with JE concentration increase. It is suggested to attribute this to the increase of the thickness of the adsorption layer at steel surface. The adsorption model obeys to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process is a spontaneous and exothermic process.

Keywords: corrosion inhibition, steel, friendly inhibitors, Tafel polarisation

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5 Portuguese Guitar Strings Characterization and Comparison

Authors: P. Serrão, E. Costa, A. Ribeiro, V. Infante


The characteristic sonority of the Portuguese guitar is in great part what makes Fado so distinguishable from other traditional song styles. The Portuguese guitar is a pear-shaped plucked chordophone with six courses of double strings. This study compares the two types of plain strings available for Portuguese guitar and used by the musicians. One is stainless steel spring wire, the other is high carbon spring steel (music wire). Some musicians mention noticeable differences in sound quality between these two string materials, such as a little more brightness and sustain in the steel strings. Experimental tests were performed to characterize string tension at pitch; mechanical strength and tuning stability using the universal testing machine; dimensional control and chemical composition analysis using the scanning electron microscope. The string dynamical behaviour characterization experiments, including frequency response, inharmonicity, transient response, damping phenomena and were made in a monochord test set-up designed and built in-house. Damping factor was determined for the fundamental frequency. As musicians are able to detect very small damping differences, an accurate a characterization of the damping phenomena for all harmonics was necessary. With that purpose, another improved monochord was set and a new system identification methodology applied. Due to the complexity of this task several adjustments were necessary until obtaining good experimental data. In a few cases, dynamical tests were repeated to detect any evolution in damping parameters after break-in period when according to players experience a new string sounds gradually less dull until reaching the typically brilliant timbre. Finally, each set of strings was played on one guitar by a distinguished player and recorded. The recordings which include individual notes, scales, chords and a study piece, will be analysed to potentially characterize timbre variations.

Keywords: damping factor, music wire, portuguese guitar, string dynamics

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4 Biological Control of Woolly Apple Aphid, Eriosoma Lanigerum (Hausmann) in the Nursery Production of Spruce

Authors: Snezana Rajkovic, Miroslava Markovic, Ljubinko Rakonjac, Aleksandar Lucic, Radoslav Rajkovic


Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) is a widely distributed pest of apple trees, especially where its parasites have been killed by insecticides. It can also be found on pear, hawthorn, mountain ash, and elm trees. Relatively small to medium-sized aphids, characterized by a reddish-brown body, a blood-red stain when crushed and a fluffy, flocculent wax covering. Specialized dermal glands produce the characteristic fluffy or powdery wax, which gives E. lanigerum its characteristic 'woolly' appearance. Also, woolly apple aphid is a problemm in nursery production of spure.The experiments were carried out in the nursery “Nevade” in Gornji Milanovac, "Srbijasume" on the spruce seedlings, aged 2 years. In this study, organic insecticide King Bo, aqueous solution (a. i. oxymatrine 0.2% + psoralen 0.4%), manufacturer Beijing Kingbo Biotech Co. Ltd., Beijing, China. extracted from plants and used as pesticides in nursery production were investigated. King Bo, bioinsecticide is manufactured from refined natural herbal extract several wild medicinal plants, such as Sophora flavescens Ait, Veratrum nigrum L, A. Carmichael, etc. Oxymatrine 2.4 SL is a stomach poison that has antifeeding and repellent action. This substance stimulates development and growth in a host plant and also controls the appearance of downy mildew.The trials were set according to instructions of methods-monitoring of changes in the number of larvae and adults compared to before treatment. The treatment plan was made according to fully randomized block design. The experiment was conducted in four repetitions. The basic plot had the area of 25 m2. Phytotoxicity was estimated by PP methods 1/135 (2), the intensity of infection according to Towsend-Heuberger, the efficiency by Abbott, the analysis of variance with Ducan test and PP/181 (2).

Keywords: bioinsecticide, efficacy, nurssery production, woolly apple aphid

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3 Large-Scale Screening for Membrane Protein Interactions Involved in Platelet-Monocyte Interactions

Authors: Yi Sun, George Ed Rainger, Steve P. Watson


Background: Beyond the classical roles in haemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are important in the initiation and development of various thrombo-inflammatory diseases. In atherosclerosis and deep vein thrombosis, for example, platelets bridge monocytes with endothelium and form heterotypic aggregates with monocytes in the circulation. This can alter monocyte phenotype by inducing their activation, stimulating adhesion and migration. These interactions involve cell surface receptor-ligand pairs on both cells. This list is likely incomplete as new interactions of importance to platelet biology are continuing to be discovered as illustrated by our discovery of PEAR-1 binding to FcεR1α. Results: We have developed a highly sensitive avidity-based assay to identify novel extracellular interactions among 126 recombinantly-expressed platelet cell surface and secreted proteins involved in platelet aggregation. In this study, we will use this method to identify novel platelet-monocyte interactions. We aim to identify ligands for orphan receptors and novel partners of well-known proteins. Identified interactions will be studied in preliminary functional assays to demonstrate relevance to the inflammatory processes supporting atherogenesis. Conclusions: Platelet-monocyte interactions are essential for the development of thromboinflammatory disease. Up until relatively recently, technologies only allow us to limit our studies on each individual protein interaction at a single time. These studies propose for the first time to study the cell surface platelet-monocyte interactions in a systematic large-scale approach using a reliable screening method we have developed. If successful, this will likely to identify previously unknown ligands for important receptors that will be investigated in details and also provide a list of novel interactions for the field. This should stimulate studies on developing alternative therapeutic strategies to treat vascular inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis, DVT and sepsis and other clinically important inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: membrane proteins, large-scale screening, platelets, recombinant expression

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2 Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Moroccan Plant Extracts against Dactylopius Opuntiae (Cockerell) Under Laboratory and Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Imane Naboulsi, Mansour Sobeh, Rachid Lamzira, Karim El Fakhouri, Widad Ben Bakrim, Chaimae Ramdani, Rachid Boulamtat, Mustapha El Bouhssini, Jane ward, Abdelaziz Yasri, Aziz Aboulmouhajir


The wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is the major insect pest of the prickly pear Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) in Morocco, which has causedenormous socio-economic and environmental losses to this crop in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the insecticidal potential of six aqueous (100% water), and methanolic (20/80 (v/v) MeOH/H2O) extracts obtained from aromatic and medicinal plants growing in arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco to control nymphs and adult females of D. opuntiae, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the aqueous extracts of Atriplex halimus at 5% caused significant mortality in nymphs with 71% four days after application and 88%on adult females of D. opuntiae8 days post-treatment. Under greenhouse conditions, the aqueous extract of A. halimus combined with black soap at 10 g/L showed the highest mortality rate of nymphs with 100%, 4 days after application. The adult females' mortality increased significantly to reach 83.75%,14 days after the second application of A. halimus aqueous extract at 5%. Phytochemical analysis of the water extract of A. halimus revealed a high content of saponins (24.09 ± 0.71 mg SSE/g DW) compared to other plant extracts, which was confirmed by LC-MS characterization that showed the presence of 36 triterpenoid saponin compounds (derived from oleic-12-en-28-oic acid), in addition to phytoecdysones, simple carboxylic acids, and flavonoids. These findings showed that using the aqueous extract of A. halimus as a biological pesticide could be incorporated into the management package to control the wild cochineal as a safe alternative to chemical insecticides.

Keywords: dactylopius opuntiae, opuntia ficus-indica L., plant extracts, toxicity, atriplex halimus, saponins

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