Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2586

Search results for: medical pluralism

2586 Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda and M. K. Gandhi in the Context of Religious Pluralism

Authors: Satarupa Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Inter-religious dialogue and understanding are possible without losing one’s own identity. We find a unique blend of tradition, reason and human values in contemporary Indian thought. On this point, we may take note of the similarity between views of M. K. Gandhi and the religious discourse of Swami Vivekananda, i.e., all religions as different paths to God realisation but their unity lies in their goal, which is attainment of God, who is One. This enrichment guided us towards a kind of religious pluralism of John Hicks, who gives a solution to the problems of co-existence of diverse religions without undermining any religion. The plurality percolates into different spheres of Indian society and regarded as a chord with discord in a wonderful music. Swami Vivekananda believes that to serve man is to serve God. Both M. K. Gandhi and Swami Vivekananda were non-dualist and believed in the essential unity of man. Gandhi believes in the many foldedness of reality. Swami Vivekananda’s attitude towards religion is in principles of co-existence and acceptance. These principles have been accumulated in such a way that gave us a different world-view. The concept of unity, tolerance, equality, etc. can be achieved only by a spiritual attitude. Dynamism of spirituality stands in between man’s empirical existence and his spiritual destination and manifests itself in the different aspects of life including religious understanding. It is a movement towards pluralism. It is the fusion of spirituality with plurality which characterizes the concept of religious pluralism. This re-visited religious pluralism will open a new horizon of love and tolerance in our society. M. K. Gandhi and Swami Vivekananda paved the path for new horizon for a resurgent world. So the Indian spiritualism re-vitalised the concept of pluralism and stimulated its progress towards a new world.

Keywords: M. K. Gandhi, religious pluralism, Swami Vivekananda, worldview

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2585 Queering Alterity: Engaging Pluralism to Move Beyond Gender Binaries in the Classroom

Authors: A. K. O'Loughlin

Abstract:

In Simone de Beauvoir’s climatic 1959 meditation, The Second Sex, she avows that 'On ne naît pas femme; on le devient,' translated most recently in the unabridged text (2010) as 'One is not born, but rather becomes, woman.' The signifier ‘woman’ in this context, signifies Beauvoir’s contemplation of the institution, the concept of woman(ness) defined in relation to the binary and hegemonic man(ness.) She is 'the other.' This paper is a theoretical contemplation of (1) how we actively teach 'othering' in the institution of schooling and (2) new considerations of pluralism for self-reflection and subversion that teachers, in particular, are faced with. How, in schooling, do we learn one’s options for racialized, classed and sexualized gender identification and the hierarchical signification that define these signifiers? Just like the myth of apolitical schooling, we cannot escape teaching social organization in the classroom. Yet, we do have a choice. How do we as educators learn about our own embodied intersectionalities? How do we unlearn our own binaries? How do we teach about intersectional gender? How do we teach 'the other'? We posit the processes of these reflections by educators may move our classrooms beyond binaries, engage pluralism and queer alterity itself.

Keywords: othering, alterity, education, schooling, identity, racialization, gender, intersectionality, pluralism

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2584 Re-Reading the Impossibility of Identity: Modeling Gender Pluralism in Curriculum and Instruction

Authors: A. K. O’Loughlin

Abstract:

Identity doesn’t exist in discrete categories as it is defined. Kevin Kumashiro reveals the phrase 'an impossibility of identity' in Troubling Education (2000), an investigation of the intersections of culture and gender and the impact of erasure for queer POC identity. This underscores the essentiality of an insider or an outsider identity and the appearance of 'contradiction' or impossibility of these identities. The contradictions between us as subject in our own stories and in the stories of others are often silenced. This silencing of complex, 'contradicting' identity has unmissable implications in the classroom; the developing student in question is done a serious disservice, from which they may never recover. There is no more important point of contact than the teacher, for willingness to encounter a developing person as they are, not as we already think they are, or 'know' them to be, or think they should be. To decide how to regard them based on our own unilateral identity and its associated exhortations and injunctions is, as Hannah Arendt writes in The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), to sell off our ability to rise, human-like, to the challenge of investigating things as they are. A re-reading of Kumashiro’s impossibility of identity becomes possible through the investigation of pluralism. Identities become possible and un-paradoxical by the notion that contradictions are not problems that an individual is not unilateral, but plural. In this paper, we investigate how philosophies of pluralism can inform our understanding of impossibility of identity in classroom curriculum and pedagogy.

Keywords: identity, gender, culture, pluralism, education, philosophy of education, queer theory, philosophy of mind, adolescent development

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2583 Legal Arrangement on Media Ownership and the Case of Turkey

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

In this study, we will touch upon the legal arrangements issued in Turkey for prevention of condensation and for ensuring pluralism in the media. We will mention the legal arrangements concerning the regulatory and supervisory authority, namely the Radio and Television Supreme Council, for the visual and auditory media. In this context; the legal arrangements, which have been introduced by the Law No 6112 on the Establishment of Radio and Television Enterprises and Their Media Services in relation to the media ownership, will be reviewed through comparison with the Article 29 of the repealed Law No 3984.

Keywords: media ownership, legal arrangements, the case for Turkey, pluralism

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2582 Legal Pluralism and Ideology: The Recognition of the Indigenous Justice Administration in Bolivia through the "Indigenismo" and "Decolonisation" Discourses

Authors: Adriana Pereira Arteaga

Abstract:

In many Latin American countries the transition towards legal pluralism - has developed as part of what is called Latin-American-Constitutionalism over the last thirty years. The aim of this paper is to discuss how legal pluralism in its current form in Bolivia may produce exclusion and violence. Legal sources and discourse analysis - as an approach to examine written language on discourse documentation- will be used to develop this paper. With the constitution of 2009, Bolivia was symbolically "re-founded" into a multi-nation state. This shift goes hand in hand with the "indigenista" and "decolonisation" ideologies developing since the early 20th century. Discourses based on these ideologies reflect the rejection of liberal and western premises on which the Bolivian republic was originally built after independence. According to the "indigenista" movements, the liberal nation-state generates institutions corresponding to a homogenous society. These liberal institutions not only ignore the Bolivian multi-nation reality, but also maintain the social structures originating form the colony times, based on prejudices against the indigenous. The described statements were elaborated through the image: the indigenous people humiliated by a cruel western system as highlighted by the constitution's preamble. This narrative had a considerable impact on the sensitivity of people and received great social support. Therefore the proposal for changing structures of the nation-state, is charged with an emancipatory message of restoring even the pre-Columbian order. An order at times romantically described as the perfect order. Legally this connotes a rejection of the positivistic national legal system based on individual rights and the promotion of constitutional recognition of indigenous justice administration. The pluralistic Constitution is supposed to promote tolerance and a peaceful coexistence among nations, so that the unity and integrity of the country could be maintained. In its current form, legal pluralism in Bolivia is justified on pre-existing rights contained for example in the International - Labour - Organization - Convention 169, but it is more developed on the described discursive constructions. Over time these discursive constructions created inconsistencies in terms of putting indigenous justice administration into practice: First, because legal pluralism has been more developed on level of political discourse, so a real interaction between the national and the indigenous jurisdiction cannot be observed. There are no clear coordination and cooperation mechanisms. Second, since the recently reformed constitution is based on deep sensitive experiences, little is said about the general legal principles on which a pluralistic administration of justice in Bolivia should be based. Third, basic rights, liberties, and constitutional guarantees are also affected by the antagonized image of the national justice administration. As a result, fundamental rights could be violated on a large scale because many indigenous justice administration practices run counter to these constitutional rules. These problems are not merely Bolivian but may also be encountered in other regional countries with similar backgrounds, like Ecuador.

Keywords: discourse, indigenous justice, legal pluralism, multi-nation

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2581 Hate Speech in Selected Nigerian Newspapers

Authors: Laurel Chikwado Madumere, Kevin O. Ugorji

Abstract:

A speech is said to be full of hate when it appropriates disparaging and vituperative locutions and/or appellations, which are riddled with prejudices and misconceptions about an antagonizing party on the grounds of gender, race, political orientation, religious affiliations, tribe, etc. Due largely to the dichotomies and polarities that exist in Nigeria across political ideological spectrum, tribal affiliations, and gender contradistinctions, there are possibilities for the existence of socioeconomic, religious and political conditions that would induce, provoke and catalyze hate speeches in Nigeria’s mainstream media. Therefore the aim of this paper is to investigate, using select daily newspapers in Nigeria, the extent and complexity of those likely hate speeches that emanate from the pluralism in Nigeria and to set in to relief, the discrepancies and contrariety in the interpretation of those hate words. To achieve the above, the paper shall be qualitative in orientation as it shall be using the Speech Act Theory of J. L. Austin and J. R. Searle to interpret and evaluate the hate speeches in the select Nigerian daily newspapers. Also this paper shall help to elucidate the conditions that generate hate, and inform the government and NGOs how best to approach those conditions and put an end to the possible violence and extremism that emanate from extreme cases of hate.

Keywords: extremism, gender, hate speech, pluralism, prejudice, speech act theory

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2580 Legal Pluralism and Efficiency in International Marriage Law: Implications of Regulatory Competition on an Analysis of Conflict of Law Rules

Authors: Rorick Daniel Tovar Galvan

Abstract:

The existence of different legal systems represents an important barrier for married couples that attempt to reside in another country. Each movement can cause important changes in the rights and obligations derived from the marriage since a different law could be used by the courts to solve legal disputes arising from their relationship. In a context in which it is increasingly common to move from one country to another, people cannot be certain about the outcomes of proceedings dealing with i.e., the dissolution of property regime, maintenance payments or time to wait to initiate divorce because a foreign – and in most cases unknown – law could apply every time they move. At first glance, the answer to this issue seems to be the harmonization of the legal systems: the greater the mobility of individuals inside a group of countries, the higher the similarities of their laws should be. Such a solution could be positive for spouses because a higher degree of legal certainty would be reached in case the same legal rules applied regardless of the place where the couple lives. However, the legal pluralism brings with it also advantages that could be appreciated when one looks closely at the economic rationale behind the legal institution of marriage. This contribution carries out an economic analysis of the existence of different legal systems in the area of marriage law and proposes another strategy to cope with the problems arising from legal pluralism. Far from eliminating the diversity of legal systems, one wishes to foster it, since significant advantages could arise from such diversity in case couples are permitted to choose the applicable law themselves. Based on the idea that the law could be seem as a product offered in the market as well as states and spouses as suppliers and consumers of this product, the paper shows the advantages of designing a legal framework that allows spouses to determine freely the law governing the legal effects of their marriage. Instead of promoting the harmonization of the substantive law, one explores the benefits of encouraging the regulatory competition at international level in the area of marriage law.

Keywords: conflict of laws, harmonization, international marriage law, law and economics, regulatory competition

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2579 Exploring the Prevailing Unfairness in Muslim Marriage and Divorce Laws in Singapore's Dual Court System

Authors: J. Jayaletchmi

Abstract:

In seeking to manage a multiracial and multi-religious society, Singapore provides a unique solution – a dual court system whereby a common law system co-exists with a Syariah law system that administers Syariah law for the Muslim population. In this respect, Singapore seems to provide a feasible example of legal pluralism to countries grappling with a burgeoning Muslim population. However, problems have arisen regarding this peaceful coexistence of secular and religious laws that seek to balance the rights of women and religious freedom. Singapore’s interpretation of Syariah law in the context of marriage and divorce has resulted in certain inequalities for Muslim women, which are exemplified in light of the Women’s Charter, a landmark piece of legislation which provides the legal basis for equity between husband and wife, but excludes Muslims from its ambit. The success of Singapore’s dual court system has largely been at the expense of Muslim women’s rights, and, as a result, the Muslim community as a whole has begun trailing behind the progressive society it forms a part of. This paper explores the prevailing unfairness of rules governing Muslim marriage and divorce in Singapore, and puts forth bold reforms.

Keywords: legal pluralism, Singapore, Syariah law, women’s rights

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2578 Local Ordinances with Sharia Nuances in Pluralism Society of Indonesia: Convergence or Divergence

Authors: Farida Prihatini

Abstract:

As a largest Muslim country in the world with around 215 Muslim inhabitants, Indonesia interestingly is not an Islamic country. Yet, Indonesia is not a secular country as well. The country has committed to be a unity in diversity country where people from various socio-political background may be coexistent live in this archipelago country. However, many provinces and Muslim groups are disposed of special regulation for Muslim people, namely local ordinances with sharia nuances, applied specifically in provinces, cities or regions where Muslim inhabitants are the majority. For the last two decades, particularly since Indonesia reform movement of 1998, a lot of local ordinances (Peraturan Daerah) with Sharia nuance have been enacted and applied in several provinces, cities and regions in Indonesia. The local ordinances are mostly deal with restriction of alcohol, prohibition of prostitution, Al Qur'an literacy, obligation to wear Muslim attire and zakat or alms management. Some of local ordinances have been warmly welcomed by society, while other ordinances have created tension. Those who oppose the ordinances believe that such things regulated by the ordinances are in violation of human rights and democracy, part of privacy rights of the people and must not be regulated by the State or local government. This paper describes the dynamic of local Ordinances with sharia nuances in Indonesia, in this research is limited to three ordinances: on the restriction of alcohol, prohibition of prostitution and obligation to wear Muslim attire. The researcher employs a normative method by studying secondary data and local ordinances in selected areas in Indonesia. The findings of the paper are that local ordinances with sharia nuances are indeed part of the needs of society, yet, in their implementation must take the pluralism of Indonesia and the state basic foundation, which is Pancasila (five pillars) into account.

Keywords: local, ordinances, sharia, rights

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2577 Legal Pluralism and Land Administration in West Sumatra: The Implementation of the Regulations of Both Local and Nagari Governments on Communal Land Tenure

Authors: Hilaire Tegnan

Abstract:

Land administration has always been a delicate issue in the history of nations, and Indonesia, a country where a significant number of the population lives a pastoral life is not exempt from this reality. This paper discusses land tenure issues in West Sumatra, an Indonesian province which is home to the Minangkabau people with their long existing village management system known as Nagari, established to settle disputes based on adat (custom) principles as well as to protect the rights of the community members. These rights include communal land (referred to as tanahulayat hereafter). Long before the Dutch occupation of Indonesian archipelago, the nagari government was vested with powers to regulate communal land in West Sumatra. However, this authority was constantly overlooked by the then Dutch colonial administration as well as the post-independence governments (both central and regional). To reinforce the Nagari government as the guardian of the customary law (hukumadat) and to specify its jurisdiction, the Regional Government of West Sumatra enacted two laws between 2000 and 2008: Law No. 9/2000 repealed by Law No. 2/2007 and Law No. 6/2008 on communal land tenure. Although these two laws provide legal grounds to address land issues across the region, land conflicts still prevail among West Sumatran populations due to unsynchronized and contradictory regulations. The protests against the army (Korem) in Nagari Kapalo Hilalang, against the oil palm company in Nagari Kinali, and against a cement factory in Nagari Lubuk Kilangan are cited in this paper as case references.

Keywords: local government, Nagari government, Tanah Ulayat, legal pluralism, land administration

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2576 Power, Pluralism, and History: Norms in International Societies

Authors: Nicole Cervenka

Abstract:

On the question of norms in international politics, scholars are divided over whether norms are a tool for power politics or a genuine reflection of an emergent international society. The line is drawn between rationalism and idealism, but this dialectical relationship needs to be broken down if we hope to come to a comprehensive understanding of how norms play out in international society. The concept of an elusive international society is a simplification of a more pluralistic, cosmopolitan, and diverse collection of international societies. The English School effectively overcomes realist-idealist dichotomies and provides a pluralistic, comprehensive explanation and description of international societies through its application to two distinct areas: human rights as well as security and war. We argue that international norms have always been present in human rights, war, and international security, forming international societies that can be complimentary or oppositional, beneficial or problematic. Power politics are present, but they can only be regarded as partially explanatory of the role of norms in international politics, which must also include history, international law, the media, NGOs, and others to fully represent the normative influences in international societies. A side-by-side comparison of international norms of war/security and human rights show how much international societies converge. World War II was a turning point in terms of international law, these forces of international society have deeper historical roots. Norms of human rights and war/security are often norms of restraint, guiding appropriate treatment of individuals. This can at times give primacy to the individual over the sovereign state. However, state power politics and hegemony are still intact. It cannot be said that there is an emergent international society—international societies are part of broader historical backdrops. Furthermore, states and, more generally, power politics, are important components in international societies, but international norms are far from mere tools of power politics. They define a more diverse, complicated, and ever-present conception of international societies.

Keywords: English school, international societies, norms, pluralism

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2575 The Major Challenge of the Health System Health Management Services in Kosovo and Impact on Satisfaction

Authors: Nevruz Zogu, Shpetim Rezniqi

Abstract:

In the framework of transformational economic development social pluralism and the free, market health systems operating in the countries of our region are naturally involved in a process of profound change and reform. Health systems actually represent complex ensembles centers and public and private institutions (domestic and foreign), who administer substantial amounts of human, technological, material, financial, information and scientific facts • The goal of health systems is much more than medical care. It includes the promotion, protection, treatment and rehabilitation of health of the population. • Meeting the needs of increasingly diverse broader health services efficient, secure the quality and affordability of their increasing cost of unstoppable, requires the necessary reform of health systems and implementing policies and new management methods, to ensure effectiveness and health benefits as higher population.

Keywords: health, management, economy, finance

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2574 Role of Civil Society Institutions in Promoting Peace and Pluralism in the Rural, Mountainous Region of Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal

Abstract:

Introduction: Pakistan is a country with an ever-increasing population of largely diverse ethnic, cultural, religious and sectarian divisions. Whereas diversity is seen as a strength in many societies, in Pakistan, it has become a source of conflict and more a weakness than a strength due to lack of understanding and divisions based on ethnic, cultural, political, religious, and sectarian branding. However, amid conflicts and militancy across the country, the rural, mountainous communities in the Northern Areas of Pakistan enjoy not only peace and harmony but also a continuous process of social and economic transformation supported by strong civil society institutions. These community-based institutions have organized the rural, mountainous people of diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds into village organizations, women organizations, and Local Support Organizations engaged in self-help development and peace building in the region. The Study and its Methodology: A qualitative study was conducted in one district of the Northern Pakistan to explore the contributions of the civil society institutions (CSIs) and community-based organizations to uplifting the educational and socio-economic conditions of the people with an ultimate aim of developing a thriving, peaceful and pluralistic society in this mountainous region. The study employed an eclectic set of tools, including interviews, focused group discussions, observations of CSIs’ interventions, and analysis of documents, to generate rich data on the overall role and contributions of CSIs in promoting peace and pluralism in the region. Significance of the Study: Common experiences and empirical studies reveal that such interventions by CSIs have not only contributed to the socio-economic, educational, health and cultural development of these regions but these interventions have really transformed the rural, mountainous people into organized and forward looking communities. However, how such interventions have contributed to promoting pluralism and appreciation for diversity in these regions had been an unexplored but significant area. Therefore this qualitative research study funded by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan was carried out by the Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development to explore the role and contributions of CSIs in promoting peace and pluralism and appreciations for diversity in one district of Northern Pakistan which is home to people of different ethnic, religious, cultural and social backgrounds. Findings and Conclusions: The study has a comprehensive list of findings and conclusions covering various aspects of CSIs and their contributions to the transformation and peaceful co-existence of rural communities in the regions. However, this paper discusses only four major contributions of CSIs, namely enhancing economic capacity, community mobilization and organization, increasing access and quality of education, and building partnerships. It also discusses the factors influencing the role of CSIs, the issues, implications, and recommendations for CSIs, policy makers, donors and development agencies, and researchers. The paper concludes that by strengthening strong networks of CSIs and community based organizations, Pakistan will not only uplift its socio-economic attainments but it will also be able to address the critical challenges of terrorism, sectarianism, and other divisions and conflicts in its various regions.

Keywords: civil society, Pakistan, peace, rural

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2573 Promises versus Realities: A Critical Assessment of the Integrated Design Process

Authors: Firdous Nizar, Carmela Cucuzzella

Abstract:

This paper explores how the integrated design process (IDP) was adopted for an architectural project. The IDP is a relatively new approach to collaborative design in architectural design projects in Canada. It has gained much traction recently as the closest possible approach to the successful management of low energy building projects and has been advocated as a productive method for multi-disciplinary collaboration within complex projects. This study is based on the premise that there are explicit and implicit dimensions of power within the integrated design process (IDP) in the green building industry that may or may not lead to irreconcilable differences in a process that demands consensus. To gain insight on the potential gap between the theoretical promises and practical realities of the IDP, a review of existing IDP literature is compared with a case study analysis of a competition-based architectural project in Canada, a first to incorporate the IDP in its overall design format. This paper aims to address the undertheorized power relations of the IDP in a real project. It presents a critical assessment through the lens of the combined theories of deliberative democracy by Jürgen Habermas, with that of agonistic pluralism by political theorist Chantal Mouffe. These two theories are intended to more appropriately embrace the conflictual situations in collaborative environments, and shed light on the relationships of power, between engineers, city officials, architects, and designers in this conventional consensus-based model. In addition, propositions for a shift in approach that embraces conflictual differences among its participants are put forth based on concepts of critical spatial practice by Markus Meissen. As IDP is a relatively new design process, it requires much deliberation on its structure from the theoretical framework built in this paper in order to unlock its true potential.

Keywords: agonistic pluralism, critical spatial practice, deliberative democracy, integrated design process

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2572 Neoliberalism and Otherness: Convergences or Divergences?

Authors: Juliana Pereira Tigre

Abstract:

In the current critical debate on the process of globalization, on the one hand, arises the accusation that neoliberalism standardizes the so-called American way of life on the cultures of the world, operating as a system of subtle domination, expropriating and incorporating the other. On the other hand, it is defended that neoliberalism begins its career of political and economic order as a sensitive conception to the otherness, imposing itself at present due to its peaceful management of pluralism and defense of individual freedom. In this sense, this paper aims to discuss the extent to which the neoliberalism and the otherness converge or diverge in contemporaneity and the guiding principles of globalization.

Keywords: otherness, globalization, neoliberalism, social sciences

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2571 The Roles of Non-Codified Traditional Medicine in a Suburban Village in Kerala, India

Authors: Sachi Matsuoka

Abstract:

This study aimed at implicating a current community health in South India focusing on a Vaidya, a non-codified traditional doctor, based on long-term field works. As the prevalence of colonic diseases is increasing in all over the world, it is needed to know the potential of non-codified medicines and how they can effectively take in a part in community health. Describing the people’s treatment seeking behaviours in a suburban village which is susceptible to modernization can give us a new insight for studying Indian medicines, that is included not only non-codified but also codified traditional ones, affected by global, national and local communities. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered via participatory fieldworks and open-ended interviews to a Vaidya and his 97 patients and 31 individuals who lived in a community near the Vaidya’s station. It was found that the community members seldom consulted the Vaidya while a number of patients outside the village (mainly from urban nearby area) daily visited the Vaidya. Thus, the role of the Vaidya as the community’ s primary health care provider had nearly disappeared. Nonetheless, the Vaidya was deeply respected as one of the community’ s leaders by its members because of the spiritual and financial support he provided to them. The reasons for choosing the Vaidya for the patients from urban area are characterized by several social factors of the patients such as their religious belief, seriousness, occupation and medical history. Meanwhile, not only the Vaidya but also other codified traditional medicines, e.g., Ayurveda, were less popular among the community members. It sounds paradoxical given that the traditional Indian medical system has been becoming popular as an alternative medicine in societies outside of India, such as in Europe. The community members who are less educated and engaged in religious activities in daily life preferred to allopathy, the biomedicine in Indian context. It is thus concluded that roles of non-codified medicine has changed depending on its cultural and social contexts, even though its medical system is not authorized by the government. Nowadays, traditional medical effectiveness is recognized as evidenced by scientific survey and the codified medical doctors treats diseases rather than people. However, this study implicated that people’s treatment seeking behaviors are likely based on the social context in which people live their lives even though evidenced based codified medicine is provided in their community.

Keywords: medical pluralism, non-codified medicine, south india, treatment-seeking behaviours

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2570 Vietnamese Indigenous Healing’s Implication for Vietnamese Women Counseling in Korea

Authors: Youngsub Oh, Youngsoon Kim

Abstract:

As the second largest group among international marriages in Korea, Vietnamese married immigrant women have been exposed to psychological crisis like divorce and family violence. The purpose of this study is to understand how to counsel those women from the perspective of indigenous healing as their own psychological problem-solving way. To this end, this study reviewed Vietnamese cultural literatures on their mentality as well as Vietnamese medical literatures on indigenous healing. The research results are as follows: First, cultural foundations that have formed Vietnamese mentality are Confucian value system, reserved communication, and religious pluralism. These cultural backgrounds play an important role in understanding their own therapeutic tradition. Second, Vietnamese indigenous healing considers cause of mental disease as a collapse of balance between mind and body and environment. Thus, indigenous treatment deals with psychological problems through a recovery of the balance from the holistic perspective. In fact, indigenous healing has been actively practiced in everyday place as well as hospital until today. The implications of Vietnamese indigenous healing for multicultural counseling in Korea are as follows: First, Korean counselors need to interactively understand their own assumptions on indigenous healing as well as counselees’ own assumptions. Second, a variety of psychological intervention strategies can be drawn from Vietnamese indigenous healing. Third, indigenous healing needs to be integrated with modern techniques of counseling and psychotherapy, as both treatments are not mutually exclusive but complementary.

Keywords: indigenous healing, Korea, multicultural counseling, Vietnamese married immigrant women

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2569 Order vs. Justice: The Cases of Libya and Syria from the Perspective of the English School Theory

Authors: A. Gün Güneş

Abstract:

This study aims to explicate the functionality of the responsibility to protect (R2P) in terms of order and justice within the context of the main traditions of the English School theory. The conflicts in Libya and Syria and the response of the international society to these crises are analyzed in the pluralism-solidarism dichotomy of the English School. In this regard, the intervention under R2P in Libya exemplifies the solidaristic side emphasizing justice, while the non-intervention in Syria exemplifies the pluralistic side emphasizing order. This study discusses the cases of Libya and Syria on the basis of Great Powers.

Keywords: English school theory, international society, order, justice, responsibility to protect

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2568 Research on the Performance Management of Social Organizations Participating in Home-Based Care

Authors: Qiuhu Shao

Abstract:

Community home-based care service system, which is based on the family pension, supported by community pension and supplied by institutions pension, is an effective pension system to solve the current situation of China's accelerated aging. However, due to the fundamental realities of our country, the government is not able to bear the unilateral supply of the old-age service of the community. Therefore, based on the theory of welfare pluralism, the participation of social organizations in the home-based care service center has become an important part of the diversified supply of the old-age service for the elderly. Meanwhile, the home-based care service industry is still in the early stage, the management is relatively rough, which resulted in a large number of social resources waste. Thus, scientific, objective and long-term implementation is needed for social organizations to participate in home-based care services to guide its performance management. In order to realize the design of the performance management system, the author has done a research work that clarifies the research status of social organization's participation in home-based care service. Relevant theories such as welfare pluralism, community care theory, and performance management theory have been used to demonstrate the feasibility of data envelopment analysis method in social organization performance research. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the operation mode of the home-based care service center, and hackles the national as well as local documents, standards and norms related to the development of the home-based care industry, particularly studies those documents in Nanjing. Based on this, the paper designed a set of performance management PDCA system for home-based care service center in Nanjing and clarified each step of the system in detail. Subsequently, the research methods of performance evaluation and performance management and feedback, which are two core steps of performance management have been compared and screened in order to establish the overall framework of the performance management system of the home-based care service center. Through a large number of research, the paper summarized and analyzed the characteristics of the home-based care service center. Based on the research results, combined with the practice of the industry development in Nanjing, the paper puts forward a targeted performance evaluation index system of home-based care service center in Nanjing. Finally, the paper evaluated and sub-filed the performance of 186 home-based care service centers in Nanjing and then designed the performance optimization direction and performance improvement path based on the results. This study constructs the index system of performance evaluation of home-based care service and makes the index detailed to the implementation level, and constructs the evaluation index system which can be applied directly. Meanwhile, the quantitative evaluation of social organizations participating in the home-based care service changed the subjective impression in the previous practice of evaluation.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, home-based care, performance management, social organization

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2567 Countering Terrorism through Social Media: Case Study in Indonesia

Authors: Mauly Budiyanti, Aisyah M. Anggiana

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Terrorism is a threat to national security since the war on terror era after the tragedy of 9/11. The shifting of national threat from military to non-military centric leads us to recognize that military action is not the only way to face and solve terrorism. Alongside the use of military action to counter terrorism, Indonesia has another way to counter it by using the role of social media. The role of social media on spreading positivity to counter terrorism has the power to show that people now are fearless toward terrorist attack because their goal is to make sure that people are threatened enough by the way they act. This is showing the emergence of the non-state actor has a big impact on national security, as well as pluralism, said about the involving of non-state actor on international events. In this paper, we will examine the role of social media in countering terrorism based on study case in Indonesia.

Keywords: Indonesia, national security, social media, terrorism.

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2566 Examining College Students’ Attitudes toward Diversity Environments in a Physical Activity Course

Authors: Young Ik Suh, Sanghak Lee, Tae Wook Chung

Abstract:

In recent year, cultural diversity has acquired increasing attentions in our society due to the cultural pluralism and globalization. With the emphasis of diversity in our society, higher education has played a significant role in preparing people to be successful in a diverse world. A number of colleges and universities provide various diversity-related courses that enhance students to recognize the importance of diversity and multiculturalism. However, little research has been conducted with diversity environments in physical activity and sports-related courses to appreciate students’ attitudes toward multiculturalism. Physical activity courses can be regarded as an essential and complementary part of general education. As well, playing and watching certain sports plays a critical role to foster mutual understanding between different races and to help social integration for minority communities. Therefore, it is expected that the appropriate diverse environments in physical activity courses may have a positive impact to the understandings of different cultures and races. The primary purpose of this study is to examine attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity course among undergraduate students. In building on the scholarly foundation in this area, this study applies the established survey scale (e.g., Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment [PADAA]) developed by Stanley (1996) and previous literature related to cultural diversity. The PADAA includes 19 questions. The following two research hypotheses were proposed. H1: Students who take a diversity-related physical course (i.e., Taekwondo) will provide positive attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. H2: Students who take a general physical activity course (i.e., Weight Training) will provide no significant attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. To test the research hypotheses, subjects will be selected from the both Taekwondo and Weight Training class at University of West Georgia. In the Taekwondo class, students will learn the history, meaning, basic terminology, and physical skills, which is a Korean martial art and the national sport of Korea. In the Weight Training class, students will not be exposed to any cultural diversity topics. Regarding data analysis, Doubly Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (Doubly MANCOVA), 2 (time period: pre and after) X 2 (diversity-related content exposure: Taekwondo and Weight Training), will be conducted on attitudes toward the cultural diversity with control variables such as gender and age. The findings of this study will add to the body of literature in cultural diversity because this will be the first known attempt to explain the college students’ attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity courses. The expected results will state that the physical activity course focusing on diversity issues will have a positive impact on college students’ attitude toward cultural diversity. This finding will indicate that Universities need to create diverse programs (e.g., study abroad, exchange program, second language courses) and environments so that students can have positive interactions with other groups of races and different cultures. It is also expected that the positive perceptions and attitudes toward cultural diversity will break down cultural barriers and make students be ready for meeting several challenges in a multicultural and global society.

Keywords: cultural diversity, physical activity course, attitude, Taekwondo

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2565 Medical Images Enhancement Using New Dynamic Band Pass Filter

Authors: Abdellatif Baba

Abstract:

In order to facilitate medical images analysis by improving their quality and readability, we present in this paper a new dynamic band pass filter as a general and suitable operator for different types of medical images. Our objective is to enrich the details of any treated medical image to make it sufficiently clear enough to give an understood and simplified meaning even for unspecialized people in the medical domain.

Keywords: medical image enhancement, dynamic band pass filter, analysis improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
2564 Investigating Cultural Identities in Contemporary Greek Art: the Case of Greek Artists in Paris in 1980s

Authors: Sapfo Mortaki

Abstract:

Over the years, Greeks were leaving their homeland looking for better luck, including artists - painters and sculptors. Until mid-1940's, few were the ones who lived, worked, studied and were distinguished abroad. After the end of the Second World War, the group exit towards the cultural centers of the West commences. Since the mid-1970s, and especially in the early 1980s, Modern Greek Diaspora has undergone a new period. The creation of the European Community affects both the character of the immigration of artists as well as the creation of their identity within cultural pluralism. Since 1980 the situation in Greece changed significantly, and the contacts of artists with their homeland became greatly enhanced. Based on the above, this paper examines the cultural identity of the Greek artists in Paris during the 1980s, in comparison to the creation of the identity of the artists of the previous migratory movements, since this decade constitutes a critical point. Their cultural presence in Paris, as reflected in French and Greek daily press and journals of the period, is also investigated. At the same time, their connection with Greece and their contribution to the development and evolution of Contemporary Greek Art is discussed.

Keywords: artistic migration in Paris, cultural identity, cultural interaction, greek artists, greek contemporary art

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2563 Fostering Multiculturalism on University Campuses: A Global Perspective

Authors: Ashok Chaskar

Abstract:

The present paper aims at fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses as each university campus now a day is crowded with variety of students representing different countries and cultures. The students of different countries and communities have to respect cultural diversity and promote the idea of inclusion. Multiculturalism has defining promotional values and functions, which establish cultural contacts, exchanges cultural ideologies and promotes the value of harmonious coexistence of many cultures. Living together on university campuses is a life-long experience to the students coming from various backgrounds, therefore multiculturalism can teach them the value of appreciation of interdependence, understanding cultural differences, spirit of respect, mutual understanding, peaceful coexistence, spirit of solidarity and help them in managing conflicts. By fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses, the students can learn new things; they can share their new experiences and contribute innovative ideas with each other. However, religious and ethnic diversity enrich the educational experiences of the students of various backgrounds.

Keywords: culture, cultural pluralism, cultural diversity, ethnic diversity, ethnic groups, egalitarianism, autonomy, socio-cultural harmony, tolerance, harmonious coexistence

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
2562 Interpretation of Medical Negligence under Consumer Laws

Authors: Ashfaq M. Naikwadi

Abstract:

Decided cases of medical negligence, mostly are not settled in the lower courts. Majority of them reach up to the apex courts. This is mostly due to different interpretations of the term medical negligence. After studying various cases of medical negligence it is found that in most of the cases the doctors/hospitals are not held liable. There are different interpretations of law concerning medical services. Globally the principles deciding medical negligence are same, viz. Legal duty of care - breach of that duty - direct causation resulting in damages. Since ordinary negligence is not punishable by law, doctors/hospitals have defenses to save themselves from liability. Complaints of negligence come to the courts whose judges mostly are not oriented with medical services or health sciences. Matters of medical negligence are decided on the basic principles of reasonableness and prudence or by relying on the expert’s opinion. Deciding reasonableness or prudence is a complex issue in case of medical services. Again expert opinion is also questionable as an expert in case of medical negligence is appointed from the same field and same faculty. There is a chance of favoritism to the doctor/hospital. The concept of vicarious liability is not widely applied to in many of the medical negligence cases. Established cases used as precedents were studied to understand the basic principles in deciding medical negligence. This paper evaluates the present criteria in interpreting medical negligence and concludes with suggesting reforms required to be made in deciding matters of medical negligence under the consumer laws.

Keywords: consumer, doctors, laws, medical negligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2561 Implementation of Maqasid Syari'ah in the Concept of Reforming the Indonesian Marriage Law Based on Gender Equality: Study of the Counter Legal Draft Compilation of Islamic Law

Authors: Nirmalasanti Pramesi

Abstract:

In 2004 the CLD KHI Team offered several new ideas in the field of Islamic family law, such as marriage, inheritance (waris), and waqf. The new idea is based on six main principles; pluralism, nationality, human rights, democracy, maslahah, and gender equality. However, the existence of this has actually caused various criticisms, appreciations, and controversies. For this reason, CLD-KHI, as the idea of reforming family law, especially in the field of marriage, really needs to be studied academically with a comprehensive method as an unfinished problem. The main issues examined in this study are what are the ideas for reforming the law of marriage that have been formulated by the CLD KHI team, as well as how to implement Maqasid Sharia in legal reform. The methodology used in this research is a qualitative method with a normative-empirical-sociological approach. The results of this research show every substance of the idea considers aspects of locality, nationality, and global ethics. The Maqasid approach used in most of the legal provisions is moderate (wasati). Meanwhile, in matters of wali niqah and inheritance, it is adjusted to the context of Indonesian society.

Keywords: Maqasid syari'ah, CLD KHI, marriage law reform, moderate

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2560 Research on Adaptable Development Strategy of Medical Architecture Based on the Background of Current Era

Authors: Jiani Gao, Qingping Luo, Xinlei Fang

Abstract:

In order to try to achieve better rights and interests for both doctors and patients in the new medical environment, the paper will focus on the renewal and development of medical buildings. In today's highly developed society, many factors have a profound guiding significance for the development of medical buildings. By doing social research, the paper has found that these factors come from all aspects. These factors include the optimization of traditional medical model, rapid alternation of medical technology and equipment, the reform of the social, medical security system, changes in the age structure of the population, the birth of intelligent medical care under the Internet, and the deepening of the concept of green sustainable building development, etc. The purpose of this paper is to capture sensitively these various factors that may affect the evolution of medical buildings in the context of the current era, and to put forward, by using an adaptable development strategy, some feasible suggestions on the design of medical buildings when facing these changes and challenges. Specifically speaking, the adaptable development strategy includes some basic principles and methods, such as using modular design, adopting scalable streamline, selecting a long-span structural system and using replaceable materials and components, etc.

Keywords: medical architecture, adaptable development, medical model, space design

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
2559 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

Abstract:

Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2558 The Efficiency of the Use of Medical Bilingual Dictionary in English Language Teaching in Vocational College

Authors: Zorana Jurinjak, Christos Alexopoulos

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of using a medical bilingual dictionary in teaching English in a vocational college. More precisely, to what extent the use of bilingual medical dictionary in relation to the use of Standard English bilingual dictionaries influences the results on tests, and thus the acquisition of better competence of students mastering the subject terminology. Secondary interest in this paper would be to raise awareness among students and teachers about the advantages of dictionary use. The experiment was conducted at College of Applied Health Sciences in Ćuprija on a sample of 90 students. The respondents translated three medical texts with 42 target terms. Statistical analyses of the data obtained show that the differences in average time and correct answers favor the students who used medical dictionary.

Keywords: bilingual medical dictionary, standard english bilingual dictionary, medical terminology, EOS, ESP

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
2557 Enhanced Visual Sharing Method for Medical Image Security

Authors: Kalaivani Pachiappan, Sabari Annaji, Nithya Jayakumar

Abstract:

In recent years, Information security has emerged as foremost challenges in many fields. Especially in medical information systems security is a major issue, in handling reports such as patients’ diagnosis and medical images. These sensitive data require confidentiality for transmission purposes. Image sharing is a secure and fault-tolerant method for protecting digital images, which can use the cryptography techniques to reduce the information loss. In this paper, visual sharing method is proposed which embeds the patient’s details into a medical image. Then the medical image can be divided into numerous shared images and protected by various users. The original patient details and medical image can be retrieved by gathering the shared images.

Keywords: information security, medical images, cryptography, visual sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 332