Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: dispersant

7 Investigation of Some Flotation Parameters and the Role of Dispersants in the Flotation of Chalcopyrite

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen


A suitable choice of flotation parameters and reagents have a strong effect on the effectiveness of flotation process. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the flotation of chalcopyrite with the different conditions and dispersants. Flotation parameters such as grinding time, pH, type, and dosage of dispersant were investigated. In order to understand the interaction of some dispersants, sodium silicate, sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium polyphosphate were used. The optimum results were obtained at a pH of 11.5 and a grinding time of 10 minutes. A copper concentrate was produced assaying 29.85% CuFeS2 and 65.97% flotation recovery under optimum rougher flotation conditions with sodium silicate.

Keywords: chalcopyrite, dispersant, flotation, reagent

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6 Chitosan-Aluminum Monostearate Dispersion as Fabricating Liquid for Constructing Controlled Drug Release Matrix

Authors: Kotchamon Yodkhum, Thawatchai Phaechamud


Hydrophobic chitosan-based materials have been developed as controlled drug delivery system. This study was aimed to prepare and evaluate chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite dispersion (CLA) as fabricating liquid for construct a hydrophobic, controlled-release solid drug delivery matrix. This work was attempted to blend hydrophobic substance, aluminum monostearate (AMS), with chitosan in acidic aqueous medium without using any surfactants or grafting reaction, and high temperature during mixing that are normally performed when preparing hydrophobic chitosan system. Lactic acid solution (2%w/v) was employed as chitosan solvent. CLA dispersion was prepared by dispersing different amounts of AMS (1-20% w/w) in chitosan solution (4% w/w) with continuous agitation using magnetic stirrer for 24 h. Effect of AMS amount on physicochemical properties of the dispersion such as viscosity, rheology and particle size was evaluated. Morphology of chitosan-AMS complex (dispersant) was observed under inverted microscope and atomic force microscope. Stability of CLA dispersions was evaluated after preparation within 48 h. CLA dispersions containing AMS less than 5 % w/w exhibited rheological behavior as Newtonian while that containing higher AMS amount exhibited as pseudoplastic. Particle size of the dispersant was significantly smaller when AMS amount was increased up to 5% w/w and was not different between the higher AMS amount system. Morphology of the dispersant under inverted microscope displayed irregular shape and their size exhibited the same trend with particle size measurement. Observation of the dispersion stability revealed that phase separation occurred faster in the system containing higher AMS amount which indicated lower stability of the system. However, the dispersions were homogeneous and stable more than 12 hours after preparation that enough for fabrication process. The prepared dispersions had ability to be fabricated as a porous matrix via lyophilization technique.

Keywords: chitosan, aluminum monostearate, dispersion, controlled-release

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5 Exploration of Graphite Nano-Particles as Anti-Wear Additive for Performance Enhancement of Oil

Authors: Manoj Kumar Gupta, Jayashree Bijwe


Additives in lubricating oils are the focus of research attention since the further reduction in friction and wear properties of oils would lead to the further saving of tribo-materials and energy apart from improving their efficiency. Remarkable tribo-performance enhancement is reported in the literature due to addition of particles of solid lubricants in lubricating oils; especially that of nano-sizes. In the present work graphite nano-particles (NPs) in various amounts (1, 2, 3 and 4 wt. %) were used to explore the possible anti-wear (AW) performance enhancement in Group III oil. Polyisobutylene succinimide (PIBSI- 1 wt. %) was used as a dispersant for dispersing these NPs and to enhance the stability of these nano-suspensions. It was observed that PIBSI inclusion enhanced the stability of oil almost by eight times. NPs in all amounts enhanced the AW performance of oil considerably. The optimum amount was three wt. %, which led to the highest enhancement under all loads. The extent of benefits, however, were dependent on load. At the lowest (392 N) and highest loads (784 N), the benefits were not profound. At moderate load (588 N), highest improvement (around 60 %) was recorded. The SEM and AFM studies were done on the worn ball surfaces to reveal the detailed features of films transferred and proved useful to correlate the wear performance of oils.

Keywords: dispersant, graphite, nano-lubricant, anti-wear additive

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4 Effect of Highly Pressurized Dispersion Arc Nozzle on Breakup of Oil Leakage in Offshore

Authors: N. M. M. Ammar, S. M. Mustaqim, N. M. Nadzir


The most important problem occurs on oil spills in sea water is to reduce the oil spills size. This study deals with the development of high pressurized nozzle using dispersion method for oil leakage in offshore. 3D numerical simulation results were obtained using ANSYS Fluent 13.0 code and correlate with the experimental data for validation. This paper studies the contribution of the process on flow speed and pressure of the flow from two different geometrical designs of nozzles and to generate a spray pattern suitable for dispersant application. Factor of size distribution of droplets generated by the nozzle is calculated using pressures ranging from 2 to 6 bars. Results obtain from both analyses shows a significant spray pattern and flow distribution as well as distance. Results also show a significant contribution on the effect of oil leakage in terms of the diameter of the oil spills break up.

Keywords: arc nozzle, CFD simulation, droplets, oil spills

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3 Numerical Simulation of the Flow Channel in the Curved Plane Oil Skimmer

Authors: Xing Feng, Yuanbin Li


Oil spills at sea can cause severe marine environmental damage, including bringing huge hazards to living resources and human beings. In situ burning or chemical dispersant methods can be used to handle the oil spills sometimes, but these approaches will bring secondary pollution and fail in some situations. Oil recovery techniques have also been developed to recover oil using oil skimmer equipment installed on ships, while the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is very complicated and important for evaluating the recovery efficiency. Based on this, a two-dimensional numerical simulation platform for simulating the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations for viscous, incompressible fluid. Finally, the influence of the design of the flow channel in the curved plane oil skimmer on the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is investigated based on the established simulation platform.

Keywords: curved plane oil skimmer, flow channel, CFD, VOF

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2 Stability and Rheological Study of Carbon Nanotube Water Based Nanofluid

Authors: S. Rashidi, L. C. Abdullah, R. Walvekar, K. Mohammad, F-R. Ahmadun, M. Y. Faizah


In this research, stability and rheology behavior of Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanofluids by using Xanthan Gum as a dispersant were measured. This paper addresses the effects of Xanthan Gum (XG) concentration and nanoparticle loading on stability and viscosity of nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids is measured by Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS (Malvern Instruments, ZEN 3600). The zeta potential of the stable samples was analyzed. The rheological behavior of carbon nanotube CNT nanofluids was analyzed using rheometer (Model AR G2, TA Instrument). Both stability and viscosity of the nanofluids increased with increasing CNT and XG concentration. The experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of nanofluid samples is stable. The results demonstrated that the zeta potential was affected by the CNT concentration and is augmented in parallel with increasing CNT concentration. The rheology results showed that the viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid was increased. The escalated viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid is owing to the higher van der Waals interaction between the CNT nanoparticles. On the other hand, the viscosity of the CNT/XG nanofluid decreases with increasing temperature. In summary, this research provides useful insight into the behavior of CNT nanofluids.

Keywords: nanofluid, carbon nanotube, stability, rheology

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1 An Evaluation of Solubility of Wax and Asphaltene in Crude Oil for Improved Flow Properties Using a Copolymer Solubilized in Organic Solvent with an Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Authors: S. M. Anisuzzaman, Sariah Abang, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, N. M. Ismail, G. B. Sandrison


Wax and asphaltene are high molecular weighted compounds that contribute to the stability of crude oil at a dispersed state. Transportation of crude oil along pipelines from the oil rig to the refineries causes fluctuation of temperature which will lead to the coagulation of wax and flocculation of asphaltenes. This paper focuses on the prevention of wax and asphaltene precipitate deposition on the inner surface of the pipelines by using a wax inhibitor and an asphaltene dispersant. The novelty of this prevention method is the combination of three substances; a wax inhibitor dissolved in a wax inhibitor solvent and an asphaltene solvent, namely, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer dissolved in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) to inhibit the precipitation and deposition of wax and asphaltene. The objective of this paper was to optimize the percentage composition of each component in this inhibitor which can maximize the viscosity reduction of crude oil. The optimization was divided into two stages which are the laboratory experimental stage in which the viscosity of crude oil samples containing inhibitor of different component compositions is tested at decreasing temperatures and the data optimization stage using response surface methodology (RSM) to design an optimizing model. The results of experiment proved that the combination of 50% EVA + 25% MCH + 25% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of 67% while the RSM model proved that the combination of 57% EVA + 20.5% MCH + 22.5% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of up to 61%.

Keywords: asphaltene, ethylene-vinyl acetate, methylcyclohexane, toluene, wax

Procedia PDF Downloads 315