Commenced in January 2007
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Search results for: Ribes

3 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Embelia Ribes by RAPD Markers

Authors: Sabitha Rani A., Nagamani V.


Embelia ribes Burm.f (Family-Myrsinaceae) commonly known as Vidanga or Baibirang, is one of the important medicinal plants of India. The seed extract is reported to be antidiabetic, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispermatogenic, free radical scavenging activities and widely used in more than 75 Ayurvedic commercial formulations. Among the 100 different species of Embelia, E. ribes is considered as a major source of Embelin, a bioactive compound. Because of high demand and low availability, the seeds of E. ribes are substituted with many cheaper alternatives. Therefore, the present study of RAPD-PCR analysis was undertaken to develop molecular markers for identification of E. ribes. A total of 13 different seed samples of Embelia were collected from different agro-climatic regions of India. The seeds of E.ribes were collected from Kalpetta, Kerala and three different seed samples were collected from traders of Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra. The other nine seed samples were collected from local traders which they have collected from different regions of India. Genomic DNA was isolated from different seed samples E. ribes and RAPD-PCR was performed on 13 different seed samples using 47 random primers. Out of all the primers, only 22 primers produced clear and highly-reproducible banding patterns. The 22 selected RAPD primers generated a total of 280 alleles with an average of 12 alleles per primer pair. In the present study, we have identified three RAPD-PCR markers i.e. OPF5_480 bp, OPH11_520 bp and OPH4_530 bp which can be used for genetic fingerprinting of E. ribes. This methodology can be employed for identification of original E. ribes and also distinguishing it from other substitutes and adulterants.

Keywords: Embelia ribes, RAPD-PCR, primers, genetic analysis

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2 Blackcurrant-Associated Rhabdovirus: New Pathogen for Blackcurrants in the Baltic Sea Region

Authors: Gunta Resevica, Nikita Zrelovs, Ivars Silamikelis, Ieva Kalnciema, Helvijs Niedra, Gunārs Lācis, Inga Moročko-Bičevska, Andris Zeltins, Ina Balke


Newly discovered viruses provide novel knowledge for basic phytovirus research, serve as tools for biotechnology and can be helpful in identification of epidemic outbreaks. Blackcurrant-associated rhabdovirus (BCaRV) have been discovered in USA germplasm collection samples from Russia and France. As it was reported in one accession originating from France it is unclear whether the material was already infected when it entered in the USA or it became infected while in collection in the USA. Due to that BCaRV was definite as non-EU viruses. According to ICTV classification BCaRV is representative of Blackcurrant betanucleorhabdovirus specie in genus Betanucleorhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae). Nevertheless, BCaRV impact on the host, transmission mechanisms and vectors are still unknown. In RNA-seq data pool from Ribes plants resistance gene study by high throughput sequencing (HTS) we observed differences between sample group gene transcript heat maps. Additional analysis of the whole data pool (total 393660492 of 150 bp long read pairs) by rnaSPAdes v 3.13.1 resulted into 14424 bases long contig with an average coverage of 684x with shared 99.5% identity to the previously reported first complete genome of BCaRV (MF543022.1) using EMBOSS Needle. This finding proved BCaRV presence in EU and indicated that it might be relevant pathogen. In this study leaf tissue from twelve asymptomatic blackcurrant cv. Mara Eglite plants (negatively tested for blackcurrant reversion virus (BRV)) from Dobele, Latvia (56°36'31.9"N, 23°18'13.6"E) was collected and used for total RNA isolation with RNeasy Plant Mini Kit with minor modifications, followed by plant rRNA removal by a RiboMinus Plant Kit for RNA-Seq. HTS libraries were prepared using MGI Easy RNA Directional Library Prep Set for 16 reactions to obtain 150 bp pair-end reads. Libraries were pooled, circularized and cleaned and sequenced on DNBSEQ-G400 using PE150 flow cell. Additionally, all samples were tested by RT-PCR, and amplicons were directly sequenced by Sanger-based method. The contig representing the genome of BCaRV isolate Mara Eglite was deposited at European Nucleotide Archive under accession number OU015520. Those findings indicate a second evidence on the presence of this particular virus in the EU and further research on BCaRV prevalence in Ribes from other geographical areas should be performed. As there are no information on BCaRV impact on the host this should be investigated, regarding the fact that mixed infections with BRV and nucleorhabdoviruses are reported.

Keywords: BCaRV, Betanucleorhabdovirus, Ribes, RNA-seq

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1 Automatic Content Curation of Visual Heritage

Authors: Delphine Ribes Lemay, Valentine Bernasconi, André Andrade, Lara DéFayes, Mathieu Salzmann, FréDéRic Kaplan, Nicolas Henchoz


Digitization and preservation of large heritage induce high maintenance costs to keep up with the technical standards and ensure sustainable access. Creating impactful usage is instrumental to justify the resources for long-term preservation. The Museum für Gestaltung of Zurich holds one of the biggest poster collections of the world from which 52’000 were digitised. In the process of building a digital installation to valorize the collection, one objective was to develop an algorithm capable of predicting the next poster to show according to the ones already displayed. The work presented here describes the steps to build an algorithm able to automatically create sequences of posters reflecting associations performed by curator and professional designers. The exposed challenge finds similarities with the domain of song playlist algorithms. Recently, artificial intelligence techniques and more specifically, deep-learning algorithms have been used to facilitate their generations. Promising results were found thanks to Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) trained on manually generated playlist and paired with clusters of extracted features from songs. We used the same principles to create the proposed algorithm but applied to a challenging medium, posters. First, a convolutional autoencoder was trained to extract features of the posters. The 52’000 digital posters were used as a training set. Poster features were then clustered. Next, an RNN learned to predict the next cluster according to the previous ones. RNN training set was composed of poster sequences extracted from a collection of books from the Gestaltung Museum of Zurich dedicated to displaying posters. Finally, within the predicted cluster, the poster with the best proximity compared to the previous poster is selected. The mean square distance between features of posters was used to compute the proximity. To validate the predictive model, we compared sequences of 15 posters produced by our model to randomly and manually generated sequences. Manual sequences were created by a professional graphic designer. We asked 21 participants working as professional graphic designers to sort the sequences from the one with the strongest graphic line to the one with the weakest and to motivate their answer with a short description. The sequences produced by the designer were ranked first 60%, second 25% and third 15% of the time. The sequences produced by our predictive model were ranked first 25%, second 45% and third 30% of the time. The sequences produced randomly were ranked first 15%, second 29%, and third 55% of the time. Compared to designer sequences, and as reported by participants, model and random sequences lacked thematic continuity. According to the results, the proposed model is able to generate better poster sequencing compared to random sampling. Eventually, our algorithm is sometimes able to outperform a professional designer. As a next step, the proposed algorithm should include a possibility to create sequences according to a selected theme. To conclude, this work shows the potentiality of artificial intelligence techniques to learn from existing content and provide a tool to curate large sets of data, with a permanent renewal of the presented content.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Digital Humanities, serendipity, design research

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