Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3365

Search results for: essential patent portfolio

3365 Analyzing Essential Patents of Mobile Communication Based on Patent Portfolio: Case Study of Long Term Evolution-Advanced

Authors: Kujhin Jeong, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

In the past, cross-licensing was made up of various application or commercial patents. Today, cross-licensing is restricted to essential patents, which has emphasized their importance significantly. Literature has shown that patent portfolio provides information for patent protection or strategy decision-making, but little empirical research has found strategic tool of essential patents. This paper will highlight four types of essential patent portfolio and analysis about each strategy in the field of LTE-A. Specifically we collected essential patents of mobile communication company through ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute) and build-up portfolio activity, concentration, diversity, and quality. Using these portfolios, we can understand each company’s strategic character about the technology of LTE-A and comparison analysis of financial results. Essential patents portfolio displays a mobile communication company’s strategy and its strategy’s impact on the performance of a company.

Keywords: essential patent, portfolio, patent portfolio, essential patent portfolio

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3364 A Multivariate Analysis of Patent Price Variations in the Emerging United States Patent Auction Market: Role of Patent, Seller, and Bundling Related Characteristics

Authors: Pratheeba Subramanian, Anjula Gurtoo, Mary Mathew

Abstract:

Transaction of patents in emerging patent markets is gaining momentum. Pricing patents for a transaction say patent sale remains a challenge. Patents vary in their pricing with some patents fetching higher prices than others. Sale of patents in portfolios further complicates pricing with multiple patents playing a role in pricing a bundle. In this paper, a set of 138 US patents sold individually as single invention lots and 462 US patents sold in bundles of 120 portfolios are investigated to understand the dynamics of selling prices of singletons and portfolios and their determinants. Firstly, price variations when patents are sold individually as singletons and portfolios are studied. Multivariate statistical techniques are used for analysis both at the lot level as well as at the individual patent level. The results show portfolios fetching higher prices than singletons at the lot level. However, at the individual patent level singletons show higher prices than per patent price of individual patent members within the portfolio. Secondly, to understand the price determinants, the effect of patent, seller, and bundling related characteristics on selling prices is studied separately for singletons and portfolios. The results show differences in the set of characteristics determining prices of singletons and portfolios. Selling prices of singletons are found to be dependent on the patent related characteristics, unlike portfolios whose prices are found to be dependent on all three aspects – patent, seller, and bundling. The specific patent, seller and bundling characteristics influencing selling price are discussed along with the implications.

Keywords: auction, patents, portfolio bundling, seller type, selling price, singleton

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3363 Forum Shopping in Biotechnology Law: Understanding Conflict of Laws in Protecting GMO-Based Inventions as Part of a Patent Portfolio in the Greater China Region

Authors: Eugene C. Lim

Abstract:

This paper seeks to examine the extent to which ‘forum shopping’ is available to patent filers seeking protection of GMO (genetically modified organisms)-based inventions in Hong Kong. Under Hong Kong’s current re-registration system for standard patents, an inventor must first seek patent protection from one of three Designated Patent Offices (DPO) – those of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Europe Union (EU) (designating the UK), or the United Kingdom (UK). The ‘designated patent’ can then be re-registered by the successful patentee in Hong Kong. Interestingly, however, the EU and the PRC do not adopt a harmonized approach toward the patenting of GMOs, and there are discrepancies in their interpretation of the phrase ‘animal or plant variety’. In view of these divergences, the ability to effectively manage ‘conflict of law’ issues is an important priority for multinational biotechnology firms with a patent portfolio in the Greater China region. Generally speaking, both the EU and the PRC exclude ‘animal and plant varieties’ from the scope of patentable subject matter. However, in the EU, Article 4(2) of the Biotechnology Directive allows a genetically modified plant or animal to be patented if its ‘technical feasibility is not limited to a specific variety’. This principle has allowed for certain ‘transgenic’ mammals, such as the ‘Harvard Oncomouse’, to be the subject of a successful patent grant in the EU. There is no corresponding provision on ‘technical feasibility’ in the patent legislation of the PRC. Although the PRC has a sui generis system for protecting plant varieties, its patent legislation allows the patenting of non-biological methods for producing transgenic organisms, not the ‘organisms’ themselves. This might lead to a situation where an inventor can obtain patent protection in Hong Kong over transgenic life forms through the re-registration of a patent from a more ‘biotech-friendly’ DPO, even though the subject matter in question might not be patentable per se in the PRC. Through a comparative doctrinal analysis of legislative provisions, cases and court interpretations, this paper argues that differences in the protection afforded to GMOs do not generally prejudice the ability of global MNCs to obtain patent protection in Hong Kong. Corporations which are able to first obtain patents for GMO-based inventions in Europe can generally use their European patent as the basis for re-registration in Hong Kong, even if such protection might not be available in the PRC itself. However, the more restrictive approach to GMO-based patents adopted in the PRC would be more acutely felt by enterprises and inventors based in mainland China. The broader scope of protection offered to GMO-based patents in Europe might not be available in Hong Kong to mainland Chinese patentees under the current re-registration model for standard patents, unless they have the resources to apply for patent protection as well from another (European) DPO as the basis for re-registration.

Keywords: biotechnology, forum shopping, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), greater China region, patent portfolio

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3362 Commercialization of Innovative Technologies: Strategic Licensing in Patent Infringement Cases

Authors: Amaliny Yoganathan-Hasselbeck

Abstract:

Based on the assumption, that strategic licensing is more valuable and sustainable for the economy than a legal dispute and action for an injunction, the strategy of licensing in patent infringement cases was studied. A theoretical framework was developed based on the transaction costs approach, describing the major variables within the process of licensing to an alleged patent infringer. An exploratory case study analysis was conducted on the basis of expert interviews with patent licensing agencies, patent attorneys, licensing departments of companies and research institutions. Key findings define the major criteria in each step of the licensing process and include the factors determining the intensity of patent tracking e.g. patent policies, the decision criteria when dealing with patent infringement cases, e.g. market position and reputation, and the transaction itself starting with the initiation of the contact with the alleged patent infringer, negotiating the licensing contract and monitoring the license agreement.

Keywords: innovation, licensing, patent, patent infringement, strategy, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
3361 Linguistic Summarization of Structured Patent Data

Authors: E. Y. Igde, S. Aydogan, F. E. Boran, D. Akay

Abstract:

Patent data have an increasingly important role in economic growth, innovation, technical advantages and business strategies and even in countries competitions. Analyzing of patent data is crucial since patents cover large part of all technological information of the world. In this paper, we have used the linguistic summarization technique to prove the validity of the hypotheses related to patent data stated in the literature.

Keywords: data mining, fuzzy sets, linguistic summarization, patent data

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
3360 Using Analytic Hierarchy Process as a Decision-Making Tool in Project Portfolio Management

Authors: Darius Danesh, Michael J. Ryan, Alireza Abbasi

Abstract:

Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is an essential component of an organisation’s strategic procedures, which requires attention of several factors to envisage a range of long-term outcomes to support strategic project portfolio decisions. To evaluate overall efficiency at the portfolio level, it is essential to identify the functionality of specific projects as well as to aggregate those findings in a mathematically meaningful manner that indicates the strategic significance of the associated projects at a number of levels of abstraction. PPM success is directly associated with the quality of decisions made and poor judgment increases portfolio costs. Hence, various Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques have been designed and employed to support the decision-making functions. This paper reviews possible option to improve the decision-making outcomes in the organisational portfolio management processes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) both from academic and practical perspectives and will examine the usability, certainty and quality of the technique. The results of the study will also provide insight into the technical risk associated with current decision-making model to underpin initiative tracking and strategic portfolio management.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision support systems, multi-criteria decision making, project portfolio management

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3359 Analysis and Suggestion on Patent Protection in Shanghai, China

Authors: Yuhong Niu, Na Li, Chunlin Jin, Hansheng Ding

Abstract:

The study reviewed all types of patents applied by Shanghai health system to analyze how patent development in China from the year of 1990 to 2012. The study used quantitative and comparative analysis to investigate the change and trends of patent numbers, patent types, patent claims, forward citations, patent life, patent transactions, etc. Results reflected an obviously increased numbers of invention patents, applications, and authorizations and short-life patents, but the ratio of invention patents represented an up and down change. Forward citations and transactions ratio always kept at a low level. The results meant that the protection of intellectual property in the Shanghai health sector had made great progress and lots of positive changes due to incentive policies by local government. However, the low-quality patents, at the same time, increased rapidly. Thus, in the future, it is suggested that the quality management should be strengthened, and invents should be estimated before patent application. It is also suggested that the incentives for intellectual property should be optimized to promote the comprehensive improvement of patent quantity and quality.

Keywords: patent claims, forward citations, patent life, patent transactions ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
3358 Measuring Firms’ Patent Management: Conceptualization, Validation, and Interpretation

Authors: Mehari Teshome, Lara Agostini, Anna Nosella

Abstract:

The current knowledge-based economy extends intellectual property rights (IPRs) legal research themes into a more strategic and organizational perspectives. From the diverse types of IPRs, patents are the strongest and well-known form of legal protection that influences commercial success and market value. Indeed, from our pilot survey, we understood that firms are less likely to manage their patents and actively used it as a tool for achieving competitive advantage rather they invest resource and efforts for patent application. To this regard, the literature also confirms that insights into how firms manage their patents from a holistic, strategic perspective, and how the portfolio value of patents can be optimized are scarce. Though patent management is an important business tool and there exist few scales to measure some dimensions of patent management, at the best of our knowledge, no systematic attempt has been made to develop a valid and comprehensive measure of it. Considering this theoretical and practical point of view, the aim of this article is twofold: to develop a framework for patent management encompassing all relevant dimensions with their respective constructs and measurement items, and to validate the measurement using survey data from practitioners. Methodology: We used six-step methodological approach (i.e., specify the domain of construct, item generation, scale purification, internal consistency assessment, scale validation, and replication). Accordingly, we carried out a systematic review of 182 articles on patent management, from ISI Web of Science. For each article, we mapped relevant constructs, their definition, and associated features, as well as items used to measure these constructs, when provided. This theoretical analysis was complemented by interviews with experts in patent management to get feedbacks that are more practical on how patent management is carried out in firms. Afterwards, we carried out a questionnaire survey to purify our scales and statistical validation. Findings: The analysis allowed us to design a framework for patent management, identifying its core dimensions (i.e., generation, portfolio-management, exploitation and enforcement, intelligence) and support dimensions (i.e., strategy and organization). Moreover, we identified the relevant activities for each dimension, as well as the most suitable items to measure them. For example, the core dimension generation includes constructs as: state-of-the-art analysis, freedom-to-operate analysis, patent watching, securing freedom-to-operate, patent potential and patent-geographical-scope. Originality and the Study Contribution: This study represents a first step towards the development of sound scales to measure patent management with an overarching approach, thus laying the basis for developing a recognized landmark within the research area of patent management. Practical Implications: The new scale can be used to assess the level of sophistication of the patent management of a company and compare it with other firms in the industry to evaluate their ability to manage the different activities involved in patent management. In addition, the framework resulting from this analysis can be used as a guide that supports managers to improve patent management in firms.

Keywords: patent, management, scale, development, intellectual property rights (IPRs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3357 A Mean–Variance–Skewness Portfolio Optimization Model

Authors: Kostas Metaxiotis

Abstract:

Portfolio optimization is one of the most important topics in finance. This paper proposes a mean–variance–skewness (MVS) portfolio optimization model. Traditionally, the portfolio optimization problem is solved by using the mean–variance (MV) framework. In this study, we formulate the proposed model as a three-objective optimization problem, where the portfolio's expected return and skewness are maximized whereas the portfolio risk is minimized. For solving the proposed three-objective portfolio optimization model we apply an adapted version of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII). Finally, we use a real dataset from FTSE-100 for validating the proposed model.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, portfolio optimization, skewness, stock selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
3356 A Comparative Study on Software Patent: The Meaning of 'Use' in Direct Infringement

Authors: Tien Wei Daniel Hwang

Abstract:

The computer program inventors, particularly in Fintech, are unwilling to apply for patents in Taiwan after 2014. Passing the ‘statutory subject matter eligibility’ test and becoming the system patent are not the only cause to the reduction in the number of application. Taiwanese court needs to resolve whether the defendants had ‘used’ that software patent in patent direct infringement suit. Both 35 U.S.C. § 271(a) and article 58 paragraph 2 of Taiwan Patent Law don’t define the meaning of ‘use’ in the statutes. Centillion Data Sys., LLC v. Qwest Commc’ns Int’l, Inc. reconsidered the meaning of ‘use’ in system patent infringement, and held that ‘a party must put the invention into service, i.e., control the system as a whole and obtain benefit from it.’ In Taiwan, Intellectual Property Office, Ministry of Economic Affairs, has explained that ‘using’ the patent is ‘achieving the technical effect of the patent.’ Nonetheless, this definition is too broad to apply to not only the software patent but also the traditional patent. To supply the friendly environment for Fintech corporations, this article aims to let Taiwanese court realize why and how United States District Court, S.D. Indiana, Indianapolis Division and United States Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit defined the meaning of ‘use’ in 35 U.S.C. § 271(a). However, this definition is so lax and confuses many defendants in United States. Accordingly, this article indicates the elements in Taiwan Patent Law are different with 35 U.S.C. § 271(a), so Taiwanese court can follow the interpretation of ‘use’ in Centillion Data case without the same obstacle.

Keywords: direct infringement, FinTech, software patent, use

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
3355 A Methodology for Developing New Technology Ideas to Avoid Patent Infringement: F-Term Based Patent Analysis

Authors: Kisik Song, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

With the growing importance of intangible assets recently, the impact of patent infringement on the business of a company has become more evident. Accordingly, it is essential for firms to estimate the risk of patent infringement risk before developing a technology and create new technology ideas to avoid the risk. Recognizing the needs, several attempts have been made to help develop new technology opportunities and most of them have focused on identifying emerging vacant technologies from patent analysis. In these studies, the IPC (International Patent Classification) system or keywords from text-mining application to patent documents was generally used to define vacant technologies. Unlike those studies, this study adopted F-term, which classifies patent documents according to the technical features of the inventions described in them. Since the technical features are analyzed by various perspectives by F-term, F-term provides more detailed information about technologies compared to IPC while more systematic information compared to keywords. Therefore, if well utilized, it can be a useful guideline to create a new technology idea. Recognizing the potential of F-term, this paper aims to suggest a novel approach to developing new technology ideas to avoid patent infringement based on F-term. For this purpose, we firstly collected data about F-term and then applied text-mining to the descriptions about classification criteria and attributes. From the text-mining results, we could identify other technologies with similar technical features of the existing one, the patented technology. Finally, we compare the technologies and extract the technical features that are commonly used in other technologies but have not been used in the existing one. These features are presented in terms of “purpose”, “function”, “structure”, “material”, “method”, “processing and operation procedure” and “control means” and so are useful for creating new technology ideas that help avoid infringing patent rights of other companies. Theoretically, this is one of the earliest attempts to adopt F-term to patent analysis; the proposed methodology can show how to best take advantage of F-term with the wealth of technical information. In practice, the proposed methodology can be valuable in the ideation process for successful product and service innovation without infringing the patents of other companies.

Keywords: patent infringement, new technology ideas, patent analysis, F-term

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3354 The Appropriate Patent System to Promote Economic Growth in Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Reza Fooladi

Abstract:

The patent system which fits with industrial and economic situation in the country, by strengthening research and development, technology transfer and increasing foreign investment can provide economic and industrial growth of the countries. However, the extent and manner of support should be commensurate with the country's conditions and comply with significant rules to have a positive effect on research and development, technology transfer and the amount of foreign investment. The present article tries to while reviewing the state of effectiveness of the patent system on economic growth, to illustrate the characteristics of the patent system fits Afghanistan and according to this matter provide the necessary recommendations about the improvement of laws and regulations related to the patent in Afghanistan.

Keywords: patent, economic growth, technology transfer, Afghanistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
3353 Deep Learning-Based Approach to Automatic Abstractive Summarization of Patent Documents

Authors: Sakshi V. Tantak, Vishap K. Malik, Neelanjney Pilarisetty

Abstract:

A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention. It can be a product or a process that provides an innovative method of doing something, or offers a new technical perspective or solution to a problem. A patent can be obtained by making the technical information and details about the invention publicly available. The patent owner has exclusive rights to prevent or stop anyone from using the patented invention for commercial uses. Any commercial usage, distribution, import or export of a patented invention or product requires the patent owner’s consent. It has been observed that the central and important parts of patents are scripted in idiosyncratic and complex linguistic structures that can be difficult to read, comprehend or interpret for the masses. The abstracts of these patents tend to obfuscate the precise nature of the patent instead of clarifying it via direct and simple linguistic constructs. This makes it necessary to have an efficient access to this knowledge via concise and transparent summaries. However, as mentioned above, due to complex and repetitive linguistic constructs and extremely long sentences, common extraction-oriented automatic text summarization methods should not be expected to show a remarkable performance when applied to patent documents. Other, more content-oriented or abstractive summarization techniques are able to perform much better and generate more concise summaries. This paper proposes an efficient summarization system for patents using artificial intelligence, natural language processing and deep learning techniques to condense the knowledge and essential information from a patent document into a single summary that is easier to understand without any redundant formatting and difficult jargon.

Keywords: abstractive summarization, deep learning, natural language Processing, patent document

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3352 Analysis of Patent Protection of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold Technology

Authors: Yunwei Zhang, Na Li, Yuhong Niu

Abstract:

Bone tissue engineering scaffold was regarded as an important clinical technology of curing bony defect. The patent protection of bone tissue engineering scaffold had been paid more attention and strengthened all over the world. This study analyzed the future development trends of international technologies in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffold and its patent protection. This study used the methods of data classification and classification indexing to analyze 2718 patents retrieved in the patent database. Results showed that the patents coming from United States had a competitive advantage over other countiries in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffold. The number of patent applications by a single company in U.S. was a quarter of that of the world. However, the capability of R&D in China was obviously weaker than global level, patents mainly coming from universities and scientific research institutions. Moreover, it would be predicted that synthetic organic materials as new materials would be gradually replaced by composite materials. The patent technology protections of composite materials would be more strengthened in the future.

Keywords: bone tissue engineering, patent analysis, Scaffold material, patent protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
3351 Development of a Technology Assessment Model by Patents and Customers' Review Data

Authors: Kisik Song, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

Recent years have seen an increasing number of patent disputes due to excessive competition in the global market and a reduced technology life-cycle; this has increased the risk of investment in technology development. While many global companies have started developing a methodology to identify promising technologies and assess for decisions, the existing methodology still has some limitations. Post hoc assessments of the new technology are not being performed, especially to determine whether the suggested technologies turned out to be promising. For example, in existing quantitative patent analysis, a patent’s citation information has served as an important metric for quality assessment, but this analysis cannot be applied to recently registered patents because such information accumulates over time. Therefore, we propose a new technology assessment model that can replace citation information and positively affect technological development based on post hoc analysis of the patents for promising technologies. Additionally, we collect customer reviews on a target technology to extract keywords that show the customers’ needs, and we determine how many keywords are covered in the new technology. Finally, we construct a portfolio (based on a technology assessment from patent information) and a customer-based marketability assessment (based on review data), and we use them to visualize the characteristics of the new technologies.

Keywords: technology assessment, patents, citation information, opinion mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
3350 The Empirical Analysis and Comparisons Using TAIEX Derivatives

Authors: Pao-Peng Hsu, Ying-Hsiu Chen

Abstract:

Historical data shows that there were high correlations among TAIEX Futures, Electronic Sector Index Futures, Finance Sector Index Futures and Taiwan Top 50 ETF. The performance under various futures is also discussed. We found that the worst portfolio is consisted of T50-ETF and T50-ETF futures and best portfolio is consisted of T50-ETF and TF. It implies that the annual return of a portfolio increases if a portfolio’s risk diversifies.

Keywords: arbitrage opportunities, ETF, futures, TAIEX

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
3349 Infringement of Patent Rights with Doctrine of Equivalent for Turkey

Authors: Duru Helin Ozaner

Abstract:

Due to the doctrine of equivalent, the words in the claims' sentences are insufficient for the protection area provided by the patent registration. While this situation widens the boundaries of the protection area, it also obscures the boundaries of the protected area of patents. In addition, it creates distrust for third parties. Therefore, the doctrine of equivalent aims to establish a balance between the rights of patent owners and the legal security of third parties. The current legal system of Turkey has been tried to be created as a parallel judicial system to the widely applied regulations. Therefore, the regulations regarding the protection provided by patents in the current Turkish legal system are similar to many countries. However, infringement through equivalent is common by third parties. This study, it is aimed to explain that the protection provided by the patent is not only limited to the words of the claims but also the wide-ranging protection provided by the claims for the doctrine of equivalence. This study is important to determine the limits of the protection provided by the patent right holder and to indicate the importance of the equivalent elements of the protection granted to the patent right holder.

Keywords: patent, infringement, intellectual property, the doctrine of equivalent

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
3348 The Impact of Transaction Costs on Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in Portfolio Optimization

Authors: B. Marasović, S. Pivac, S. V. Vukasović

Abstract:

Constructing a portfolio of investments is one of the most significant financial decisions facing individuals and institutions. In accordance with the modern portfolio theory maximization of return at minimal risk should be the investment goal of any successful investor. In addition, the costs incurred when setting up a new portfolio or rebalancing an existing portfolio must be included in any realistic analysis. In this paper rebalancing an investment portfolio in the presence of transaction costs on the Croatian capital market is analyzed. The model applied in the paper is an extension of the standard portfolio mean-variance optimization model in which transaction costs are incurred to rebalance an investment portfolio. This model allows different costs for different securities, and different costs for buying and selling. In order to find efficient portfolio, using this model, first, the solution of quadratic programming problem of similar size to the Markowitz model, and then the solution of a linear programming problem have to be found. Furthermore, in the paper the impact of transaction costs on the efficient frontier is investigated. Moreover, it is shown that global minimum variance portfolio on the efficient frontier always has the same level of the risk regardless of the amount of transaction costs. Although efficient frontier position depends of both transaction costs amount and initial portfolio it can be concluded that extreme right portfolio on the efficient frontier always contains only one stock with the highest expected return and the highest risk.

Keywords: Croatian capital market, Markowitz model, fractional quadratic programming, portfolio optimization, transaction costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
3347 Mathematical Programming Models for Portfolio Optimization Problem: A Review

Authors: Mazura Mokhtar, Adibah Shuib, Daud Mohamad

Abstract:

Portfolio optimization problem has received a lot of attention from both researchers and practitioners over the last six decades. This paper provides an overview of the current state of research in portfolio optimization with the support of mathematical programming techniques. On top of that, this paper also surveys the solution algorithms for solving portfolio optimization models classifying them according to their nature in heuristic and exact methods. To serve these purposes, 40 related articles appearing in the international journal from 2003 to 2013 have been gathered and analyzed. Based on the literature review, it has been observed that stochastic programming and goal programming constitute the highest number of mathematical programming techniques employed to tackle the portfolio optimization problem. It is hoped that the paper can meet the needs of researchers and practitioners for easy references of portfolio optimization.

Keywords: portfolio optimization, mathematical programming, multi-objective programming, solution approaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
3346 Optimal Portfolio Selection under Treynor Ratio Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Imad Zeyad Ramadan

Abstract:

In this paper a genetic algorithm was developed to construct the optimal portfolio based on the Treynor method. The GA maximizes the Treynor ratio under budget constraint to select the best allocation of the budget for the companies in the portfolio. The results show that the GA was able to construct a conservative portfolio which includes companies from the three sectors. This indicates that the GA reduced the risk on the investor as it choose some companies with positive risks (goes with the market) and some with negative risks (goes against the market).

Keywords: oOptimization, genetic algorithm, portfolio selection, Treynor method

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
3345 Identifying Business Opportunities Based on Patent and Trademark Portfolios: a Technology-Based Service Industry Case

Authors: Mingook Lee, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

As technology-based service industries grow drastically worldwide; companies are recognizing the importance of market preoccupancy and have made an effort to capture a large market to gain the upper hand. To this end, a focus on patents can be used to determine the properties of a technology, as well as to capture advantages in technical skills, in comparison with the firm’s competitors. However, technology-based services largely depend not only on their technological value but also their economic value, due to the recognized worth that is passed to a plurality of users. Thus, it is important to determine whether there are any competitors in the target areas and what services they provide in any field. Despite this importance, little effort has been made to systematically benchmark competitors in order to identify business opportunities. Thus, this study aims to not only identify each position of technology-centered service companies in complex market dynamics, but also to discover new business opportunities. For this, we try to consider both technology and market environments simultaneously by utilizing patent data as a representative proxy for technology and trademark dates as an index for a firm’s target goods and services. Theoretically, this is one of the earliest attempts to combine patent data and trademark data to analyze corporate strategies. In practice, the research results are expected to be used as a decision criterion to diagnose the economic value that companies can obtain by entering the market, as well as the technological value to be passed onto their customers. Thus, the proposed approach can be useful to support effective technology and business strategies in a firm.

Keywords: business opportunity, patent, Portfolio analysis, trademark

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3344 Development of New Technology Evaluation Model by Using Patent Information and Customers' Review Data

Authors: Kisik Song, Kyuwoong Kim, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

Many global firms and corporations derive new technology and opportunity by identifying vacant technology from patent analysis. However, previous studies failed to focus on technologies that promised continuous growth in industrial fields. Most studies that derive new technology opportunities do not test practical effectiveness. Since previous studies depended on expert judgment, it became costly and time-consuming to evaluate new technologies based on patent analysis. Therefore, research suggests a quantitative and systematic approach to technology evaluation indicators by using patent data to and from customer communities. The first step involves collecting two types of data. The data is used to construct evaluation indicators and apply these indicators to the evaluation of new technologies. This type of data mining allows a new method of technology evaluation and better predictor of how new technologies are adopted.

Keywords: data mining, evaluating new technology, technology opportunity, patent analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
3343 Advanced Technologies and Algorithms for Efficient Portfolio Selection

Authors: Konstantinos Liagkouras, Konstantinos Metaxiotis

Abstract:

In this paper we present a classification of the various technologies applied for the solution of the portfolio selection problem according to the discipline and the methodological framework followed. We provide a concise presentation of the emerged categories and we are trying to identify which methods considered obsolete and which lie at the heart of the debate. On top of that, we provide a comparative study of the different technologies applied for efficient portfolio construction and we suggest potential paths for future work that lie at the intersection of the presented techniques.

Keywords: portfolio selection, optimization techniques, financial models, stochastic, heuristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
3342 Innovation Trends in South Korea

Authors: Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez

Abstract:

This paper analyzes innovation trends in South Korea by means of the number of patent applications filed by residents and nonresidents during the period 1965 to 2012. Making use of patent data released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), we search for the presence of multiple structural changes in patent application series in this country. These changes may suggest that firms’ innovative activity has been modified as a result of implementing some science, technology and innovation (STI) policies. Accordingly, the new regulations implemented in this country in the last decades have influenced its innovative activity. The question conducting this research is thus how STI policies in South Korea have influenced its innovation activity. The results confirm the existence of multiple structural changes in the series of patent applications resulting from alternative STI policies implemented during these years.

Keywords: econometric methods, innovation activity, Korea, patent applications, science, technology and innovation policy, STI

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
3341 Portfolio Management for Construction Company during Covid-19 Using AHP Technique

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Salwa Bheiry

Abstract:

In general, Covid-19 created many financial and non-financial damages to the economy and community. Level and severity of covid-19 as pandemic case varies over the region and due to different types of the projects. Covid-19 virus emerged as one of the most imperative risk management factors word-wide recently. Therefore, as part of portfolio management assessment, it is essential to evaluate severity of such risk on the project and program in portfolio management level to avoid any risky portfolio. Covid-19 appeared very effectively in South America, part of Europe and Middle East. Such pandemic infection affected the whole universe, due to lock down, interruption in supply chain management, health and safety requirements, transportations and commercial impacts. Therefore, this research proposes Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze and assess such pandemic case like Covid-19 and its impacts on the construction projects. The AHP technique uses four sub-criteria: Health and safety, commercial risk, completion risk and contractual risk to evaluate the project and program. The result will provide the decision makers with information which project has higher or lower risk in case of Covid-19 and pandemic scenario. Therefore, the decision makers can have most feasible solution based on effective weighted criteria for project selection within their portfolio to match with the organization’s strategies.

Keywords: portfolio management, risk management, COVID-19, analytical hierarchy process technique

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3340 Intellectual Property Rights and Health Rights: A Feasible Reform Proposal to Facilitate Access to Drugs in Developing Countries

Authors: M. G. Cattaneo

Abstract:

The non-effectiveness of certain codified human rights is particularly apparent with reference to the lack of access to essential drugs in developing countries, which represents a breach of the human right to receive adequate health assistance. This paper underlines the conflict and the legal contradictions between human rights, namely health rights, international Intellectual Property Rights, in particular patent law, as well as international trade law. The paper discusses the crucial links between R&D costs for innovation, patents and new medical drugs, with the goal of reformulating the hierarchies of priorities and of interests at stake in the international intellectual property (IP) law system. Different from what happens today, International patent law should be a legal instrument apt at rebalancing an axiological asymmetry between the (conflicting) needs at stake The core argument in the paper is the proposal of an alternative pathway, namely a feasible proposal for a patent law reform. IP laws tend to balance the benefits deriving from innovation with the costs of the provided monopoly, but since developing countries and industrialized countries are in completely different political and economic situations, it is necessary to (re)modulate such exchange according to the different needs. Based on this critical analysis, the paper puts forward a proposal, called Trading Time for Space (TTS), whereby a longer time for patent exclusive life in western countries (Time) is offered to the patent holder company, in exchange for the latter selling the medical drug at cost price in developing countries (Space). Accordingly, pharmaceutical companies should sell drugs in developing countries at the cost price, or alternatively grant a free license for the sale in such countries, without any royalties or fees. However, such social service shall be duly compensated. Therefore, the consideration for such a service shall be an extension of the temporal duration of the patent’s exclusive in the country of origin that will compensate the reduced profits caused by the supply at the price cost in developing countries.

Keywords: global health, global justice, patent law reform, access to drugs

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3339 Optimization Technique for the Contractor’s Portfolio in the Bidding Process

Authors: Taha Anjamrooz, Sareh Rajabi, Salwa Bheiry

Abstract:

Selection between the available projects in bidding processes for the contractor is one of the essential areas to concentrate on. It is important for the contractor to choose the right projects within its portfolio during the tendering stage based on certain criteria. It should align the bidding process with its origination strategies and goals as a screening process to have the right portfolio pool to start with. Secondly, it should set the proper framework and use a suitable technique in order to optimize its selection process for concertation purpose and higher efforts during the tender stage with goals of success and winning. In this research paper, a two steps framework proposed to increase the efficiency of the contractor’s bidding process and the winning chance of getting the new projects awarded. In this framework, initially, all the projects pass through the first stage screening process, in which the portfolio basket will be evaluated and adjusted in accordance with the organization strategies to the reduced version of the portfolio pool, which is in line with organization activities. In the second stage, the contractor uses linear programming to optimize the portfolio pool based on available resources such as manpower, light equipment, heavy equipment, financial capability, return on investment, and success rate of winning the bid. Therefore, this optimization model will assist the contractor in utilizing its internal resource to its maximum and increase its winning chance for the new project considering past experience with clients, built-relation between two parties, and complexity in the exertion of the projects. The objective of this research will be to increase the contractor's winning chance in the bidding process based on the success rate and expected return on investment.

Keywords: bidding process, internal resources, optimization, contracting portfolio management

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3338 Portfolio Selection with Active Risk Monitoring

Authors: Marc S. Paolella, Pawel Polak

Abstract:

The paper proposes a framework for large-scale portfolio optimization which accounts for all the major stylized facts of multivariate financial returns, including volatility clustering, dynamics in the dependency structure, asymmetry, heavy tails, and non-ellipticity. It introduces a so-called risk fear portfolio strategy which combines portfolio optimization with active risk monitoring. The former selects optimal portfolio weights. The latter, independently, initiates market exit in case of excessive risks. The strategy agrees with the stylized fact of stock market major sell-offs during the initial stage of market downturns. The advantages of the new framework are illustrated with an extensive empirical study. It leads to superior multivariate density and Value-at-Risk forecasting, and better portfolio performance. The proposed risk fear portfolio strategy outperforms various competing types of optimal portfolios, even in the presence of conservative transaction costs and frequent rebalancing. The risk monitoring of the optimal portfolio can serve as an early warning system against large market risks. In particular, the new strategy avoids all the losses during the 2008 financial crisis, and it profits from the subsequent market recovery.

Keywords: comfort, financial crises, portfolio optimization, risk monitoring

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3337 Comparative Analysis of Patent Protection between Health System and Enterprises in Shanghai, China

Authors: Na Li, Yunwei Zhang, Yuhong Niu

Abstract:

The study discussed the patent protections of health system and enterprises in Shanghai. The comparisons of technical distribution and scopes of patent protections between Shanghai health system and enterprises were used by the methods of IPC classification, co-words analysis and visual social network. Results reflected a decreasing order within IPC A61 area, namely A61B, A61K, A61M, and A61F. A61B required to be further investigated. The highest authorized patents A61B17 of A61B of IPC A61 area was found. Within A61B17, fracture fixation, ligament reconstruction, cardiac surgery, and biopsy detection were regarded as common concerned fields by Shanghai health system and enterprises. However, compared with cardiac closure which Shanghai enterprises paid attention to, Shanghai health system was more inclined to blockages and hemostatic tools. The results also revealed that the scopes of patent protections of Shanghai enterprises were relatively centralized. Shanghai enterprises had a series of comprehensive strategies for protecting core patents. In contrast, Shanghai health system was considered to be lack of strategic patent protections for core patents.

Keywords: co-words analysis, IPC classification, patent protection, technical distribution

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3336 Mathematical Model of Corporate Bond Portfolio and Effective Border Preview

Authors: Sergey Podluzhnyy

Abstract:

One of the most important tasks of investment and pension fund management is building decision support system which helps to make right decision on corporate bond portfolio formation. Today there are several basic methods of bond portfolio management. They are duration management, immunization and convexity management. Identified methods have serious disadvantage: they do not take into account credit risk or insolvency risk of issuer. So, identified methods can be applied only for management and evaluation of high-quality sovereign bonds. Applying article proposes mathematical model for building an optimal in case of risk and yield corporate bond portfolio. Proposed model takes into account the default probability in formula of assessment of bonds which results to more correct evaluation of bonds prices. Moreover, applied model provides tools for visualization of the efficient frontier of corporate bonds portfolio taking into account the exposure to credit risk, which will increase the quality of the investment decisions of portfolio managers.

Keywords: corporate bond portfolio, default probability, effective boundary, portfolio optimization task

Procedia PDF Downloads 240