Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Gunārs Lācis

2 Blackcurrant-Associated Rhabdovirus: New Pathogen for Blackcurrants in the Baltic Sea Region

Authors: Gunta Resevica, Nikita Zrelovs, Ivars Silamikelis, Ieva Kalnciema, Helvijs Niedra, Gunārs Lācis, Inga Moročko-Bičevska, Andris Zeltins, Ina Balke

Abstract:

Newly discovered viruses provide novel knowledge for basic phytovirus research, serve as tools for biotechnology and can be helpful in identification of epidemic outbreaks. Blackcurrant-associated rhabdovirus (BCaRV) have been discovered in USA germplasm collection samples from Russia and France. As it was reported in one accession originating from France it is unclear whether the material was already infected when it entered in the USA or it became infected while in collection in the USA. Due to that BCaRV was definite as non-EU viruses. According to ICTV classification BCaRV is representative of Blackcurrant betanucleorhabdovirus specie in genus Betanucleorhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae). Nevertheless, BCaRV impact on the host, transmission mechanisms and vectors are still unknown. In RNA-seq data pool from Ribes plants resistance gene study by high throughput sequencing (HTS) we observed differences between sample group gene transcript heat maps. Additional analysis of the whole data pool (total 393660492 of 150 bp long read pairs) by rnaSPAdes v 3.13.1 resulted into 14424 bases long contig with an average coverage of 684x with shared 99.5% identity to the previously reported first complete genome of BCaRV (MF543022.1) using EMBOSS Needle. This finding proved BCaRV presence in EU and indicated that it might be relevant pathogen. In this study leaf tissue from twelve asymptomatic blackcurrant cv. Mara Eglite plants (negatively tested for blackcurrant reversion virus (BRV)) from Dobele, Latvia (56°36'31.9"N, 23°18'13.6"E) was collected and used for total RNA isolation with RNeasy Plant Mini Kit with minor modifications, followed by plant rRNA removal by a RiboMinus Plant Kit for RNA-Seq. HTS libraries were prepared using MGI Easy RNA Directional Library Prep Set for 16 reactions to obtain 150 bp pair-end reads. Libraries were pooled, circularized and cleaned and sequenced on DNBSEQ-G400 using PE150 flow cell. Additionally, all samples were tested by RT-PCR, and amplicons were directly sequenced by Sanger-based method. The contig representing the genome of BCaRV isolate Mara Eglite was deposited at European Nucleotide Archive under accession number OU015520. Those findings indicate a second evidence on the presence of this particular virus in the EU and further research on BCaRV prevalence in Ribes from other geographical areas should be performed. As there are no information on BCaRV impact on the host this should be investigated, regarding the fact that mixed infections with BRV and nucleorhabdoviruses are reported.

Keywords: BCaRV, Betanucleorhabdovirus, Ribes, RNA-seq

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
1 Right Atrial Tissue Morphology in Acquired Heart Diseases

Authors: Edite Kulmane, Mara Pilmane, Romans Lacis

Abstract:

Introduction: Acquired heart diseases remain one of the leading health care problems in the world. Changes in myocardium of the diseased hearts are complex and pathogenesis is still not fully clear. The aim of this study was to identify appearance and distribution of apoptosis, homeostasis regulating factors, and innervation and ischemia markers in right atrial tissue in different acquired heart diseases. Methods: During elective open heart surgery were taken right atrial tissue fragments from 12 patients. All patients were operated because of acquired heart diseases- aortic valve stenosis (5 patients), coronary heart disease (5 patients), coronary heart disease and secondary mitral insufficiency (1 patient) and mitral disease (1 patient). The mean age was (mean±SD) 70,2±7,0 years (range 58-83 years). The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin methods for routine light-microscopical examination and for immunohistochemical detection of protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP 9.5), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANUP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chromogranin A and endothelin. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Results: All specimens showed degeneration of cardiomyocytes with lysis of myofibrils, diffuse vacuolization especially in perinuclear region, different size of cells and their nuclei. The severe invasion of connective tissue was observed in main part of all fragments. The apoptotic index ranged from 24 to 91%. One specimen showed region of newly performed microvessels with cube shaped endotheliocytes that were positive for PGP 9.5, endothelin, chromogranin A and VEGF. From all fragments, taken from patients with coronary heart disease, there were observed numerous PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres, except in patient with secondary mitral insufficiency, who showed just few PGP 9.5 positive nerves. In majority of specimens there were regions observed with cube shaped mixed -VEGF immunoreactive endocardial and epicardial cells. Only VEGF positive endothelial cells were observed just in few specimens. There was no significant difference of hANUP secreting cells among all specimens. All patients operated due to the coronary heart disease moderate to numerous number of chromogranin A positive cells were seen while in patients with aortic valve stenosis tissue demonstrated just few factor positive cells. Conclusions: Complex detection of different factors may indicate selectively disordered morphopathogenetical event of heart disease: decrease of PGP 9.5 nerves suggests the decreased innervation of organ; increased apoptosis indicates the cell death without ingrowth of connective tissue; persistent presence of hANUP proves the unchanged homeostasis of cardiomyocytes probably supported by expression of chromogranins. Finally, decrease of VEGF detects the regions of affected blood vessels in heart affected by acquired heart disease.

Keywords: heart, apoptosis, protein-gene peptide 9.5, atrial natriuretic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, chromogranin A, endothelin

Procedia PDF Downloads 208