Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 295

Search results for: treatment-seeking behaviours

295 The Role of Health Beliefs in Predicting and Explaining Risky Health Behaviours within Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Rebecca Keyte, Helen Egan, Michail Mantzios

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It is well acknowledged that ongoing adherence is a major concern within CF. However recently literature has indicated that non-adherence should not be viewed just in terms of medical regimens. There are other damaging behaviours that some chronically ill patients engage in which can be viewed as a form of non-adherence, such as risky behaviours. Risky behaviours are a major concern within CF, as they can have adverse health effects on patients regardless of patients adherence to medical regimens. The risky behaviours this research is predominantly focusing on are smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour. This research investigates patient’s beliefs about their CF and the impact their CF has upon their life, exploring rationales for why some patients engage in risky behaviours. This research utilises qualitative semi-structured interviews taking an interpretive perspective. Twenty-four adult participants have been recruited (16 male, age range 19–66 yrs) from two UK regional CF centres, with a median FEV1 61.77% predicted. Participants were recruited via clinician guidance, with 13 participants identified by clinicians as partaking in risky behaviours. However, during the interviews 17 participants were identified as partaking in risky behaviours, illustrating that not all patients offer full disclosure of engagement in such behaviours to their clinicians. Preliminary findings illustrate a variety of reasons as to why some CF patients engage in risky behaviours, with many participants stating that one challenge in terms of living with CF is accepting their illness. Disclosure of illness was also an issue, the desire to be seen as ‘normal’ was important to many. It is often possible for CF patients to hide their illness as they do not always appear to be unwell. However, literature indicates a desire for normalcy can be accompanied with the engagement of normalised risky behaviours, enabling patients to retaliate against their illness identity. There was also evidence of a life-orientated perspective amongst participants, with some reporting that their desire for fun and enjoyment was the reason for why they were engaging in risky behaviours. Some participants did not acknowledge the impact their risky behaviours could have upon their CF, and others rationalised their continuation with the behaviours by suggesting that they were in fact beneficial to their health. There was an apparent lack of knowledge around the implications of risky behaviours, with participants indicating that they had not been informed of such potential consequences by their clinicians. Given the adverse health effects of risky behaviours within CF, more effective health promotion measures are needed to both reduce and more importantly prevent these behaviours. Due to the initiation of risky behaviours within the CF population commonly occurring during adolescence, the researcher now proposes to conduct semi-structured interviews with paediatric patients to investigate their awareness and beliefs towards risky behaviours. Overall, this research will highlight reasons why some CF patients engage in risky behaviours, in order to inform interventions aimed to prevent the initiation in risky behaviours by increasing patient awareness.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, health beliefs, preliminary findings, risky health behaviours

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294 Classroom Incivility Behaviours among Medical Students: A Comparative Study in Pakistan

Authors: Manal Rauf

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Trained medical practitioners are produced from medical colleges serving in public and private sectors. Prime responsibility of teaching faculty is to inculcate required work ethic among the students by serving as role models for them. It is an observed fact that classroom incivility behaviours are providing a friction in achieving these targets. Present study aimed at identification of classroom incivility behaviours observed by teachers and students of public and private medical colleges as per Glasser’s Choice Theory, making a comparison and investigating the strategies being adopted by teachers of both sectors to control undesired class room behaviours. Findings revealed that a significant difference occurs between teacher and student incivility behaviours. Public sector teacher focussed on survival as a strong factor behind in civil behaviours whereas private sector teachers considered power as the precedent for incivility. Teachers of both sectors are required to use verbal as well as non-verbal immediacy to reach a healthy leaning environment.

Keywords: classroom incivility behaviour, glasser choice theory, Mehrabian immediacy theory

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293 School Refusal Behaviours: The Roles of Adolescent and Parental Factors

Authors: Junwen Chen, Celina Feleppa, Tingyue Sun, Satoko Sasagawa, Michael Smithson

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School refusal behaviours refer to behaviours to avoid school attendance, chronic lateness in arriving at school, or regular early dismissal. Poor attendance in schools is highly correlated with anxiety, depression, suicide attempts, delinquency, violence, and substance use and abuse. Poor attendance is also a strong indicator of lower achievement in school, as well as problematic social-emotional development. Long-term consequences of school refusal behaviours include fewer opportunities for higher education, employment, and social difficulties, and high risks of later psychiatric illness. Given its negative impacts on youth educational outcomes and well-being, a thorough understanding of factors that are involved in the development of this phenomenon is warranted for developing effective management approaches. This study investigated parental and adolescent factors that may contribute to school refusal behaviours by specifically focusing on the role of parental and adolescents’ anxiety and depression, emotion dysregulation, and parental rearing style. Findings are expected to inform the identification of both parental and adolescents’ factors that may contribute to school refusal behaviours. This knowledge will enable novel and effective approaches that incorporate these factors to managing school refusal behaviours in adolescents, which in turn improve their school and daily functioning. Results are important for an integrative understanding of school refusal behaviours. Furthermore, findings will also provide information for policymakers to weigh the benefits of interventions targeting school refusal behaviours in adolescents. One-hundred-and-six adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age = 14.79 years old, SD = 1.78, males = 44) and their parents (mean age = 47.49 years old, SD = 5.61, males = 27) completed an online questionnaire measuring both parental and adolescents’ anxiety, depression, emotion dysregulation, parental rearing styles, and adolescents’ school refusal behaviours. Adolescents with school refusal behaviours reported greater anxiety and depression, with their parents showing greater emotion dysregulation. Parental emotion dysregulation and adolescents’ anxiety and depression predicted school refusal behaviours independently. To date, only limited studies have investigated the interplay between parental and youth factors in relation to youth school refusal behaviours. Although parental emotion dysregulation has been investigated in relation to youth emotion dysregulation, little is known about its role in the context of school refusal. This study is one of the very few that investigated both parental and adolescent factors in relation to school refusal behaviours in adolescents. The findings support the theoretical models that emphasise the role of youth and parental psychopathology in school refusal behaviours. Future management of school refusal behaviours should target adolescents’ anxiety and depression while incorporating training for parental emotion regulation skills.

Keywords: adolescents, school refusal behaviors, parental factors, anxiety and depression, emotion dysregulation

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292 Serious Gaming for Behaviour Change: A Review

Authors: Ramy Hammady, Sylvester Arnab

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Significant attention has been directed to adopt game interventions practically to change certain behaviours in many disciplines such as health, education, psychology through many years. That’s due to the intrinsic motivation that games can cause and the substantial impact the games can leave on the player. Many review papers were induced to highlight and measure the effectiveness of the game’s interventions on changing behaviours; however, most of these studies neglected the game design process itself and the game features and elements that can stimuli changing behaviours. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the most game design mechanics and features that are the most influencing on changing behaviour during or after games interventions. This paper also sheds light on the theories of changing behaviours that clearly can led the game design process. This study gives directions to game designers to spot the most influential game features and mechanics for changing behaviour games in order to exploit it on the same manner.

Keywords: behaviour change, game design, serious gaming, gamification, review

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291 Cancer Survivor’s Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours; Meeting the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research Recommendations, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Erica James, Alexis Hurre, Meredith Tavener

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Introduction: Lifestyle behaviours such as healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight are essential for cancer survivors to improve the quality of life and longevity. However, there is no study that synthesis cancer survivor’s adherence to healthy lifestyle recommendations. The purpose of this review was to collate existing data on the prevalence of adherence to healthy behaviours and produce the pooled estimate among adult cancer survivors. Method: Multiple databases (Embase, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant articles published since 2007, reporting cancer survivors adherence to more than two lifestyle behaviours based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations. The pooled prevalence of adherence to single and multiple behaviours (operationalized as adherence to more than 75% (3/4) of health behaviours included in a particular study) was calculated using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis adherence to multiple behaviours was undertaken corresponding to the mean survival years and year of publication. Results: A total of 3322 articles were generated through our search strategies. Of these, 51 studies matched our inclusion criteria, which presenting data from 2,620,586 adult cancer survivors. The highest prevalence of adherence was observed for smoking (pooled estimate: 87%, 95% CI: 85%, 88%) and alcohol intake (pooled estimate 83%, 95% CI: 81%, 86%), and the lowest was for fiber intake (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 21%, 40%). Thirteen studies were reported the proportion of cancer survivors (all used a simple summative index method) to multiple healthy behaviours, whereby the prevalence of adherence was ranged from 7% to 40% (pooled estimate 23%, 95% CI: 17% to 30%). Subgroup analysis suggest that short-term survivors ( < 5 years survival time) had relatively a better adherence to multiple behaviours (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 27%, 35%) than long-term ( > 5 years survival time) cancer survivors (pooled estimate: 25%, 95% CI: 14%, 36%). Pooling of estimates according to the year of publication (since 2007) also suggests an increasing trend of adherence to multiple behaviours over time. Conclusion: Overall, the adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was poor (not satisfactory), and relatively, it is a major concern for long-term than the short-term cancer survivor. Cancer survivors need to obey with healthy lifestyle recommendations related to physical activity, fruit and vegetable, fiber, red/processed meat and sodium intake.

Keywords: adherence, lifestyle behaviours, cancer survivors, WCRF/AICR

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290 Effects of Main Contractors’ Service Quality on Subcontractors’ Behaviours and Project Outcomes

Authors: Zhuoyuan Wang, Benson T. H. Lim, Imriyas Kamardeen

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Effective service quality management has long been touted as a means of improving project and organisational performance. Particularly, in construction projects, main contractors are often seen as a broker between clients and subcontractors, and their service quality is thus associated with the overall project affinity and outcomes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on the aspect of clients-main contractors, very little research has been done to explore the effect of contractors’ service quality on subcontractors’ behaviours and so project outcomes. In addressing this gap, this study surveyed 97 subcontractors in the Chinese Construction industry and data was analysed using the Partial Least Square (PLS) Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. The overall findings reveal that subcontractors categorised main contractors’ service quality into three dimensions: assurance; responsiveness; reliability and empathy. Of these, it is found that main contractors’ ‘assurance’ and ‘responsiveness’ positively influence subcontractors’ intention to engage in contractual behaviours. The results further show that the subcontractors’ intention to engage in organizational citizenship behaviours is associated with how flexible and committed the main contractors are in reliability and empathy. Collectively, both subcontractors’ contractual and organizational citizenship behaviours positively influence the overall project outcomes. In conclusion, the findings inform contractors different strategies towards managing and gaining subcontractors’ behaviour commitment in a socially connected, yet complex and uncertain, business environment.

Keywords: construction firms, organisational citizenship behaviour, service quality, social exchange theory

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289 Importance of Human Factors on Cybersecurity within Organizations: A Study of Attitudes and Behaviours

Authors: Elham Rajabian

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The ascent of cybersecurity incidents is a rising threat to most organisations in general, while the impact of the incidents is unique to each of the organizations. It is a need for behavioural sciences to concentrate on employees’ behaviour in order to prepare key security mitigation opinions versus cybersecurity incidents. There are noticeable differences among users of a computer system in terms of complying with security behaviours. We can discuss the people's differences under several subjects such as delaying tactics on something that must be done, the tendency to act without thinking, future thinking about unexpected implications of present-day issues, and risk-taking behaviours in security policies compliance. In this article, we introduce high-profile cyber-attacks and their impacts on weakening cyber resiliency in organizations. We also give attention to human errors that influence network security. Human errors are discussed as a part of psychological matters to enhance compliance with the security policies. The organizational challenges are studied in order to shape a sustainable cyber risks management approach in the related work section. Insiders’ behaviours are viewed as a cyber security gap to draw proper cyber resiliency in section 3. We carry out the best cybersecurity practices by discussing four CIS challenges in section 4. In this regard, we provide a guideline and metrics to measure cyber resilience in organizations in section 5. In the end, we give some recommendations in order to build a cybersecurity culture based on individual behaviours.

Keywords: cyber resilience, human factors, cybersecurity behavior, attitude, usability, security culture

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288 The Perspective of Waria Transgenders in Singaraja on Their Reproduction Health

Authors: Made Kurnia Widiastuti Giri, Nyoman Kanca, Arie Swastini, Bambang Purwanto

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Aim: Waria transgenders are a phenomenon whose existence is undeniable. The sexual behaviours of waria transgenders belong to the groups of high-risk STDs infections, especially HIV/AIDS. The present study was aimed at finding out the general idea of the existence of waria transgenders in Singaraja, their sexual transactions, their sexual behaviours, and at exploring the factors affecting their sexual behaviours along with their participation in regular reproduction health control. Methods: The subjects of the present research were male-to-female transgenders living in the town of Singaraja. The research applied a qualitative approach. Data collection in this research was conducted through in-depth interview and observation. Results: The results of the study exposed 1) the existence of waria transgender community in Singaraja observed from their active participation in social events such as taking the roles of counsellors in the campaign of prevention and control of HIV/AIDS with the Local Commission of AIDS Control and other foundations; 2) the sexual services provided by waria transgenders which were performed in squeeze method, oral and anal sex which could be categorized as HIV/AIDS high-risk sexual behaviours, while the consistency in doing safe sex among the trangenders in Singaraja showed that most of the waria transgenders (80%) were aware of the urgency of using condoms during sexual intercourse; and 3) the low participation of the waria transgenders in Singaraja in regular reproduction health check up at the local Centre of Public Health Service was caused by their negative perception about being examined by female doctors. Conclucions: Waria in singaraja categorized as HIV/AIDS high-risk sexual behaviours but they do have consistency in doing safe sex by using condoms. They have a negative psychological perception about being examined by female doctors.

Keywords: waria transgenders, sexual behaviours, reproduction health, hiv/aids

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287 Ethical Leadership Mediates Subordinates’ Likeness for Leader and Affective Commitment to Squads among Police Cadets

Authors: Odunayo O. Oluwafemi, Valentine A. Mebu

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There is a blur as to whether subordinates’ sheer fondness for a leader or the ethical behaviours demonstrated by such a leader is what engenders subordinates’ affective commitment to the group. This study aimed to depict and clarify that perceived ethical leadership by subordinates outweighs their likeness for a leader in determining their level of affective commitment to the group using a sample of police cadets. Subordinate cadets were asked to rate the ethical leadership behaviours displayed by their cadet Leaders; their likeness for their leaders and also rate their own affective commitment to their squads (N = 252, Mean Age = 22.70, Age range = 17 to 29 years, SD = 2.264, 75% males). A mediation analysis was conducted to test hypotheses. Results showed that there was a significant indirect effect between likeness for leaders and affective commitment through ethical leadership behaviour (b = .734, 95% BCa CI [.413, 1.146], p = .000); and a nonsignificant direct effect between likeness for leader and subordinates’ affective commitment (b = .526, 95% BCa CI [-.106, 1.157], p = .10), this indicated a full mediation. The results strongly suggested that the positive relationship between subordinates’ likeness for their leaders and their affective commitment to the squad is produced by perceived leaders’ ethical behaviours. Therefore, leaders should exhibit and prioritize ethical behaviours over the need to be liked by their subordinates to guarantee their affective commitment to group goals and aspirations.

Keywords: affective commitment, ethical leadership, leader cadets, likeness for leader, subordinate cadets

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286 Teachers' Perceptions of Their Principals' Interpersonal Emotionally Intelligent Behaviours Affecting Their Job Satisfaction

Authors: Prakash Singh

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For schools to be desirable places in which to work, it is necessary for principals to recognise their teachers’ emotions, and be sensitive to their needs. This necessitates that principals are capable to correctly identify their emotionally intelligent behaviours (EIBs) they need to use in order to be successful leaders. They also need to have knowledge of their emotional intelligence and be able to identify the factors and situations that evoke emotion at an interpersonal level. If a principal is able to do this, then the control and understanding of emotions and behaviours of oneself and others could improve vastly. This study focuses on the interpersonal EIBS of principals affecting the job satisfaction of teachers. The correlation coefficients in this quantitative study strongly indicate that there is a statistical significance between the respondents’ level of job satisfaction, the rating of their principals’ EIBs and how they believe their principals’ EIBs will affect their sense of job satisfaction. It can be concluded from the data obtained in this study that there is a significant correlation between the sense of job satisfaction of teachers and their principals’ interpersonal EIBs. This means that the more satisfied a teacher is at school, the more appropriate and meaningful a principal’s EIBs will be. Conversely, the more dissatisfied a teacher is at school the less appropriate and less meaningful a principal’s interpersonal EIBs will be. This implies that the leaders’ EIBs can be construed as one of the major factors affecting the job satisfaction of employees.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, teachers' emotions, teachers' job satisfaction, principals' emotionally intelligent behaviours

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285 Sexual Risk Behaviours of High School Students in an Urban Town of Cameroon

Authors: Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang

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Background: Since students in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these students might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. Sexual risk behaviours include engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners and coerced or forced sex, and these behaviours might predispose youth to HIV transmission. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school students in an urban town of Cameroon. Method: A quantitative cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from a disproportional stratified simple random sample of 480 (240 male and 240 female) grade 10 to grade 12 students from two participating secondary school in Limbe in the Southwest region of Cameroon August 2014. Descriptive and Chi square statistics were calculated using statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software program at the level 0.05. Results: Majority of the respondents, 63.4% reported being sexually active, of whom only 33.2% used condoms consistently. Up to 37% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 23% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.4 years. Among Christians, Pentecostals, 17 (58.6%) were more likely to have experienced sexual coercion than non-Pentecostals, 111 (42.2%) (p= 0.000). Christians, 41 (10.3%) were more likely to have been forced into first sex than Muslims, 0 (0.0%); while among the Christians, Pentecostals, 6 (15.0%) were more likely to have been forced into first sex than non-Pentecostals, 35 (10.9%) (p=0.004). Among the Christians, Pentecostals, 16 (66.7%) were more likely to have experienced sex by age 16 years than non-Pentecostals, 125 (64.1%) (p= 0.000). Students who lived in rented places, 32 (22.7%) were more likely to have had multiple sexual partners than those who lived in their parents’ houses, 35 (18.1%) (p= 0.000). Males, 36 (16.0%) were likely to have had multiple concurrent sexual partners than females, 14 (6.0%) (p=0.002). Students who used condoms consistently, 25 (33.3%) were more likely to have a higher perception of risk of contracting HIV than those who did not use condoms consistently, 38 (29.9%) (p=0.002). Students who lived in their parents’ houses, 35 (35.4%) were more likely to use condoms consistently during sex, than those who lived in rented places, 31 (29.8%) (p=0.021). Students who passed their examinations, 57 (30.9%) were more likely to have used condoms consistently than those with low academic profiles, 24 (27.9%) (p= 0.034). Conclusions and Recommendations: Gender, lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors associated with sexual risk behaviours among students in urban Cameroon. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school students in Limbe urban town of Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

Keywords: Cameroon, high school students, HIV/AIDS, Limbe urban town, sexual risk behaviours

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284 Revisionist Powers Seeking for Status within the System by Adopting a Compresence of Cooperative and Competitive Strategies

Authors: Mirele Plenishti

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Revisionist powers are sometimes associated to revolutionary and status quo powers, this because along the line representing the level of satisfaction–dissatisfaction with the system, revisionist powers are located in between status quo and revolutionary powers. In particular, the case of revisionist powers seeking for social status adjustments (while having status quo intentions) can, in the first option, be refuted due to the disbelief that dissatisfaction could coexist with status quo intentions – this entailing the possibility to trigger a spiral effect by over-counter-reacting. In the second option, revisionist powers can be underestimated as a real threat, this entailing a potential inadequate reaction. The necessity to well manage international change entails the need to understand better how revisionist powers seek for changes in status, within the system. The complexity of this case is heightened by the propensity of both IR scholars and practitioners to infer states' aims and intentions – towards the system – by looking at their behaviours. This has resulted in the tendency to consider cooperative international behaviours as symptomatic of status quo intentions, and vice versa: status quo intentions as manifested through positive/cooperative behaviours. Similarly, assertive/competitive international behaviours are considered as symptomatic (and vice versa, as manifestations) of revolutionary intentions. Therefore, within complex and composite foreign policies, scholars who disbelieve the existence of revisionist powers with status quo intentions, tend to highlight the negative/competitive elements; while more optimist scholars tend to focus on conforming/cooperative behaviours. Both perspectives, while understanding relevant components of the complex international interaction, still miss a composite overview. In order to closely investigate the strategies adopted by (status quo aiming) revisionist states, and by drawing on sociological studies on peer relations, focused on children's behaviour, one could expect that the compresence of both positive (compliant/cooperative) and negative (competitive/assertive) behaviours, is deliberate, and functional to seeking social status adjustments. Indeed, at the end of 90s, peer relation studies focused on children's behaviour, discerned between the concept of social acceptance (that refers to the degree of social preference assigned to the child– how much is s/he liked) and popularity (which refers to the social status assigned to the child within the group). By building on this distinction, it was possible to identify a link relating social acceptance to prosocial (compliant/cooperative) behaviours and strategies, and popularity to both prosocial and antisocial (aggressive/assertive) behaviours and strategies. Since then, antisocial behaviours ceased to be considered as a proof of social maladjustment and were finally identified as socially recognized strategies adopted in function of the achievement of popularity. Drawing on these results, one can hypothesize that also international status seekers perform both positive (conforming/compliant/cooperative) and negative (assertive/aggressive/competitive) behaviours. Therefore, the link between aims and behaviours loses its strength, since cooperative and competitive behaviours are both means for status seeking strategies that aim at status quo intentions. By carrying out a historical investigation of Italy's foreign policy during fascism, the intent is to closely look at this compresence of behaviours, in order to better qualify its components and their relations.

Keywords: compresence of cooperative and competitive behaviours and strategies, revisionist powers, status quo intentions, status seeking

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283 Influence of Parent’s Food Habits on Nutrition Behaviours of Children under 7 Years in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Katayoun Bagheri, Farzad Berahmandpour

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Several studies about food habits in diverse population show, early living years play significant role in building of current food habits. Suitable nutrition in children is also influenced by parent’s food habits. The aim of study is to survey the role of parent’s food habits to form of nutrition behaviours in children under 7 years in Tehran - Iran. The study is a Descriptive study. The participants were 19 children under 7 years with their mothers from a kindergarten in the central Tehran. The sampling method was random sampling. The data was collected by food habits questionnaires and implementation of consultation meetings with the mothers. The data analysis was qualitative analysis. The findings show that 79% children and their parents have eaten enough and variety breakfast, but food choices of children were depended on food choices of parents. In the other meals, the majority of children enjoyed to eat dinner (58%), because the more families could eat dinner together. According to mother opinions, the children enjoy eating macaroni, chicken, fried potatoes, chips and fruit juices. The researchers argue that mother’s role is unavoidable in the food preferences among children. Fortunately, the results believe that children tend to drink simple milk (79%). Moreover, their parents lead them to chocolate milk consumption (42%) instead of other flavored milk. Finally, despite popular belief claim that mothers influence on nutrition behavior of children, but the study argues that the fathers have more effects on children’s nutrition behaviours. In conclusion, it seems that the general trainings about promoting healthy nutrition behavior for parents by mass media can improve nutrition habits and behaviours of pre school children.

Keywords: food habits, parents, nutrition behaviours, children, promoting nutrition

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282 Smoking, Bullying, and Being Bullied among Secondary School Students: Their Associations with Attachment Styles

Authors: Ruziana Masiran, Hamidin Awang, Cheah Y. T. Jun, Nor Fauziah Hashim, Archana Premkumar, Mohd. Feizel Aisiddiq, Mohd. Fakharuddin

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Risk behaviours among secondary school students are common and show an increasing trend over the years. Existing attachment styles between the students and their parents influence the psychosocial development of this group of population hence contributing to the adoption of risk behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between three risk behaviours; smoking, bullying and being bullied among secondary school students and their styles of attachment to parents in a district in Malaysia. Using multistage simple random sampling, a cross-sectional study was designed with the level of significance, α set at 0.05. The validated self-administered Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and Youth Risk Behaviours Surveillance Questionnaire focusing on smoking and bullying were utilized. Secondary school students aged 13 to 17 years old from ten schools in the district of Hulu Langat, Malaysia were sampled. Prevalence of smoking was 15.8%, bullying 8.5% and being bully victims 19.0%. It was found that male gender was a significant risk factor for smoking (p < 0.001), while being Chinese (OR=0.156, 95%CI=0.029-0.837, p=0.030) and having married parents (OR=0.490, 95%CI=0.302-0.796, p=0.490) are protective against smoking. Students with insecure attachment to mothers (OR=1.650, 95%CI=1.018-2.675, p=0.042) and fathers (OR=2.039, 95%CI=1.285-3.234, p=0.002) are at 1.6 and 2 times risk respectively to smoke compared to those with secure attachment. The odds of male students bullying is almost twice than that for female students (OR=2.017, 95%CI=1.416-2.873, p < 0.001), and the odds of being bullied is 1.5 times higher for male students (OR=1.519, 95%CI=1.183-1.950, p=0.001). Those who are insecurely attached to fathers are at 1.8 times higher risk to be bullies (OR=1.867, 95%CI=1.272-2.740, p < 0.001) and 1.5 times higher risk to be bullied (OR=1.546, 95%CI=1.026-2.329, p=0.037). In conclusion, insecure attachment shows a strong association with smoking, bullying and being bullied among secondary school students in Malaysia.

Keywords: attachment styles, bullied, bullying, insecure attachment, risk behaviours, smoking and attachment

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281 The Causes and Effects of Delinquent Behaviour among Students in Juvenile Home: A Case Study of Osun State

Authors: Baleeqs, O. Adegoke, Adeola, O. Aburime

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Juvenile delinquency is fast becoming one of the largest problems facing many societies due to many different factors ranging from parental factors to bullying at schools all which had led to different theoretical notions by different scholars. Delinquency is an illegal or immoral behaviour, especially by the young person who behaves in a way that is illegal or that society does not approve of. The purpose of the study was to investigate causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun State. A descriptive survey research type was employed. The random sampling technique was used to select 100 adolescents in Juvenile home in Osun State. Questionnaires were developed and given to them. The data collected from this study were analyzed using frequency counts and percentage for the demographic data in section A, while the two research hypotheses postulated for this study were tested using t-test statistics at the significance level of 0.05. Findings revealed that the greatest school effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun by respondents were their aggressive behaviours. Findings revealed that there was a significant difference in the causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun State. It was also revealed that there was no significant difference in the causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among secondary school students in Osun based on gender. These recommendations were made in order to address the findings of this study: More number of teachers should be appointed in the observation home so that it will be possible to provide teaching to the different age group of delinquents. Developing the infrastructure facilities of short stay homes and observation home is a top priority. Proper counseling session’s interval is highly essential for these juveniles.

Keywords: behaviour, delinquency, juvenile, random sampling, statistical techniques, survey

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280 Physical Aggression and Language Skills among Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Maryam Razmjoee

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Physical aggression is one of the most common behavioural problems among children with intellectual disabilities. Behaviours such as hitting, kicking, and threatening with the intent to harm others are examples of physical aggression. Identified language delays are related to physically aggressive behaviours, as children with poor language skills are often frustrated by socially interactions with their peers, leaving them at risk engaging in acts of physical aggression. As a result of this concern, physical aggression and language skills of children with mild intellectual disabilities was investigated. In the current study, 102 students, from years 1-3, with mild intellectual disabilities (51 girls and 51 boys) have been recruited from five educational centres which cater for children with mild intellectual disabilities in the city of Shiraz (a major city in Iran). The Test of Language Development-Primary: 3rd Edition (TOLD-3) and Overt and Relational Aggression Questionnaire were used to assess these children. Results showed that physical aggression had a significant negative association with expressive (p = 0.008), and receptive (p = 0.019) language skills. In addition, boys demonstrated more physically aggressive behaviours than girls (p = 0.014). No difference was found in expressive and receptive language skills between girls and boys with mild intellectual disabilities. The overall findings suggest that improving the language skills of children with intellectual disabilities experiencing language delays will help them to avoid exhibiting antisocial behaviours in social interactions.

Keywords: behaviour, language skills, mild intellectual disabilities, physical aggression, primary school students

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279 MEAL Project–Modifying Eating Attitudes and Actions through Learning

Authors: E. Oliver, A. Cebolla, A. Dominguez, A. Gonzalez-Segura, E. de la Cruz, S. Albertini, L. Ferrini, K. Kronika, T. Nilsen, R. Baños

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The main objective of MEAL is to develop a pedagogical tool aimed to help teachers and nutritionists (students and professionals) to acquire, train, promote and deliver to children basic nutritional education and healthy eating behaviours competencies. MEAL is focused on eating behaviours and not only in nutritional literacy, and will use new technologies like Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and serious games (SG) platforms to consolidate the nutritional competences and habits.

Keywords: nutritional education, pedagogical ICT platform, serious games, training course

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278 Linguistic Analysis of Borderline Personality Disorder: Using Language to Predict Maladaptive Thoughts and Behaviours

Authors: Charlotte Entwistle, Ryan Boyd

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Recent developments in information retrieval techniques and natural language processing have allowed for greater exploration of psychological and social processes. Linguistic analysis methods for understanding behaviour have provided useful insights within the field of mental health. One area within mental health that has received little attention though, is borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD is a common mental health disorder characterised by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affect. It also manifests through maladaptive behaviours, such as impulsivity and self-harm. Examination of language patterns associated with BPD could allow for a greater understanding of the disorder and its links to maladaptive thoughts and behaviours. Language analysis methods could also be used in a predictive way, such as by identifying indicators of BPD or predicting maladaptive thoughts, emotions and behaviours. Additionally, associations that are uncovered between language and maladaptive thoughts and behaviours could then be applied at a more general level. This study explores linguistic characteristics of BPD, and their links to maladaptive thoughts and behaviours, through the analysis of social media data. Data were collected from a large corpus of posts from the publicly available social media platform Reddit, namely, from the ‘r/BPD’ subreddit whereby people identify as having BPD. Data were collected using the Python Reddit API Wrapper and included all users which had posted within the BPD subreddit. All posts were manually inspected to ensure that they were not posted by someone who clearly did not have BPD, such as people posting about a loved one with BPD. These users were then tracked across all other subreddits of which they had posted in and data from these subreddits were also collected. Additionally, data were collected from a random control group of Reddit users. Disorder-relevant behaviours, such as self-harming or aggression-related behaviours, outlined within Reddit posts were coded to by expert raters. All posts and comments were aggregated by user and split by subreddit. Language data were then analysed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) 2015 software. LIWC is a text analysis program that identifies and categorises words based on linguistic and paralinguistic dimensions, psychological constructs and personal concern categories. Statistical analyses of linguistic features could then be conducted. Findings revealed distinct linguistic features associated with BPD, based on Reddit posts, which differentiated these users from a control group. Language patterns were also found to be associated with the occurrence of maladaptive thoughts and behaviours. Thus, this study demonstrates that there are indeed linguistic markers of BPD present on social media. It also implies that language could be predictive of maladaptive thoughts and behaviours associated with BPD. These findings are of importance as they suggest potential for clinical interventions to be provided based on the language of people with BPD to try to reduce the likelihood of maladaptive thoughts and behaviours occurring. For example, by social media tracking or engaging people with BPD in expressive writing therapy. Overall, this study has provided a greater understanding of the disorder and how it manifests through language and behaviour.

Keywords: behaviour analysis, borderline personality disorder, natural language processing, social media data

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277 Evaluation of the Impact of Functional Communication Training on Behaviors of Concern for Students at a Non-Maintained Special School

Authors: Kate Duggan

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Introduction: Functional Communication Training (FCT) is an approach which aims to reduce behaviours of concern by teaching more effective ways to communicate. It requires identification of the function of the behaviour of concern, through gathering information from key stakeholders and completing observations of the individual’s behaviour including antecedents to, and consequences of the behaviour. Appropriate communicative alternatives are then identified and taught to the individual using systematic instruction techniques. Behaviours of concern demonstrated by individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) frequently have a communication function. When contributing to positive behavior support plans, speech and language therapists and other professionals working with individuals with ASC need to identify alternative communicative behaviours which are equally reinforcing as the existing behaviours of concern. Successful implementation of FCT is dependent on an effective ‘response match’. The new way of communicating must be equally as effective as the behaviour previously used and require the same amount or less effort from the individual. It must also be understood by the communication partners the individual encounters and be appropriate to their communicative contexts. Method: Four case studies within a non-maintained special school environment were described and analysed. A response match framework was used to identify the effectiveness of functional communication training delivered by the student’s speech and language therapist, teacher and learning support assistants. The success of systematic instruction techniques used to develop new communicative behaviours was evaluated using the CODES framework. Findings: Functional communication training can be used as part of a positive behaviour support approach for students within this setting. All case studies reviewed demonstrated ‘response success’, in that the desired response was gained from the new communicative behaviour. Barriers to the successful embedding of new communicative behaviours were encountered. In some instances, the new communicative behaviour could not be consistently understood across all communication partners which reduced ‘response recognisability’. There was also evidence of increased physical or cognitive difficulty in employing the new communicative behaviour which reduced the ‘response effectivity’. Successful use of ‘thinning schedules of reinforcement’, taught students to tolerate a delay to reinforcement once the new communication behaviour was learned.

Keywords: augmentative and alternative communication, autism spectrum conditions, behaviours of concern, functional communication training

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276 Leveraging xAPI in a Corporate e-Learning Environment to Facilitate the Tracking, Modelling, and Predictive Analysis of Learner Behaviour

Authors: Libor Zachoval, Daire O Broin, Oisin Cawley

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E-learning platforms, such as Blackboard have two major shortcomings: limited data capture as a result of the limitations of SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model), and lack of incorporation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms which could lead to better course adaptations. With the recent development of Experience Application Programming Interface (xAPI), a large amount of additional types of data can be captured and that opens a window of possibilities from which online education can benefit. In a corporate setting, where companies invest billions on the learning and development of their employees, some learner behaviours can be troublesome for they can hinder the knowledge development of a learner. Behaviours that hinder the knowledge development also raise ambiguity about learner’s knowledge mastery, specifically those related to gaming the system. Furthermore, a company receives little benefit from their investment if employees are passing courses without possessing the required knowledge and potential compliance risks may arise. Using xAPI and rules derived from a state-of-the-art review, we identified three learner behaviours, primarily related to guessing, in a corporate compliance course. The identified behaviours are: trying each option for a question, specifically for multiple-choice questions; selecting a single option for all the questions on the test; and continuously repeating tests upon failing as opposed to going over the learning material. These behaviours were detected on learners who repeated the test at least 4 times before passing the course. These findings suggest that gauging the mastery of a learner from multiple-choice questions test scores alone is a naive approach. Thus, next steps will consider the incorporation of additional data points, knowledge estimation models to model knowledge mastery of a learner more accurately, and analysis of the data for correlations between knowledge development and identified learner behaviours. Additional work could explore how learner behaviours could be utilised to make changes to a course. For example, course content may require modifications (certain sections of learning material may be shown to not be helpful to many learners to master the learning outcomes aimed at) or course design (such as the type and duration of feedback).

Keywords: artificial intelligence, corporate e-learning environment, knowledge maintenance, xAPI

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275 Preferred Leadership Behaviour of Coaches by Athletes in Individual and Team Sports in Nigeria

Authors: Ali Isa Danlami

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This study examined the coaching leadership behaviours preferred by athletes in individual and team sports in Nigeria that may lead to increased satisfaction and performance. Six leadership behaviours were identified; these are democratic, training and instruction, situational consideration, autocratic, social support and positive feedback. The six leadership behaviours relate to the preference of coaches by athletes that leads to increased performance were the focus of this study. The population of this study is comprised of male and female athletes of states sports councils in Nigeria. An ex-post facto research design was employed for this study. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the sampled states according to the six geo-political zones of the country. Two states (North Central (FCT, Nasarawa), North East (Bauchi, Gombe), North West (Kaduna, Sokoto), South East (Anambra, Imo), South west (Ogun, Ondo), South South (Delta, and Rivers) were selected from each stratum. A modified questionnaire was used to collect data for this study, and the data collected were subjected to a reliability test using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to analyse the data. A two sample Z-test procedure was used to test the significant differences because of the large number of subjects involved in the different groups. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha value. The findings of the study concluded that: Athletes in team and individual sports generally preferred coaches who were more disposed towards training and instructions, social support, positive feedback, situational consideration and democratic behaviours. It was also found that athletes in team sports have higher preference for coaches with democratic behaviour. The result revealed that athletes in team and individual sports did not have a preference for coaches disposed towards autocratic behaviour. Based on this, the following recommendations were made: Democratic behaviour by coaches should be encouraged in team and individual sports. Coaches should not be engaged in autocratic behaviours when coaching. These behaviours should be adopted by coaches to increase athletes’ satisfaction and enhancement in performance.

Keywords: leadership behaviour, preference, athletes, individual, team, coaches’

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274 The Environmental Influence on Slow Learners' Learning Achievement

Authors: Niphattha Hannapha

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This paper examines how the classroom environment influences slow learners’ learning achievement; it focuses on how seating patterns affect students’ behaviours and which patterns best contribute to students’ learning performance. The researcher studied how slow learners’ characteristics and seating patterns influenced their behaviours and performance at Ban Hin Lad School. As a nonparticipant observation, the target groups included 15 slow learners from Prathomsueksa (Grades) 4 and 5. Students’ behaviours were recorded during their learning activities in order to minimize their reading and written expression disorder in Thai language tutorials. The result showed four seating patterns and two behaviors which obstructed students’ learning. The average of both behaviours mostly occurred when students were seated with patterns 1 (the seat facing the door, with the corridor alongside) and 3 (the seat alongside the door, facing the aisle) respectively. Seating patterns 1 and 3 demonstrated visibility (the front and side) of a walking path with two-way movement. However, seating patterns 2 (seating with the door alongside and the aisle at the back) and 4 (sitting with the door at the back and the aisle alongside) demonstrated visibility (the side) of a walking path with one-way movement. In Summary, environmental design is important to enhance concentration in slow learners who have reading and writing disabilities. This study suggests that students should be seated where they can have the least visibility of movement to help them increase continuous learning. That means they can have a better chance of developing reading and writing abilities in comparison with other patterns of seating.

Keywords: slow learning, interior design, interior environment, classroom

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273 The Organizational Justice-Citizenship Behavior Link in Hotels: Does Customer Orientation Matter?

Authors: Pablo Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, Miguel A. Suárez-Acosta

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The goal of the present paper is to model two classic lines of research in which employees starred, organizational justice and citizenship behaviour (OCB), but that have never been studied together when targeting customers. The suggestion is made that a hotel’s fair treatment (in terms of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) toward customers will be appreciated by the employees, who will reciprocate in kind by favouring the hotel with increased customer-oriented behaviours (COBs). Data were collected from 204 employees at eight upscale hotels in the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike in the case of perceptions of distributive justice, results of structural equation modelling demonstrate that employees substantively react to interactional and procedural justice toward guests by engaging in customer-oriented behaviours (COBs). The findings offer new reasons why employees decide to engage in COBs, and they highlight potentially beneficial effects of fair treatment toward guests bring to hospitality through promoting COBs.

Keywords: hotel guests’ (mis) treatment, customer-oriented behaviours, employee citizenship, organizational justice, third-party observers, third-party intervention

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272 Ethical Consumers, The Myth or the Reality?: The Effects of Ethics in CSR on Corporate Authenticity and Pro-Firm Behaviours

Authors: K. Shim, J. N. Kim

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This study investigates how consumers’ evaluations of a multinational corporation’s corporate social responsibility program connected to the perceived corporate authenticity and consumers’ pro-firm behavioral intention. With special attention to the two different types of CSR motives, business-oriented CSR motive and society-oriented motive, the current study empirically tests a theoretical model of a mediating role of corporate authenticity between perception of CSR motives and the consumers’ subsequent pro-firm behaviours. Results indicate significant mediation effects of corporate authenticity between perception of altruistic and societal CSR motives and consumers’ pro-firm behaviours. Unlike previous notions of the negative influence of self-interested motives on corporate authenticity, perceived strategic and business-oriented motives in CSR does not negatively affect the evalution of corporate authenticity when stakeholders have utilitarian ethical perspectives. Unlike the Korean participants, US participants are not willing to conduct pro-firm behaviors when they perceive strategic and business-oriented CSR motives. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: corporate authenticity, corporate social responsibility, CSR motives, strategic CSR, utilitarian ethics, kantian ethics

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271 Sustainability Communications Across Multi-Stakeholder Groups: A Critical Review of the Findings from the Hospitality and Tourism Sectors

Authors: Frederica Pettit

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Contribution: Stakeholder involvement in CSR is essential to ensuring pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours across multi-stakeholder groups. Despite increased awareness of the benefits surrounding a collaborative approach to sustainability communications, its success is limited by difficulties engaging with active online conversations with stakeholder groups. Whilst previous research defines the effectiveness of sustainability communications; this paper contributes to knowledge through the development of a theoretical framework that explores the processes to achieving pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours in stakeholder groups. The research will also consider social media as an opportunity to communicate CSR information to all stakeholder groups. Approach: A systematic review was chosen to investigate the effectiveness of the types of sustainability communications used in the hospitality and tourism industries. The systematic review was completed using Web of Science and Scopus using the search terms “sustainab* communicat*” “effective or effectiveness,” and “hospitality or tourism,” limiting the results to peer-reviewed research. 133 abstracts were initially read, with articles being excluded for irrelevance, duplicated articles, non-empirical studies, and language. A total of 45 papers were included as part of the systematic review. 5 propositions were created based on the results of the systematic review, helping to develop a theoretical framework of the processes needed for companies to encourage pro-environmental behaviours across multi-stakeholder groups. Results: The theoretical framework developed in the paper determined the processes necessary for companies to achieve pro-environmental behaviours in stakeholders. The processes to achieving pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours are stakeholder-focused, identifying the need for communications to be specific to their targeted audience. Collaborative communications that enable stakeholders to engage with CSR information and provide feedback lead to a higher awareness of CSR shared visions and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. These processes should also aim to improve their relationships with stakeholders through transparency of CSR, CSR strategies that match stakeholder values and ethics whilst prioritizing sustainability as part of their job role. Alternatively, companies can prioritize pro-environmental behaviours using choice editing by mainstreaming sustainability as the only option. In recent years, there has been extensive research on social media as a viable source of sustainability communications, with benefits including direct interactions with stakeholders, the ability to enforce the authenticity of CSR activities and encouragement of pro-environmental behaviours. Despite this, there are challenges to implementing CSR, including difficulties controlling stakeholder criticisms, negative stakeholder influences and comments left on social media platforms. Conclusion: A lack of engagement with CSR information is a reoccurring reason for preventing pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours across stakeholder groups. Traditional CSR strategies contribute to this due to their inability to engage with their intended audience. Hospitality and tourism companies are improving stakeholder relationships through collaborative processes which reduce single-use plastic consumption. A collaborative approach to communications can lead to stakeholder satisfaction, leading to changes in attitudes and behaviours. Different sources of communications are accessed by different stakeholder groups, identifying the need for targeted sustainability messaging, creating benefits such as direct interactions with stakeholders, the ability to enforce the authenticity of CSR activities, and encouraging engagement with sustainability information.

Keywords: hospitality, pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours, sustainability communication, social media

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270 Lateralisation of Visual Function in Yellow-Eyed Mullet (Aldrichetta forsteri) and Its Role in Schooling Behaviour

Authors: Karen L. Middlemiss, Denham G. Cook, Peter Jaksons, Alistair Jerrett, William Davison

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Lateralisation of cognitive function is a common phenomenon found throughout the animal kingdom. Strong biases in functional behaviours have evolved from asymmetrical brain hemispheres which differ in structure and/or cognitive function. In fish, lateralisation is involved in visually mediated behaviours such as schooling, predator avoidance, and foraging, and is considered to have a direct impact on species fitness. Currently, there is very little literature on the role of lateralisation in fish schools. The yellow-eyed mullet (Aldrichetta forsteri), is an estuarine and coastal species found commonly throughout temperate regions of Australia and New Zealand. This study sought to quantify visually mediated behaviours in yellow-eyed mullet to identify the significance of lateralisation, and the factors which influence functional behaviours in schooling fish. Our approach to study design was to conduct a series of tank based experiments investigating; a) individual and population level lateralisation, b) schooling behaviour, and d) optic lobe anatomy. Yellow-eyed mullet showed individual variation in direction and strength of lateralisation in juveniles, and trait specific spatial positioning within the school was evidenced in strongly lateralised fish. In combination with observed differences in schooling behaviour, the possibility of ontogenetic plasticity in both behavioural lateralisation and optic lobe morphology in adults is suggested. These findings highlight the need for research into the genetic and environmental factors (epigenetics) which drive functional behaviours such as schooling, feeding and aggression. Improved knowledge on collective behaviour could have significant benefits to captive rearing programmes through improved culture techniques and will add to the limited body of knowledge on the complex ecophysiological interactions present in our inshore fisheries.

Keywords: cerebral asymmetry, fisheries, schooling, visual bias

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269 Piloting a Prototype Virtual Token Economy Intervention for On-Task Support within an Inclusive Canadian Classroom

Authors: Robert L. Williamson

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A 'token economy' refers to a method of positive behaviour support whereby ‘tokens’ are delivered to students as a reward for exhibiting specific behaviours. Students later exchange tokens to ‘purchase’ items of interest. Unfortunately, implementation fidelity can be problematic as some find physical delivery of tokens while teaching difficult. This project developed and tested a prototype, iPad-based tool that enabled teachers to deliver and track tokens electronically. Using an alternating treatment design, any differences in on-task individual and/or group behaviours between the virtual versus physical token delivery systems were examined. Results indicated that while students and teachers preferred iPad-based implementation, no significant difference was found concerning on-task behaviours of students between the two methodologies. Perhaps more interesting was that the teacher found implementation of both methods problematic and suggested a second person was most effective in implementing a token economy method. This would represent a significant cost to the effective use of such a method. Further research should focus on the use of a lay volunteer regarding method implementation fidelity and associated outcomes of the method.

Keywords: positive behaviour support, inclusion, token economy, applied behaviour analysis

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268 Investigating the Efficacy of HIV/AIDS Psycho-Education and Behavioural Skills Training in Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviours in a Trucking Population in Nigeria

Authors: Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Benjamin Oladapo Olley

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Long Distance Truck Drivers (LDTDs) have been found to be a high-risk group in the spread of HIV/AIDS globally; perhaps, due to their high Sexual Risk Behaviours (SRBs). Interventions for reducing SRBs in trucking population have not been fully exploited. A quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the efficacy of psycho-education and behavioural skills training in reducing SRBs among LDTDs. Sixteen drivers rivers were randomly assigned into either experimental or control groups using balloting technique. A questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. Repeated measures t-test and independent t-test were used to test hypotheses. The intervention had a significant effect on the SRBs among LDTDs at post-test(t{7}=6.01, p<.01) and at followup (t{7}=6.42, p<.01). No significant difference in sexual risk behaviour of LDTDs at post-test and at follow-up stage. Similarly, intervention had significant effects on sexual risk behaviour at post-test (t {14}=- 4.69, p<.05) and at follow-up (t {14}= -9.56, p < .05) respectively. At post-test and follow-up stages, drivers in experimental group reported reduced SRBs than those in the control group. Drivers in an experimental group reported lower sexual risk behaviour a week after intervention as well as at three months follow-up than those in the control group. It is concluded that HIV/AIDS preventive intervention that provides the necessary informational and behavioural skills content can significantly impact long distance truck drivers sexual risk behaviours.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS interventions, long distance truck drivers, Nigeria, sexual risk behaviours

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267 Examining Geometric Thinking Behaviours of Undergraduates in Online Geometry Course

Authors: Peter Akayuure

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Geometry is considered an important strand in mathematics due to its wide-ranging utilitarian value and because it serves as a building block for understanding other aspects of undergraduate mathematics, including algebra and calculus. Matters regarding students’ geometric thinking have therefore long been pursued by mathematics researchers and educators globally via different theoretical lenses, curriculum reform efforts, and innovative instructional practices. However, so far, studies remain inconclusive about the instructional platforms that effectively promote geometric thinking. At the University of Education, Winneba, an undergraduate geometry course was designed and delivered on UEW Learning Management System (LMS) using Moodle platform. This study utilizes van Hiele’s theoretical lens to examine the entry and exit’s geometric thinking behaviours of prospective teachers who took the undergraduate geometry course in the LMS platform. The study was a descriptive survey that involved an intact class of 280 first-year students enrolled to pursue a bachelor's in mathematics education at the university. The van Hiele’s Geometric thinking test was used to assess participants’ entry and exit behaviours, while semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data for triangulation. Data were analysed descriptively and displayed in tables and charts. An Independent t-test was used to test for significant differences in geometric thinking behaviours between those who entered the university with a diploma certificate and with senior high certificate. The results show that on entry, more than 70% of the prospective teachers operated within the visualization level of van Hiele’s geometric thinking. Less than 20% reached analysis and abstraction levels, and no participant reached deduction and rigor levels. On exit, participants’ geometric thinking levels increased markedly across levels, but the difference from entry was not significant and might have occurred by chance. The geometric thinking behaviours of those enrolled with diploma certificates did not differ significant from those enrolled directly from senior high school. The study recommends that the design principles and delivery of undergraduate geometry course via LMS should be structured and tackled using van Hiele’s geometric thinking levels to serve as means of bridging the existing learning gaps of undergraduate students.

Keywords: geometric thinking, van Hiele’s, UEW learning management system, undergraduate geometry

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266 Sexual Behaviours among Iranian Men and Women Aged 15 to 49 Years in Metropolitan Tehran, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Mahnaz Motamedi, Mohammad Shahbazi, Shahrzad Rahimi-Naghani, Mehrdad Salehi

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Introduction and Aim: This study assessed sexual behaviours among men and women aged 15 to 49 years in Tehran. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 755 men and women aged 15 to 49 years who were residents of Tehran. To select the participants, a multistage, cluster, random sampling method was used and included different regions of Tehran. The data were collected using the WHO-endorsed Questionnaire of Sexual and Reproductive Health. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviours was a scale variable that was constructed from items of six sections: sexual experiences, characteristics of the first sexual partner, characteristics of the first intercourse, next sexual contact and the consequences of the first sexual contact, homosexual experiences and the causes of sexual abstinence. Results: The mean age at the time of sexual intercourse with penetration (vaginal, anal) was 19.88 in men and 21.82 in women. Multivariate analysis using linear regression showed that by controlling for other variables, gender had a significant relationship with having sexual experience, mean age of first sexual intercourse, and being multi-partner. Thus, women with sexual experience were 0.158 units less than men. The mean age of first intercourse in women was 1.57 units higher than men and being a multi-partner in women was 0.247 less than men (P < 0.001). Sexual experience in very religious and relatively religious individuals was 0.332 and 0.218 units less than those for whom religion did not matter (P < 0.001). 25.6% of men and 40.7% of women who did not have sexual experience at the time of the study stated that their reason for abstinence was their unwillingness to have sex (P < 0.05). 35.9% of men and 16.5% of women stated that the reason for abstinence was not providing a suitable opportunity (P < 0.001). 4.7% of men and 1.7% of women had sexual attraction to the same sex. The difference between men and women was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Sexual relation is also present in singles and younger groups and is not limited to married or final marriage candidates. Therefore, more evaluation should be done in national research and interventions for sexual and reproductive health services should be done at the macro level of policy making.

Keywords: sexual behaviours, Iranian men and women, Iran, cross-sectional study

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