Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Mayuko Matsuoka

6 Story Readers’ Self-Reflection on Their past Study Experiences: In Comparison of the Languages Used in a Self-Regulated Learning -Themed Story

Authors: Mayuko Matsuoka

Abstract:

This presentation reports the relationships among EFL(English as a Foreign Language) students’ story comprehension in reading a story written in English and Japanese and empathic reactions. The main focus is put on their self-reflection on past study experiences, one of the empathic reactions after reading a story. One hundred fifty-five first-year university students in Japan read three SRL-themed stories written in English (their foreign language) and those written in Japanese (their mother tongue). The levels of the stories are equivalent, at CEFR(Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) B2 level. The result of categorical correlation analysis shows significant moderate correlations among three empathic reactions in a group reading English versions: having similar emotions as a protagonist, reflecting on their past study experiences, and getting lessons from a story. In addition, the result of logistic regression analysis for the data in a group reading English versions shows the chance of getting lessons from a story significantly approximately doubles if participants’ scores of a comprehension test increases by one, while it approximately triples if participants’ self-reflection occurs. These results do not appear in a group reading Japanese versions. The findings imply that self-reflection may support their comprehension of the English texts and leads to the participants’ getting lessons about SRL.

Keywords: comprehension, lesson, self-reflection, SRL

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5 Feasibility of Iron Scrap Recycling with Considering Demand-Supply Balance

Authors: Reina Kawase, Yuzuru Matsuoka

Abstract:

To mitigate climate change, to reduce CO2 emission from steel sector, energy intensive sector, is essential. One of the effective countermeasure is recycling of iron scrap and shifting to electric arc furnace. This research analyzes the feasibility of iron scrap recycling with considering demand-supply balance and quantifies the effective by CO2 emission reduction. Generally, the quality of steel made from iron scrap is lower than the quality of steel made from basic oxygen furnace. So, the constraint of demand side is goods-wise steel demand and that of supply side is generation of iron scap. Material Stock and Flow Model (MSFM_demand) was developed to estimate goods-wise steel demand and generation of iron scrap and was applied to 35 regions which aggregated countries in the world for 2005-2050. The crude steel production was estimated under two case; BaU case (No countermeasures) and CM case (With countermeasures). For all the estimation periods, crude steel production is greater than generation of iron scrap. This makes it impossible to substitute electric arc furnaces for all the basic oxygen furnaces. Even though 100% recycling rate of iron scrap, under BaU case, CO2 emission in 2050 increases by 12% compared to that in 2005. With same condition, 32% of CO2 emission reduction is achieved in CM case. With a constraint from demand side, the reduction potential is 6% (CM case).

Keywords: iron scrap recycling, CO2 emission reduction, steel demand, MSFM demand

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4 Effect of Perceived Importance of a Task in the Prospective Memory Task

Authors: Kazushige Wada, Mayuko Ueda

Abstract:

In the present study, we reanalyzed lapse errors in the last phase of a job, by re-counting near lapse errors and increasing the number of participants. We also examined the results of this study from the perspective of prospective memory (PM), which concerns future actions. This study was designed to investigate whether perceiving the importance of PM tasks caused lapse errors in the last phase of a job and to determine if such errors could be explained from the perspective of PM processing. Participants (N = 34) conducted a computerized clicking task, in which they clicked on 10 figures that they had learned in advance in 8 blocks of 10 trials. Participants were requested to click the check box in the start display of a block and to click the checking off box in the finishing display. This task was a PM task. As a measure of PM performance, we counted the number of omission errors caused by forgetting to check off in the finishing display, which was defined as a lapse error. The perceived importance was manipulated by different instructions. Half the participants in the highly important task condition were instructed that checking off was very important, because equipment would be overloaded if it were not done. The other half in the not important task condition was instructed only about the location and procedure for checking off. Furthermore, we controlled workload and the emotion of surprise to confirm the effect of demand capacity and attention. To manipulate emotions during the clicking task, we suddenly presented a photo of a traffic accident and the sound of a skidding car followed by an explosion. Workload was manipulated by requesting participants to press the 0 key in response to a beep. Results indicated too few forgetting induced lapse errors to be analyzed. However, there was a weak main effect of the perceived importance of the check task, in which the mouse moved to the “END” button before moving to the check box in the finishing display. Especially, the highly important task group showed more such near lapse errors, than the not important task group. Neither surprise, nor workload affected the occurrence of near lapse errors. These results imply that high perceived importance of PM tasks impair task performance. On the basis of the multiprocess framework of PM theory, we have suggested that PM task performance in this experiment relied not on monitoring PM tasks, but on spontaneous retrieving.

Keywords: prospective memory, perceived importance, lapse errors, multi process framework of prospective memory.

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3 The Roles of Non-Codified Traditional Medicine in a Suburban Village in Kerala, India

Authors: Sachi Matsuoka

Abstract:

This study aimed at implicating a current community health in South India focusing on a Vaidya, a non-codified traditional doctor, based on long-term field works. As the prevalence of colonic diseases is increasing in all over the world, it is needed to know the potential of non-codified medicines and how they can effectively take in a part in community health. Describing the people’s treatment seeking behaviours in a suburban village which is susceptible to modernization can give us a new insight for studying Indian medicines, that is included not only non-codified but also codified traditional ones, affected by global, national and local communities. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered via participatory fieldworks and open-ended interviews to a Vaidya and his 97 patients and 31 individuals who lived in a community near the Vaidya’s station. It was found that the community members seldom consulted the Vaidya while a number of patients outside the village (mainly from urban nearby area) daily visited the Vaidya. Thus, the role of the Vaidya as the community’ s primary health care provider had nearly disappeared. Nonetheless, the Vaidya was deeply respected as one of the community’ s leaders by its members because of the spiritual and financial support he provided to them. The reasons for choosing the Vaidya for the patients from urban area are characterized by several social factors of the patients such as their religious belief, seriousness, occupation and medical history. Meanwhile, not only the Vaidya but also other codified traditional medicines, e.g., Ayurveda, were less popular among the community members. It sounds paradoxical given that the traditional Indian medical system has been becoming popular as an alternative medicine in societies outside of India, such as in Europe. The community members who are less educated and engaged in religious activities in daily life preferred to allopathy, the biomedicine in Indian context. It is thus concluded that roles of non-codified medicine has changed depending on its cultural and social contexts, even though its medical system is not authorized by the government. Nowadays, traditional medical effectiveness is recognized as evidenced by scientific survey and the codified medical doctors treats diseases rather than people. However, this study implicated that people’s treatment seeking behaviors are likely based on the social context in which people live their lives even though evidenced based codified medicine is provided in their community.

Keywords: medical pluralism, non-codified medicine, south india, treatment-seeking behaviours

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2 Bactericidal Efficacy of Quaternary Ammonium Compound on Carriers with Food Additive Grade Calcium Hydroxide against Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli

Authors: M. Shahin Alam, Satoru Takahashi, Mariko Itoh, Miyuki Komura, Mayuko Suzuki, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

Cleaning and disinfection are key components of routine biosecurity in livestock farming and food processing industry. The usage of suitable disinfectants and their proper concentration are important factors for a successful biosecurity program. Disinfectants have optimum bactericidal and virucidal efficacies at temperatures above 20°C, but very few studies on application and effectiveness of disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. In the present study, the bactericidal efficacies of food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)), quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and their mixture, were investigated under different conditions, including time, organic materials (fetal bovine serum: FBS) and temperature, either in suspension or in carrier test. Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli, which are the most prevalent gram negative bacteria in commercial poultry housing and food processing industry, were used in this study. Initially, we evaluated these disinfectants at two different temperatures (4°C and room temperature (RT) (25°C ± 2°C)) and 7 contact times (0, 5 and 30 sec, 1, 3, 20 and 30 min), with suspension tests either in the presence or absence of 5% FBS. Secondly, we investigated the bactericidal efficacies of these disinfectants by carrier tests (rubber, stainless steel and plastic) at same temperatures and 4 contact times (30 sec, 1, 3, and 5 min). Then, we compared the bactericidal efficacies of each disinfectant within their mixtures, as follows. When QAC was diluted with redistilled water (dW2) at 1: 500 (QACx500) to obtain the final concentration of didecyl-dimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) of 200 ppm, it could inactivate Salmonella Infantis within 5 sec at RT either with or without 5% FBS in suspension test; however, at 4°C it required 30 min in presence of 5% FBS. FdCa(OH)2 solution alone could inactivate bacteria within 1 min both at RT and 4°C even with 5% FBS. While FdCa(OH)2 powder was added at final concentration 0.2% to QACx500 (Mix500), the mixture could inactivate bacteria within 30 sec and 5 sec, respectively, with or without 5% FBS at 4°C. The findings from the suspension test indicated that low temperature inhibited the bactericidal efficacy of QAC, whereas Mix500 was effective, regardless of short contact time and low temperature, even with 5% FBS. In the carrier test, single disinfectant required bit more time to inactivate bacteria on rubber and plastic surfaces than on stainless steel. However, Mix500 could inactivate S. Infantis on rubber, stainless steel and plastic surfaces within 30 sec and 1 min, respectively, at RT and 4°C; but, for E. coli, it required only 30 sec at both temperatures. So, synergistic effects were observed on different carriers at both temperatures. For a successful enhancement of biosecurity during winter, the disinfectants should be selected that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target pathogen. The present study findings help farmers to make proper strategies for application of disinfectants in their livestock farming and food processing industry.

Keywords: carrier, food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)₂), quaternary ammonium compound, synergistic effects

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1 Focus on the Bactericidal Efficacies of Alkaline Agents in Solid and the Required Time for Bacterial Inactivation

Authors: Hakimullah Hakim, Chiharu Toyofuku, Mari Ota, Mayuko Suzuki, Miyuki Komura, Masashi Yamada, Md. Shahin Alam, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

Disinfectants and their application are essential part of infection control strategies and enhancement of biosecurity at farms, worldwide. Alkaline agents are well known for their strong and long term antimicrobial capacities and most frequently are applied at farms for control and prevention of biological hazards. However, inadequate information regarding such materials’ capacities to inactivate pathogens and their improper applications fail farmers to achieve the mentioned goal. Thus, this requires attention to further evaluate their efficacies, under different conditions and in different ways. Here in this study we evaluated bactericidal efficacies of food additive grade of calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) powder derived from natural calcium carbonates obtained from limestone (Fine Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and bioceramic powder (BCX) derived from chicken feces at pH 13 (NMG environmental development Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), for their efficacies to inactivate bacteria in feces. [Materials & Methods] Chicken feces were inoculated by 100 µl Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in falcon tubes, individually, then FdCa(OH)2 or BCX powders were individually added to make final concentration of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) in total weight of 0.5g, followed by properly mixing and incubating at room temperature for certain periods of time, in a dark place. Afterwards, 10 ml 1M Tris-HCl (pH 7.2) was added onto them to reduce their pH, in order to stop powders’ activities and to harvest the remained viable bacteria, whereas using normal medium or dW2 to recover bacteria increases the mixture pH, and as a result bacteria would be inactivated soon; therefore, the latter practice brings about incorrect and misleading results. Samples were then inoculated on DHL agar plates in order to calculate colony forming units (CFU)/ml of viable bacteria. [Results and Discussion] FdCa(OH)2 powder at 10% and 5% required 3 hr and 6 hr exposure times, respectively, while BCX powder at 20% concentrations required 6 hr exposure time to kill the mentioned bacteria in feces down to lower than detectable level (≤ 3.6 log10 CFU/ml). This study confirmed capacities of FdCa(OH)2 and BCX powders to inactivate bacteria in feces, and both materials are environment friendly materials, with no risk to human or animal’s health. This finding helps farmers to properly apply alkaline agents in appropriate concentrations and exposure times in their farms, in order to prevent and control infectious diseases outbreaks and to enhance biosecurity. Finally, this finding may help farmers to implement better strategies for infections control in their livestock farms.

Keywords: bacterial inactivation, bioceramic, biosecurity at livestock farms, chicken feces

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