Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: finger

121 Relationship between Finger Print Pattern and Gender among Adolescents of Igala Ethnic Group, Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Paul Idoko Ukanu, Sunday Abba, Balogun Sadiya


The study of the finger prints patterns among the Igala ethnic groups was done in order to see their association gender. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 602 subjects participated in this study, 322 females and 280 males, which were mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 13-19 years. The subjects fingerprint pattern was obtained by allowing them place the tip of each finger on the stamp pad, which is then imprinted on the questionnaire, this was done for both the left and right hand. Female had higher arch, whorl and loop finger print pattern in most of the right fingers than the males, the differences were statistically significant for the right index, right ring finger and right little finger, but were statistically insignificant for right thumb and right middle finger as p = 0.207 and 0.726, respectively. The result also revealed that males had higher arch finger print pattern in the right index and right little finger than the females, which was statistically significant (p = 0.001), and also a high whorl finger print pattern than the females in the right middle and ring finger.

Keywords: arch, loop, whorl, fingers

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120 Maximum-likelihood Inference of Multi-Finger Movements Using Neural Activities

Authors: Kyung-Jin You, Kiwon Rhee, Marc H. Schieber, Nitish V. Thakor, Hyun-Chool Shin


It remains unknown whether M1 neurons encode multi-finger movements independently or as a certain neural network of single finger movements although multi-finger movements are physically a combination of single finger movements. We present an evidence of correlation between single and multi-finger movements and also attempt a challenging task of semi-blind decoding of neural data with minimum training of the neural decoder. Data were collected from 115 task-related neurons in M1 of a trained rhesus monkey performing flexion and extension of each finger and the wrist (12 single and 6 two-finger-movements). By exploiting correlation of temporal firing pattern between movements, we found that correlation coefficient for physically related movements pairs is greater than others; neurons tuned to single finger movements increased their firing rate when multi-finger commands were instructed. According to this knowledge, neural semi-blind decoding is done by choosing the greatest and the second greatest likelihood for canonical candidates. We achieved a decoding accuracy about 60% for multiple finger movement without corresponding training data set. this results suggest that only with the neural activities on single finger movements can be exploited to control dexterous multi-fingered neuroprosthetics.

Keywords: finger movement, neural activity, blind decoding, M1

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
119 Analysis of a Single Motor Finger Mechanism for a Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Shaukat Ali, Kanber Sedef, Mustafa Yilmaz


This work analyzes a finger mechanism for a prosthetic hand that will help in improving the living standards of people who have lost their hands for a variety of reasons. The finger mechanism is single degree of freedom and hence has advantages such as compact size, reduced mass and less energy consumption. The proposed finger mechanism is a six bar linkage actuated by a single motor. The kinematic, static and dynamic analyses have been done by using the conventional methods of mechanism analysis. The kinematic results present the motion of the proposed finger mechanism and location of the fingertip. The static and dynamic analyses provide the useful information about the gripping force at the fingertip for various configurations and the selection of motor that will move the finger over its range of configuration. This single motor finger mechanism is simple and resembles the human finger’s motion suitable for grasping operation. This study can be used in the optimization of geometrical parameters of the proposed mechanism to obtain the desired configurations with minimum torque and enhanced griping.

Keywords: dynamics, finger mechanism, grasping, kinematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
118 Spin-Dependent Transport Signatures of Bound States: From Finger to Top Gates

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Yu, Chi-Shung Tang, Nzar Rauf Abdullah, Vidar Gudmundsson


Spin-orbit gap feature in energy dispersion of one-dimensional devices is revealed via strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) effects under Zeeman field. We describe the utilization of a finger-gate or a top-gate to control the spin-dependent transport characteristics in the SOI-Zeeman influenced split-gate devices by means of a generalized spin-mixed propagation matrix method. For the finger-gate system, we find a bound state in continuum for incident electrons within the ultra-low energy regime. For the top-gate system, we observe more bound-state features in conductance associated with the formation of spin-associated hole-like or electron-like quasi-bound states around band thresholds, as well as hole bound states around the reverse point of the energy dispersion. We demonstrate that the spin-dependent transport behavior of a top-gate system is similar to that of a finger-gate system only if the top-gate length is less than the effective Fermi wavelength.

Keywords: spin-orbit, zeeman, top-gate, finger-gate, bound state

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
117 The Relationship between Fluctuation of Biological Signal: Finger Plethysmogram in Conversation and Anthropophobic Tendency

Authors: Haruo Okabayashi


Human biological signals (pulse wave and brain wave, etc.) have a rhythm which shows fluctuations. This study investigates the relationship between fluctuations of biological signals which are shown by a finger plethysmogram (i.e., finger pulse wave) in conversation and anthropophobic tendency, and identifies whether the fluctuation could be an index of mental health. 32 college students participated in the experiment. The finger plethysmogram of each subject was measured in the following conversation situations: Fun memory talking/listening situation and regrettable memory talking/ listening situation for three minutes each. Lyspect 3.5 was used to collect the data of the finger plethysmogram. Since Lyspect calculates the Lyapunov spectrum, it is possible to obtain the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). LLE is an indicator of the fluctuation and shows the degree to which a measure is going away from close proximity to the track in a dynamical system. Before the finger plethysmogram experiment, each participant took the psychological test questionnaire “Anthropophobic Scale.” The scale measures the social phobia trend close to the consciousness of social phobia. It is revealed that there is a remarkable relationship between the fluctuation of the finger plethysmography and anthropophobic tendency scale in talking about a regrettable story in conversation: The participants (N=15) who have a low anthropophobic tendency show significantly more fluctuation of finger pulse waves than the participants (N=17) who have a high anthropophobic tendency (F (1, 31) =5.66, p<0.05). That is, the participants who have a low anthropophobic tendency make conversation flexibly using large fluctuation of biological signal; on the other hand, the participants who have a high anthropophobic tendency constrain a conversation because of small fluctuation. Therefore, fluctuation is not an error but an important drive to make better relationships with others and go towards the development of interaction. In considering mental health, the fluctuation of biological signals would be an important indicator.

Keywords: anthropophobic tendency, finger plethymogram, fluctuation of biological signal, LLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
116 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared


In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: biometrics, finger vein recognition, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)

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115 Ulnar Parametacarpal Flap for Coverage of Fifth Finger Defects: Propeller Flap Concept

Authors: Ahmed M. Gad, Ahmed S. Hweidi


Background: Defects of the little finger and adjacent areas are not uncommon. It could be a traumatic, post-burn, or after contracture release. Different options could be used for resurfacing these defect, including skin grafts, local or regional flaps. Ulnar para-metacarpal flap described by Bakhach in 1995 based on the distal division of the dorsal branch of the ulnar artery considered a good option for that. In this work, we applied the concept of propeller flap for better mobilization and in-setting of the ulnar para-metacarpal flap. Methods: The study included 15 cases with 4 females and 11 male patients. 10 of the patients had severe post-burn contractures of little finger, and 5 had post-traumatic little finger defects. Contractures were released and resulting soft tissue defects were reconstructed with propeller ulnar para-metacarpal artery flap. The flap based on two main perforators communicating with the palmar system, it was raised based on one of them depending on the extent of the defect and rotated 180 degrees after judicious dissection of the perforator. Results: 13 flaps survived completely, one of the cases developed partial skin loss, which healed by dressing, another flap was completely lost and covered later by a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusion: Ulnar para-metacarpal flap is a reliable option to resurface the little finger as well as adjacent areas. The application of the propeller flap concept based on whether the proximal or distal communicating branch makes the rotation and in-setting of the flap easier.

Keywords: little finger defects, propeller flap, regional hand defects, ulnar parametacarpal flap

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114 Preliminary Study on Analysis of Pinching Motion Actuated by Electro-Active Polymers

Authors: Doo W. Lee, Soo J. Lee, Bye R. Yoon, Jae Y. Jho, Kyehan Rhee


Hand exoskeletons have been developed in order to assist daily activities for disabled and elder people. A figure exoskeleton was developed using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, and the performance of it was evaluated in this study. In order to study dynamic performance of a finger dummy performing pinching motion, force generating characteristics of an IPMC actuator and pinching motion of a thumb and index finger dummy actuated by IMPC actuators were analyzed. The blocking force of 1.54 N was achieved under 4 V of DC. A thumb and index finger dummy, which has one degree of freedom at the proximal joint of each figure, was manufactured by a three dimensional rapid prototyping. Each figure was actuated by an IPMC actuator, and the maximum fingertip force was 1.18 N. Pinching motion of a dummy was analyzed by two video cameras in vertical top and horizontal left end view planes. A figure dummy powered by IPMC actuators could perform flexion and extension motion of an index figure and a thumb.

Keywords: finger exoskeleton, ionic polymer metal composite, flexion and extension, motion analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
113 A Surgical Correction and Innovative Splint for Swan Neck Deformity in Hypermobility Syndrome

Authors: Deepak Ganjiwale, Karthik Vishwanathan


Objective: Splinting is a great domain of occupational therapy profession.Making a splint for the patient would depend upon the need or requirement of the problems and deformities. Swan neck deformity is not very common in finger it may occur after any disease. Conservative treatment of the swan neck deformity is available by using different static splints only. There are very few reports of surgical correction of swan-neck deformity in benign hypermobility syndrome. Method: This case report describes the result of surgical intervention and hand splint in a twenty year old lady with past history of cardiovascular stroke with no residual neurological deficit. She presented with correctable swan neck deformity and failed to improve with static ring splints to correct the deformity. She was noted to have hyperlaxity (EhlerDanlos type) as per modified Beighton’s score of 5/9. She underwent volar plate plication of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left ring finger along with hemitenodesis of ulnar slip of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon whereby, the ulnar slip of FDS was passed through a small surgically created rent in A2 pulley and sutured back to itself. Result: Postoperatively, the patient was referred to occupational therapy for splinting with the instruction that the splint would work some time for as static and some time as dynamic for positional and correction of the finger. Conclusion: After occupational therapy intervention and splinting, the patient had a full correction of the swan-neck deformity with near full flexion of the operated finger and is able to work independently.

Keywords: swan neck, finger, deformity, splint, hypermobility

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112 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of End Milling Process with Multiple Finger Inserted Cutters

Authors: G. Krishna Mohana Rao, P. Ravi Kumar


Milling is the process of removing unwanted material with suitable tool. Even though the milling process is having wider application, the vibration of machine tool and work piece during the process produces chatter on the products. Various methods of preventing the chatter have been incorporated into machine tool systems. Damper is cut into equal number of parts. Each part is called as finger. Multiple fingers were inserted in the hollow portion of the shank to reduce tool vibrations. In the present work, nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of the damper inserted end milling cutter used to reduce the chatter was done. A comparison is made for the milling cutter with multiple dampers. Surface roughness was determined by machining with multiple finger inserted milling cutters.

Keywords: damping inserts, end milling, vibrations, nonlinear dynamic analysis, number of fingers

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111 Myeloid Zinc Finger 1/Ets-Like Protein-1/Protein Kinase C Alpha Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Authors: Jer-Yuh Liu, Je-Chiuan Ye, Jin-Ming Hwang


Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) is a key signaling molecule in human cancer development. As a therapeutic strategy, targeting PKCα is difficult because the molecule is ubiquitously expressed in non-malignant cells. PKCα is regulated by the cooperative interaction of the transcription factors myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF-1) and Ets-like protein-1 (Elk-1) in human cancer cells. By conducting tissue array analysis, herein, we determined the protein expression of MZF-1/Elk-1/PKCα in various cancers. The data show that the expression of MZF-1/Elk-1 is correlated with that of PKCα in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but not in bladder and lung cancers. In addition, the PKCα down-regulation by shRNA Elk-1 was only observed in the HCC SK-Hep-1 cells. Blocking the interaction between MZF-1 and Elk-1 through the transfection of their binding domain MZF-160–72 decreased PKCα expression. This step ultimately depressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition potential of the HCC cells. These findings could be used to develop an alternative therapeutic strategy for patients with the PKCα-derived HCC.

Keywords: protein kinase C alpha, myeloid zinc finger 1, ets-like protein-1, hepatocellular carcinoma

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110 Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Allometric Variation in the Hand Morphology of Adults

Authors: Aleksandr S. Ermolenko


Allometry is an important factor of morphological integration, contributing to the organization of the phenotype and its variability. The allometric change in the shape of the hand is particularly important in primate evolution, as the hand has important taxonomic features. Some of these features are known to parts with the shape, especially the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers (2d: 4d ratio). The hand is a fairly well-studied system in the context of the evolutionary development of complex morphological structures since it consists of various departments (basipodium, metapodium, acropodium) that form a single structure –autopodium. In the present study, we examined the allometric variability of acropodium. We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in allometric variation between the two components. Geometric morphometry based on a procrustation of 16 two-dimensional (2D) landmarks was analyzed using multivariate shape-by-size regressions in samples from 100 people (50 men and 50 women). The results obtained show that men have significantly greater allometric variability for the ring finger (variability in the transverse axis prevails), while women have significantly greater allometric variability for the index finger (variability in the longitudinal axis prevails). The influence of the middle finger on the shape of the hand is typical for both men and women. The influence of the little finger on the shape of the hand, regardless of gender, was not revealed. The results of this study support the hypothesis that allometry contributes to the organization of variation in the human hand.

Keywords: human hand, size and shape, 2d:4d ratio, geometric morphometry

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109 A Novel Combined Finger Counting and Finite State Machine Technique for ASL Translation Using Kinect

Authors: Rania Ahmed Kadry Abdel Gawad Birry, Mohamed El-Habrouk


This paper presents a brief survey of the techniques used for sign language recognition along with the types of sensors used to perform the task. It presents a modified method for identification of an isolated sign language gesture using Microsoft Kinect with the OpenNI framework. It presents the way of extracting robust features from the depth image provided by Microsoft Kinect and the OpenNI interface and to use them in creating a robust and accurate gesture recognition system, for the purpose of ASL translation. The Prime Sense’s Natural Interaction Technology for End-user - NITE™ - was also used in the C++ implementation of the system. The algorithm presents a simple finger counting algorithm for static signs as well as directional Finite State Machine (FSM) description of the hand motion in order to help in translating a sign language gesture. This includes both letters and numbers performed by a user, which in-turn may be used as an input for voice pronunciation systems.

Keywords: American sign language, finger counting, hand tracking, Microsoft Kinect

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108 Preprocessing and Fusion of Multiple Representation of Finger Vein patterns using Conventional and Machine Learning techniques

Authors: Tomas Trainys, Algimantas Venckauskas


Application of biometric features to the cryptography for human identification and authentication is widely studied and promising area of the development of high-reliability cryptosystems. Biometric cryptosystems typically are designed for patterns recognition, which allows biometric data acquisition from an individual, extracts feature sets, compares the feature set against the set stored in the vault and gives a result of the comparison. Preprocessing and fusion of biometric data are the most important phases in generating a feature vector for key generation or authentication. Fusion of biometric features is critical for achieving a higher level of security and prevents from possible spoofing attacks. The paper focuses on the tasks of initial processing and fusion of multiple representations of finger vein modality patterns. These tasks are solved by applying conventional image preprocessing methods and machine learning techniques, Convolutional Neural Network (SVM) method for image segmentation and feature extraction. An article presents a method for generating sets of biometric features from a finger vein network using several instances of the same modality. Extracted features sets were fused at the feature level. The proposed method was tested and compared with the performance and accuracy results of other authors.

Keywords: bio-cryptography, biometrics, cryptographic key generation, data fusion, information security, SVM, pattern recognition, finger vein method.

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107 Development of Latent Fingerprints on Non-Porous Surfaces Recovered from Fresh and Sea Water

Authors: A. Somaya Madkour, B. Abeer sheta, C. Fatma Badr El Dine, D. Yasser Elwakeel, E. Nermine AbdAllah


Criminal offenders have a fundamental goal not to leave any traces at the crime scene. Some may suppose that items recovered underwater will have no forensic value, therefore, they try to destroy the traces by throwing items in water. These traces are subjected to the destructive environmental effects. This can represent a challenge for Forensic experts investigating finger marks. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to determine the optimal method for latent fingerprints development on non-porous surfaces submerged in aquatic environments at different time interval. The two factors analyzed in this study were the nature of aquatic environment and length of submerged time. In addition, the quality of developed finger marks depending on the used method was also assessed. Therefore, latent fingerprints were deposited on metallic, plastic and glass objects and submerged in fresh or sea water for one, two, and ten days. After recovery, the items were subjected to cyanoacrylate fuming, black powder and small particle reagent processing and the prints were examined. Each print was evaluated according to fingerprint quality assessment scale. The present study demonstrated that the duration of submersion affects the quality of finger marks; the longer the duration, the worse the quality.The best results of visualization were achieved using cyanoacrylate either in fresh or sea water. This study has also revealed that the exposure to sea water had more destructive influence on the quality of detected finger marks.

Keywords: fingerprints, fresh water, sea, non-porous

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106 Effect of Distillery Spentwash Application on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)

Authors: N. N. Lingaraju, A. Sathish, K. N. Geetha, C. A. Srinivasamurthy, S. Bhaskar


Studies on spent wash utilization as a nutrient source through 'Effect of distillery spentwash application on soil properties and yield of maize (Zea may L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)' was carried out in Malavalli Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study was conducted in fourteen different locations of Malavalli (12) and Maddur taluk (2) involving maize and finger millet as a test crop. The spentwash was characterized for various parameters like pH, EC, total NPK, Na, Ca, Mg, SO₄, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cl content. It was observed from the results that the pH was slightly alkaline (7.45), EC was excess (23.3 dS m⁻¹), total NPK was 0.12, 0.02, and 1.31 percent respectively, Na, Ca, Mg and SO₄ concentration was 664, 1305, 745 and 618 (mg L⁻¹) respectively, total solid content was quite high (6.7%), Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, values were 23.5, 5.70, 3.64, 4.0 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The crops were grown by adopting different crop management practices after application of spentwash at 100 m³ ha⁻¹ to the identified farmer fields. Soil samples were drawn at three stages i.e., before sowing of crop, during crop growth stage and after harvest of the crop at 2 depths (0-30 and 30-60 cm) and analyzed for pH, EC, available K and Na parameters by adopting standard procedures. The soil analysis showed slightly acidic reaction (5.93), normal EC (0.43 dS m⁻¹), medium available potassium (267 kg ha⁻¹) before application of spentwash. Application of spentwash has enhanced pH level of soil towards neutral (6.97), EC 0.25 dS m⁻¹, available K2O to 376 kg ha⁻¹ and sodium content of 0.73 C mol (P+) kg⁻¹ during the crop growth stage. After harvest of the crops soil analysis data indicated a decrease in pH to 6.28, EC of 0.22 dS m⁻¹, available K₂O to 316 kg ha⁻¹ and Na 0.52 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ compared with crop growth stage. The study showed that, there will be enhancement of potassium levels if the spentwash is applied once to dryland. The yields of both the crops were quantified and found to be in the range of 35.65 to 65.55 q ha⁻¹ and increased yield to the extent of 13.36-22.36 percent as compared to control field (11.36-22.33 q ha⁻¹) in maize crop. Also, finger millet yield was increased with the spentwash application to the extent of 14.21-20.49 percent (9.5-17.73 q ha⁻¹) higher over farmers practice (8.15-14.15 q ha⁻¹).

Keywords: distillery spentwash, finger millet, maize, waste water

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105 The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length Correlates with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Male College Students Men but Not in Female

Authors: Cheng-Chen Hsu


Background: The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger, 2D) to the fourth finger (ring finger, 4D) (2D:4D) is a putative marker of prenatal hormones. A low 2D:4D ratio is related to high prenatal testosterone (PT) levels. Physiological research has suggested that a low 2D:4D ratio is correlated with high sports ability. Aim: To examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and 2D:4D. Methods: Assessment of 2D:4D; Images of hands were collected from participants using a computer scanner. Hands were placed lightly on the surface of the plate. Image analysis was performed using Image-Pro Plus 5.0 software. Feature points were marked at the tip of the finger and at the center of the proximal crease on the second and fourth digits. Actual measurement was carried out automatically, 2D:4D was calculated by dividing 2nd by 4th digit length. YMCA 3-min Step Test; The test involves stepping up and down at a rate of 24 steps/min for 3 min; a tape recording of the correct cadence (96 beats/min) is played to assist the participant in keeping the correct pace. Following the step test, the participant immediately sits down and, within 5 s, the tester starts counting the pulse for 1 min. The score for the test, the total 1-min postexercise heart rate, reflects the heart’s ability to recover quickly. Statistical Analysis ; Pearson’s correlation (r) was used for assessing the relationship between age, physical measurements, one-minute heart rate after YMCA 3-minute step test (HR) and 2D:4D. An independent-sample t-test was used for determining possible differences in HR between subjects with low and high values of 2D:4D. All statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS 18 for Window. All P-values were two-tailed at P = 0.05, if not reported otherwise. Results: A median split by 2D:4D was applied, resulting in a high and a low group. One-minute heart rate after YMCA 3-minute step test was significantly difference between groups of male right-hand 2D:4D (p = 0.024). However, no difference in left-hand 2D:4D values between groups in male, and no digit ratio difference between groups in female. Conclusion: The results showed that cardiopulmonary fitness is related to right 2D:4D, only in men. We argue that prenatal testosterone may have an effect on cardiorespiratory fitness in male but not in female.

Keywords: college students, digit ratio, finger, step test, fitness

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104 Hand Anthropometric Dimensions and Occupation

Authors: Hamid Falaki, Roya Kelkanlo, Mojtaba Tabatabaei


The present study aimed at distinguishing the effects of work type on hand dimensions and investigating the relationship between anthropometric dimensions and occupation. The anthropometric data used in study were collected on 12 hand anthropometric dimensions. The participants included 91 males in two groups, namely manual labor job and office workers. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. All measurements were significantly greater than those of office jobs except for the grip diameter obtained from the manual workers. The hand perimeter was the greatest value among the 12 measured dimensions, while the thickness of the side little finger was the smallest one. In four dimensions, namely width of four fingers together from the central hinge; diameter of thumb to face; diameter of index finger to face; hand thickness from index finger revealed the availability of a significant difference between manual labor jobs and office workers. Moreover, no significant relation was observed between weight and stature with hand dimension, which represents the correlation between occupation and the four dimensions. The results of this study showed that the difference between the two occupational groups was significant in terms of the four dimensions. Therefore, it is suggested that tool designers should consider this finding in their designing process.

Keywords: hand dimensions, occupation, tool design, anthropometry

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103 Hybrid Recovery of Copper and Silver from Photovoltaic Ribbon and Ag finger of End-Of-Life Solar Panels

Authors: T. Patcharawit, C. Kansomket, N. Wongnaree, W. Kritsrikan, T. Yingnakorn, S. Khumkoa


Recovery of pure copper and silver from end-of-life photovoltaic panels was investigated in this paper using an effective hybrid pyro-hydrometallurgical process. In the first step of waste treatment, solar panel waste was first dismantled to obtain a PV sheet to be cut and calcined at 500°C, to separate out PV ribbon from glass cullet, ash, and volatile while the silicon wafer containing silver finger was collected for recovery. In the second step of metal recovery, copper recovery from photovoltaic ribbon was via 1-3 M HCl leaching with SnCl₂ and H₂O₂ additions in order to remove the tin-lead coating on the ribbon. The leached copper band was cleaned and subsequently melted as an anode for the next step of electrorefining. Stainless steel was set as the cathode with CuSO₄ as an electrolyte, and at a potential of 0.2 V, high purity copper of 99.93% was obtained at 96.11% recovery after 24 hours. For silver recovery, the silicon wafer containing silver finger was leached using HNO₃ at 1-4 M in an ultrasonic bath. In the next step of precipitation, silver chloride was then obtained and subsequently reduced by sucrose and NaOH to give silver powder prior to oxy-acetylene melting to finally obtain pure silver metal. The integrated recycling process is considered to be economical, providing effective recovery of high purity metals such as copper and silver while other materials such as aluminum, copper wire, glass cullet can also be recovered to be reused commercially. Compounds such as PbCl₂ and SnO₂ obtained can also be recovered to enter the market.

Keywords: electrorefining, leaching, calcination, PV ribbon, silver finger, solar panel

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102 Towards Real-Time Classification of Finger Movement Direction Using Encephalography Independent Components

Authors: Mohamed Mounir Tellache, Hiroyuki Kambara, Yasuharu Koike, Makoto Miyakoshi, Natsue Yoshimura


This study explores the practicality of using electroencephalographic (EEG) independent components to predict eight-direction finger movements in pseudo-real-time. Six healthy participants with individual-head MRI images performed finger movements in eight directions with two different arm configurations. The analysis was performed in two stages. The first stage consisted of using independent component analysis (ICA) to separate the signals representing brain activity from non-brain activity signals and to obtain the unmixing matrix. The resulting independent components (ICs) were checked, and those reflecting brain-activity were selected. Finally, the time series of the selected ICs were used to predict eight finger-movement directions using Sparse Logistic Regression (SLR). The second stage consisted of using the previously obtained unmixing matrix, the selected ICs, and the model obtained by applying SLR to classify a different EEG dataset. This method was applied to two different settings, namely the single-participant level and the group-level. For the single-participant level, the EEG dataset used in the first stage and the EEG dataset used in the second stage originated from the same participant. For the group-level, the EEG datasets used in the first stage were constructed by temporally concatenating each combination without repetition of the EEG datasets of five participants out of six, whereas the EEG dataset used in the second stage originated from the remaining participants. The average test classification results across datasets (mean ± S.D.) were 38.62 ± 8.36% for the single-participant, which was significantly higher than the chance level (12.50 ± 0.01%), and 27.26 ± 4.39% for the group-level which was also significantly higher than the chance level (12.49% ± 0.01%). The classification accuracy within [–45°, 45°] of the true direction is 70.03 ± 8.14% for single-participant and 62.63 ± 6.07% for group-level which may be promising for some real-life applications. Clustering and contribution analyses further revealed the brain regions involved in finger movement and the temporal aspect of their contribution to the classification. These results showed the possibility of using the ICA-based method in combination with other methods to build a real-time system to control prostheses.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, electroencephalography, finger motion decoding, independent component analysis, pseudo real-time motion decoding

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101 Fingers Exergames to Improve Fine Motor Skill in Autistic Children

Authors: Zulhisyam Salleh, Fizatul Aini Patakor, Rosilah Wahab, Awangku Khairul Ridzwan Awangku Jaya


Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how people perceive the world and interact with others. Most of these children have difficulty with fine motor skills which typically struggle with handwriting and fine activities in their routine life such as getting dressed and controlled use of the everyday tool. Because fine motor activities encompass so many routine functions, a fine motor delay can have a measurable negative impact on a person's ability to handle daily practical tasks. This project proposed a simple fine motor exercise aid plus the game (exergame) for autistic children who discover from fine motor difficulties. The proposed exergame will be blinking randomly and user needs to bend their finger accordingly. It will notify the user, whether they bend the right finger or not. The system is realized using Arduino, which is programmed to control all the operated circuit. The feasibility studies with six autistic children were conducted and found the child interested in using exergame and could quickly get used to it. This study provides important guidance for future investigations of the exergame potential for accessing and improving fine motor skill among autistic children.

Keywords: autism children, Arduino project, fine motor skill, finger exergame

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100 The Possibility of Solving a 3x3 Rubik’s Cube under 3 Seconds

Authors: Chung To Kong, Siu Ming Yiu


Rubik's cube was invented in 1974. Since then, speedcubers all over the world try their best to break the world record again and again. The newest record is 3.47 seconds. There are many factors that affect the timing, including turns per second (tps), algorithm, finger trick, hardware of the cube. In this paper, the lower bound of the cube solving time will be discussed using convex optimization. Extended analysis of the world records will be used to understand how to improve the timing. With the understanding of each part of the solving step, the paper suggests a list of speed improvement techniques. Based on the analysis of the world record, there is a high possibility that the 3 seconds mark will be broken soon.

Keywords: Rubik's Cube, speed, finger trick, optimization

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99 The Touch Sensation: Ageing and Gender Influences

Authors: A. Abdouni, C. Thieulin, M. Djaghloul, R. Vargiolu, H. Zahouani


A decline in the main sensory modalities (vision, hearing, taste, and smell) is well reported to occur with advancing age, it is expected a similar change to occur with touch sensation and perception. In this study, we have focused on the touch sensations highlighting ageing and gender influences with in vivo systems. The touch process can be divided into two main phases: The first phase is the first contact between the finger and the object, during this contact, an adhesive force has been created which is the needed force to permit an initial movement of the finger. In the second phase, the finger mechanical properties with their surface topography play an important role in the obtained sensation. In order to understand the age and gender effects on the touch sense, we develop different ideas and systems for each phase. To better characterize the contact, the mechanical properties and the surface topography of human finger, in vivo studies on the pulp of 40 subjects (20 of each gender) of four age groups of 26±3, 35+-3, 45+-2 and 58±6 have been performed. To understand the first touch phase a classical indentation system has been adapted to measure the finger contact properties. The normal force load, the indentation speed, the contact time, the penetration depth and the indenter geometry have been optimized. The penetration depth of a glass indenter is recorded as a function of the applied normal force. Main assessed parameter is the adhesive force F_ad. For the second phase, first, an innovative approach is proposed to characterize the dynamic finger mechanical properties. A contactless indentation test inspired from the techniques used in ophthalmology has been used. The test principle is to blow an air blast to the finger and measure the caused deformation by a linear laser. The advantage of this test is the real observation of the skin free return without any outside influence. Main obtained parameters are the wave propagation speed and the Young's modulus E. Second, negative silicon replicas of subject’s fingerprint have been analyzed by a probe laser defocusing. A laser diode transmits a light beam on the surface to be measured, and the reflected signal is returned to a set of four photodiodes. This technology allows reconstructing three-dimensional images. In order to study the age and gender effects on the roughness properties, a multi-scale characterization of roughness has been realized by applying continuous wavelet transform. After determining the decomposition of the surface, the method consists of quantifying the arithmetic mean of surface topographic at each scale SMA. Significant differences of the main parameters are shown with ageing and gender. The comparison between men and women groups reveals that the adhesive force is higher for women. The results of mechanical properties show a Young’s modulus higher for women and also increasing with age. The roughness analysis shows a significant difference in function of age and gender.

Keywords: ageing, finger, gender, touch

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98 Comparative Study of Skeletonization and Radial Distance Methods for Automated Finger Enumeration

Authors: Mohammad Hossain Mohammadi, Saif Al Ameri, Sana Ziaei, Jinane Mounsef


Automated enumeration of the number of hand fingers is widely used in several motion gaming and distance control applications, and is discussed in several published papers as a starting block for hand recognition systems. The automated finger enumeration technique should not only be accurate, but also must have a fast response for a moving-picture input. The high performance of video in motion games or distance control will inhibit the program’s overall speed, for image processing software such as Matlab need to produce results at high computation speeds. Since an automated finger enumeration with minimum error and processing time is desired, a comparative study between two finger enumeration techniques is presented and analyzed in this paper. In the pre-processing stage, various image processing functions were applied on a real-time video input to obtain the final cleaned auto-cropped image of the hand to be used for the two techniques. The first technique uses the known morphological tool of skeletonization to count the number of skeleton’s endpoints for fingers. The second technique uses a radial distance method to enumerate the number of fingers in order to obtain a one dimensional hand representation. For both discussed methods, the different steps of the algorithms are explained. Then, a comparative study analyzes the accuracy and speed of both techniques. Through experimental testing in different background conditions, it was observed that the radial distance method was more accurate and responsive to a real-time video input compared to the skeletonization method. All test results were generated in Matlab and were based on displaying a human hand for three different orientations on top of a plain color background. Finally, the limitations surrounding the enumeration techniques are presented.

Keywords: comparative study, hand recognition, fingertip detection, skeletonization, radial distance, Matlab

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97 X-Glove: Case Study of Soft Robotic Hand Exoskeleton

Authors: Pim Terachinda, Witaya Wannasuphoprasit, Wasuwat Kitisomprayoonkul, Anan Srikiatkhachorn


Restoration of hand function and dexterity remain challenges in rehabilitation after stroke. We have developed soft exoskeleton hand robot in which using tendon-driven mechanism. Finger flexion and extension can be triggered by a foot switch and force can be adjusted manually depending on patient’s grip strength. The objective of this study is to investigate feasibility and safety of this device. The study was done in 2 stroke patients with the strength of the finger flexors/extensors grade 1/0 and 3/1 on Medical Research Council scale, respectively. Grasp and release training was performed for 30 minutes. No complication was observed. Results demonstrated that the device is safe, and therapy can be tailored to individual patient’s need. However, further study is required to determine recovery and rehabilitation outcomes after training in patients after nervous system injury.

Keywords: hand, rehabilitation, robot, stroke

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96 The Curvature of Bending Analysis and Motion of Soft Robotic Fingers by Full 3D Printing with MC-Cells Technique for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Chaiyawat Musikapan, Ratchatin Chancharoen, Saknan Bongsebandhu-Phubhakdi


For many recent years, soft robotic fingers were used for supporting the patients who had survived the neurological diseases that resulted in muscular disorders and neural network damages, such as stroke and Parkinson’s disease, and inflammatory symptoms such as De Quervain and trigger finger. Generally, the major hand function is significant to manipulate objects in activities of daily living (ADL). In this work, we proposed the model of soft actuator that manufactured by full 3D printing without the molding process and one material for use. Furthermore, we designed the model with a technique of multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells). Then, we demonstrated the curvature bending, fluidic pressure and force that generated to the model for assistive finger flexor and hand grasping. Also, the soft actuators were characterized in mathematics solving by the length of chord and arc length. In addition, we used an adaptive push-button switch machine to measure the force in our experiment. Consequently, we evaluated biomechanics efficiency by the range of motion (ROM) that affected to metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Finally, the model achieved to exhibit the corresponding fluidic pressure with force and ROM to assist the finger flexor and hand grasping.

Keywords: biomechanics efficiency, curvature bending, hand functional assistance, multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells), range of motion (ROM)

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95 Prediction of Endotracheal Tube Size in Children by Predicting Subglottic Diameter Using Ultrasonographic Measurement versus Traditional Formulas

Authors: Parul Jindal, Shubhi Singh, Priya Ramakrishnan, Shailender Raghuvanshi


Background: Knowledge of the influence of the age of the child on laryngeal dimensions is essential for all practitioners who are dealing with paediatric airway. Choosing the correct endotracheal tube (ETT) size is a crucial step in pediatric patients because a large-sized tube may cause complications like post-extubation stridor and subglottic stenosis. On the other hand with a smaller tube, there will be increased gas flow resistance, aspiration risk, poor ventilation, inaccurate monitoring of end-tidal gases and reintubation may also be required with a different size of the tracheal tube. Recent advancement in ultrasonography (USG) techniques should now allow for accurate and descriptive evaluation of pediatric airway. Aims and objectives: This study was planned to determine the accuracy of Ultrasonography (USG) to assess the appropriate ETT size and compare it with physical indices based formulae. Methods: After obtaining approval from Institute’s Ethical and Research committee, and parental written and informed consent, the study was conducted on 100 subjects of either sex between 12-60 months of age, undergoing various elective surgeries under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation. The same experienced radiologist performed ultrasonography. The transverse diameter was measured at the level of cricoids cartilage by USG. After USG, general anesthesia was administered using standard techniques followed by the institute. An experienced anesthesiologist performed the endotracheal intubations with uncuffed endotracheal tube (Portex Tracheal Tube Smiths Medical India Pvt. Ltd.) with Murphy’s eye. He was unaware of the finding of the ultrasonography. The tracheal tube was considered best fit if air leak was satisfactory at 15-20 cm H₂O of airway pressure. The obtained values were compared with the values of endotracheal tube size calculated by ultrasonography, various age, height, weight-based formulas and diameter of right and left little finger. The correlation of the size of the endotracheal tube by different modalities was done and Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained. The comparison of the mean size of the endotracheal tube by ultrasonography and by traditional formula was done by the Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Results: The predicted tube size was equal to best fit and best determined by ultrasonography (100%) followed by comparison to left little finger (98%) and right little finger (97%) and age-based formula (95%) followed by multivariate formula (83%) and body length (81%) formula. According to Pearson`s correlation, there was a moderate correlation of best fit endotracheal tube with endotracheal tube size by age-based formula (r=0.743), body length based formula (r=0.683), right little finger based formula (r=0.587), left little finger based formula (r=0.587) and multivariate formula (r=0.741). There was a strong correlation with ultrasonography (r=0.943). Ultrasonography was the most sensitive (100%) method of prediction followed by comparison to left (98%) and right (97%) little finger and age-based formula (95%), the multivariate formula had an even lesser sensitivity (83%) whereas body length based formula was least sensitive with a sensitivity of 78%. Conclusion: USG is a reliable method of estimation of subglottic diameter and for prediction of ETT size in children.

Keywords: endotracheal intubation, pediatric airway, subglottic diameter, traditional formulas, ultrasonography

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94 Soft Robotic Exoskeletal Glove with Single Motor-Driven Tendon-Based Differential Drive

Authors: M. Naveed Akhter, Jawad Aslam, Omer Gillani


To aid and rehabilitate increasing number of patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke, a lightweight, wearable, and 3D printable exoskeletal glove has been developed. Unlike previously developed metal or fabric-based exoskeletons, this research presents the development of soft exoskeletal glove made of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The drive mechanism consists of a single motor-driven antagonistic tendon to perform extension or flexion of middle and index finger. The tendon-based differential drive has been incorporated to allow for grasping of irregularly shaped objects. The design features easy 3D-printability with TPU without a need for supports. The overall weight of the glove and the actuation unit is approximately 500g. Performance of the glove was tested on a custom test-bench with integrated load cells, and the grip strength was tested to be around 30N per finger while grasping objects of irregular shape.

Keywords: 3D printable, differential drive, exoskeletal glove, rehabilitation, single motor driven

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93 Evolution of DNA-Binding With-One-Finger Transcriptional Factor Family in Diploid Cotton Gossypium raimondii

Authors: Waqas Shafqat Chattha, Muhammad Iqbal, Amir Shakeel


Transcriptional factors are proteins that play a vital role in regulating the transcription of target genes in different biological processes and are being widely studied in different plant species. In the current era of genomics, plant genomes sequencing has directed to the genome-wide identification, analyses and categorization of diverse transcription factor families and hence provide key insights into their structural as well as functional diversity. The DNA-binding with One Finger (DOF) proteins belongs to C2-C2-type zinc finger protein family. DOF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors implicated in diverse functions including seed maturation and germination, phytohormone signalling, light-mediated gene regulation, cotton-fiber elongation and responses of the plant to biotic as well as abiotic stresses. In this context, a genome-wide in-silico analysis of DOF TF family in diploid cotton species i.e. Gossypium raimondii has enabled us to identify 55 non-redundant genes encoding DOF proteins renamed as GrDofs (Gossypium raimondii Dof). Gene distribution studies have shown that all of the GrDof genes are unevenly distributed across 12 out of 13 G. raimondii chromosomes. The gene structure analysis illustrated that 34 out of 55 GrDof genes are intron-less while remaining 21 genes have a single intron. Protein sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of putative 55 GrDOFs has divided these proteins into 5 major groups with various paralogous gene pairs. Molecular evolutionary studies aided with the conserved domain as well as gene structure analysis suggested that segmental duplications were the principal contributors for the expansion of Dof genes in G. raimondii.

Keywords: diploid cotton , G. raimondii, phylogenetic analysis, transcription factor

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92 Impact of Fermentation Time and Microbial Source on Physicochemical Properties, Total Phenols and Antioxidant Activity of Finger Millet Malt Beverage

Authors: Henry O. Udeha, Kwaku G. Duodub, Afam I. O. Jideanic


Finger millet (FM) [Eleusine coracana] is considered as a potential ‘‘super grain’’ by the United States National Academies as one of the most nutritious among all the major cereals. The regular consumption of FM-based diets has been associated with reduced risk of diabetes, cataract and gastrointestinal tract disorder. Hyperglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and anticataractogenic, and other health improvement properties have been reported. This study examined the effect of fermentation time and microbial source on physicochemical properties, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of two finger millet (FM) malt flours. Sorghum was used as an external reference. The grains were malted, mashed and fermented using the grain microflora and Lactobacillus fermentum. The phenolic compounds of the resulting beverage were identified and quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and mass spectrometer system (MS). A fermentation-time dependent decrease in pH and viscosities of the beverages, with a corresponding increase in sugar content were noted. The phenolic compounds found in the FM beverages were protocatechuic acid, catechin and epicatechin. Decrease in total phenolics of the beverages was observed with increased fermentation time. The beverages exhibited 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2, 2՛-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging action and iron reducing activities, which were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 96 h fermentation for both microbial sources. The 24 h fermented beverages retained a higher amount of total phenolics and had higher antioxidant activity compared to other fermentation periods. The study demonstrates that FM could be utilised as a functional grain in the production of non-alcoholic beverage with important phenolic compounds for health promotion and wellness.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, eleusine coracana, fermentation, phenolic compounds

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