Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1123

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1123 A Critical Analysis of the Creation of Geoparks in Brazil: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: Isabella Maria Beil

Abstract:

The International Geosciences and Geoparks Programme (IGGP) were officially created in 2015 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to enhance the protection of the geological heritage and fill the gaps on the World Heritage Convention. According to UNESCO, a Global Geopark is an unified area where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed based on a concept of sustainable development. Tourism is seen as a main activity to develop new sources of revenue. Currently (November 2022), UNESCO recognized 177 Global Geoparks, of which more than 50% are in Europe, 40% in Asia, 6% in Latin America, and the remaining 4% are distributed between Africa and Anglo-Saxon America. This picture shows the existence of a much uneven geographical distribution of these areas across the planet. Currently, there are three Geoparks in Brazil; however, the first of them was accepted by the Global Geoparks Network in 2006 and, just fifteen years later, two other Brazilian Geoparks also obtained the UNESCO title. Therefore, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current geopark situation in Brazil and to identify the main challenges faced by the implementation of these areas in the country. To this end, the Brazilian history and its main characteristics regarding the development of geoparks over the years will be briefly presented. Then, the results obtained from interviews with those responsible for each of the current 29 aspiring geoparks in Brazil will be presented. Finally, the main challenges related to the implementation of Geoparks in the country will be listed. Among these challenges, the answers obtained through the interviews revealed conflicts and problems that pose hindrances both to the start of the development of a Geopark project and to its continuity and implementation. It is clear that the task of getting multiple social actors, or stakeholders, to engage with the Geopark, one of UNESCO’s guidelines, is one of its most complex aspects. Therefore, among the main challenges, stand out the difficulty of establishing solid partnerships, what directly reflects divergences between the different social actors and their goals. This difficulty in establishing partnerships happens for a number of reasons. One of them is that the investment in a Geopark project can be high and investors often expect a short-term financial return. In addition, political support from the public sector is often costly as well, since the possible results and positive influences of a Geopark in a given area will only be experienced during future mandates. These results demonstrate that the research on Geoparks goes far beyond the geological perspective linked to its origins, and is deeply embedded in political and economic issues.

Keywords: Brazil, geoparks, tourism, UNESCO

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1122 A Critical Geography of Reforestation Program in Ghana

Authors: John Narh

Abstract:

There is high rate of deforestation in Ghana due to agricultural expansion, illegal mining and illegal logging. While it is attempting to address the illegalities, Ghana has also initiated a reforestation program known as the Modified Taungya System (MTS). Within the MTS framework, farmers are allocated degraded forestland and provided with tree seedlings to practice agroforestry until the trees form canopy. Yet, the political, ecological and economic models that inform the selection of tree species, the motivations of participating farmers as well as the factors that accounts for differential access to the land and performance of farmers engaged in the program lie underexplored. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach in five forest-fringe communities in the Eastern Region of Ghana, the study reveals that economic factors and Ghana’s commitment to international conventions on the environment underpin the selection of tree species for the MTS program. Social network and access to remittances play critical roles in having access to, and enhances poor farmers’ chances in the program respectively. Farmers are more motivated by the access to degraded forestland to cultivate food crops than having a share in the trees that they plant. As such, in communities where participating farmers are not informed about their benefit in the tree that they plant, the program is largely unsuccessful.

Keywords: translocality, deforestation, forest management, social network

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1121 Hydrogen Storage in Salt Caverns: Rock Mechanical Design

Authors: Dirk Zapf, Bastian Leuger

Abstract:

For several years, natural gas and crude oil have been stored in salt caverns in Germany and also worldwide. The dimensioning concepts have been continuously developed from a rock mechanics point of view. In addition to the possibilities of realizing large numerical calculation models based on real survey data nowadays, especially the consideration of mechanical processes such as damage and healing played a role in the development of adequate material laws. In addition, thermodynamic aspects have had to be considered for some years in the operation of a gas storage cavern since temperature changes have a significant influence on the stress states in the vicinity of a storage cavern. The possibility of thermally induced fracturing processes is also investigated in the context of rock mechanics dimensioning. In recent years, the energy crisis and the finite nature of fossil fuel use have led to increased discussion of the use of salt caverns for hydrogen storage. In this paper, state of the art is presented, the current research work is described, and an outlook is given as to which questions still need to be answered from a rock mechanics point of view in connection with large-scale storage of hydrogen in salt caverns.

Keywords: cavern design, hydrogen, rock salt, thermomechanical coupled calculations

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1120 Monitoring Soil Organic Amendments Under Arid Climate: Evolution of Soil Quality and of Two Consecutive Barley Crops

Authors: Houda Oueriemmi, Petra Susan Kidd, Carmen Trasar-Cepeda, Beatriz Rodríguez-Garrido, Mohamed Moussa, Ángeles Prieto-Fernández, Mohamed Ouessar

Abstract:

Organic amendments are generally used for improving the fertility of arid and semi-arid soils. However, the price of farmyard manure, the organic amendment typically applied to many arid and semi-arid soils has highly increased in the last years. To investigate at field scale whether cheap, highly available organic amendments, such as sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost, may be acceptable as substitutes for farmyard manure is therefore of great interest. A field plots experiment was carried out to assess the effects of a single application of three organic amendments on soil fertility, distribution of trace elements and on barley yield. Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC), farmyard manure (FYM) and sewage sludge compost (SSC) were applied at rates of 0, 20, 40 and 60 t ha⁻¹, and barley was cultivated in two consecutive years. Plant samples and soils were collected for laboratory analyses after two consecutive harvests. Compared with unamended soil, the application of the three organic residues improved the fertility of the topsoil, showing a significant dose-dependent increase of TOC, N, P contents up to the highest dose of 60 t ha⁻¹ (0.74%, 0.06% and 40 mg kg⁻¹, respectively). The enhancement of soil nutrient status impacted positively on grain yield (up to 51%). The distribution of trace elements in the soil, analysed by a sequential extraction procedure, revealed that the MSWC increased the acid-extractable Co and Cu and reducible Ni, while SSC increased reducible Co and Ni and oxidisable Cu, relative to the control soil.

Keywords: municipal solid waste compost, sewage sludge compost, fertility, trace metals

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1119 The Impact of Black Rice Ash Nanoparticles on Foam Stability Through Foam Scanning in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Ishaq Ahmad, Zhaomin Li, Liu Chengwen, Song yan Li, Zihan Gu, Li Shaopeng

Abstract:

In order to manage gas mobility in the reservoir, only a little amount of surfactant or polymer is needed because nanoparticles have the potential to improve foam stability. Enhancing foam formation and stability is the aim. As a result, it was decided to look into the foam stability and foam ability of black rice husk ash. Several characterization techniques were used to look into the characteristics of black rice husk ash. At different concentrations, the best-performing anionic foaming surfactants were combined with the black rice husk ash (ppm). An anionic surfactant called sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate was used. This article demonstrates the value of black rice husk ash (BRHA), which has a high silica concentration, for foam stability and ability. For the test, with different parameters, black rice husk ash and raw ash were used with SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) and SDBS (Sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate) surfactant. To create the foam, different concentration percentages were utilized, and the hydrophobic test and shaking method were also applied. To comprehend the behavior of the black rice husk ash foam, the foam scanner was used to observe the material. Black rice husk ash's high silica concentration has the potential to increase foam stability. The high silica content of black rice husk ash has the potential to improve foam stability, which is favorable. There have been more black rice husk ash particles, and they might help with oil recovery.

Keywords: black rice husk ash nanoparticle, surfactant, foam life , foam scanning

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1118 Proposal of Analytical Model for the Seismic Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Coupled Cross-laminated Timber Infill Panels

Authors: Velázquez Alejandro, Pradhan Sujan, Yoon Rokhyun, Sanada Yasushi

Abstract:

The utilization of new materials as an alternative solution to decrease the environmental impact of the construction industry has been gaining more relevance in the architectural design and construction industry. One such material is cross-laminated timber (CLT), an engineered timber solution that excels for its faster construction times, workability, lightweight, and capacity for carbon storage. This material is usually used alone for the entire structure or combined with steel frames, but a hybrid with reinforced concrete (RC) is rarer. Since RC is one of the most used materials worldwide, a hybrid with CLT would allow further utilization of the latter, and in the process, it would help reduce the environmental impact of RC construction to achieve a sustainable society, but first, the structural performance of such hybrids must be understood. This paper focuses on proposing a model to predict the seismic performance of RC frames with CLT panels as infills. A series of static horizontal cyclic loading experiments were conducted on two 40% scale specimens of reinforced concrete frames with and without CLT panels at Osaka University, Japan. An analytical model was created to simulate the seismic performance of the RC frame with CLT infill based on the experimental results. The proposed model was verified by comparing the experimental and analytical results, showing that the load-deformation relationship and the failure mechanism agreed well with limited error. Hence, the proposed analytical model can be implemented for the seismic performance evaluation of the RC frames with CLT infill.

Keywords: analytical model, multi spring, performance evaluation, reinforced concrete, rocking mechanism, wooden wall

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1117 Soil Characteristics and Liquefaction Potential of the Bengkulu Region Based on the Microtremor Method

Authors: Aditya Setyo Rahman, Dwikorita Karnawati, Muzli, Dadang Permana, Sigit Pramono, Fajri Syukur Rahmatullah, Oriza Sativa, Moehajirin, Edy Santoso, Nur Hidayati Oktavia, Ardian Yudhi Octantyo, Robby Wallansha, Juwita Sari Pradita, Nur Fani Habibah, Audia Kaluku, Amelia Chelcea, Yoga Dharma Persada, Anton Sugiharto

Abstract:

Earthquake vibrations on the surface are not only affected by the magnitude of the earthquake and the distance from the hypocenter but also by the characteristics of the local soil. Variations and changes in soil characteristics from the depth of the bedrock to the surface can cause an amplification of earthquake vibrations that also affect the impact they may have on the surface. Soil characteristics vary widely even at relatively close distances, so for earthquake hazard mapping in cities with earthquake threats, it is necessary to study the characteristics of the local soil on a detailed or micro-scale (microzonation). This study proposes seismic microzonation and liquefaction potential based on microtremor observations. We carried out 143 microtremor observations, and the observation sites were spread across all populated sub-districts in Bengkulu City; the results showed that the dominance of Bengkulu City had medium soil types with a dominant period value of 0.4 < T₀ < 0.6, and there was one location with soft soil characteristics in the river, shaved with T₀ > 0.6. These results correlate with the potential for liquefaction as indicated by a seismic vulnerability index (K𝓰) greater than 5.

Keywords: microtremor, dominant period, microzonation, seismic vulnerability index

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1116 Analysis of Iran-Turkey Relations Based on Environmental Geopolitics

Authors: Farid Abbasi

Abstract:

Geographical spaces have different relations with each other, and especially neighboring geographical spaces have more relations than other spaces due to their proximity. Meanwhile, various parameters affect the relationships between these spaces, such as environmental parameters. These parameters have become important in recent decades, affecting the political relations of the actors in neighboring spaces. The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Turkey, as two actors in the region, political relations seem to have been affected to some extent by environmental issues. Based on this, the present study tries to examine and analyze the political relations between the two countries from an environmental, and geopolitical perspective. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical. The method of data analysis is based on library and field information (questionnaire) in the form of content analysis and statistics through the Mick Mac software system and Scenario Wizard. The results of studies and analysis of theories show that 35 indicators, directly and indirectly, affect Iran-Turkey relations from an environmental, and geopolitical perspective, which are in the form of five dimensions (water resources, soil resources, Vegetation, climate, living species). Using the Mick Mac method, 9 factors were extracted as key factors affecting Iran-Turkey relations, and in the process of analyzing research scenarios, 10100 possible situations were presented by scenario wizard software. 9 strong scenarios with 3 scenarios of favorable and very favorable situations, 3 scenarios with moderate situations and also 3 scenarios with critical situations and catastrophes according to Iran-Turkey relations from the environmental aspect are presented.

Keywords: geopolitics, relations, Iran, Turkey, environment

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1115 Characterization of Mineralogy, Geochemical and Origin of Nephelinitic Jurf Ed-darawish Volcano in Western Central Jordan

Authors: Hassan Farhan Alfugha

Abstract:

the cenozoic volcanism in westt central jordan which show homohgenous lava from upper mantle.es represented by basaltic scoria cones and flows and covers approximately 10 km. fourtten nephelinitic rock samples were collected at jurf ed-darawish volcanism to analyze major minor and trace elements by using XRF.. geochemical parameters of these samp;es such as MG/MG+FE+2, the ratio range from 0.41 to 0.45 and high ti contents 3.09-3.28wt % indicate that the corresponding magmas are nearly of primary origin . this magma show low variable abundances of compatible and incompatible trace elements reflecting a homogenous source. the studied volcanic rocks, which are mainly nephlinites, belong to the alkaline rocks series containing 4.38-5.95wt% alkali oxides they are usually undersaturated in regard it the silica content, which ranges between 39.88-41.50wt.%.value compared to other jordanien basaltic rocks majorminor and trace elementes data as well as mantel xenoliths entrained in the volcanic rocks are spinel iherzolites that suggest the lithospheric mantle as the source for the pleistocene volcanism these xenoliths resided at shallow mantle depths (45 km ) because a geothermobarometric analysis yielded p-t conditions close to 15 kbar and 1100c the mantle nodules did not equilibrate with the melts indicating a fast transport from the mantle to the surface and a mgma >65 km deeper source area of the melts.

Keywords: nephelinite plestocene western central jordan, western central jordan, volcano in western central jordan, central jordan

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1114 Effects of the Compressive Eocene Tectonic Phase in the Bou Kornine-Ressas-Messella Structure and Surroundings (Northern Tunisia)

Authors: Aymen Arfaoui, Abdelkader Soumaya

Abstract:

The Messalla-Ressas-Bou Kornine (MRB) and Hammamet Korbous (HK) major trending North-South fault zones provide a good opportunity to show the effects of the Eocene compressive phase in northern Tunisia. They acted as paleogeographical boundaries during the Mesozoic and belonged to a significant strike-slip corridor called the «North-South Axis,» extending from the Saharan platform at the South to the Gulf of Tunis at the North. Our study area is situated in a relay zone between two significant strike-slip faults (HK and MRB), separating the Atlas domain from the Pelagian Block. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including fieldwork, stress inversion, and geophysical profiles, to argue the shortening event that affected the study region. The MRB and HK contractional duplex is a privileged area for a local stress field and stress nucleation. The stress inversion of fault slip data reveals an Eocene compression with NW-SE trending SHmax, reactivating most of the ancient Mesozoic normal faults in the region. This shortening phase is represented in the MRB belt by an angular unconformity between the Upper Eocene over various Cretaceous strata. The stress inversion data reveal a compressive tectonic with an average NW-SE trending Shmax. The major N-S faults are reactivated under this shortening as sinistral oblique faults. The orientation of SHmax deviates from NW-SE to E-W near the preexisting deep faults of MRB and HK. This E-W stress direction generated the emerging overlap of Ressas-Messella and blind thrust faults in the Cretaceous deposits. The connection of the sub-meridian reverse faults in depth creates "flower structures" under an E-W local compressive stress. In addition, we detected a reorientation of the SHmax into an N-S direction in the central part of the MRB - HK contractional duplex, creating E-W reverse faults and overlapping zones. Finally, the Eocene compression constituted the first major tectonic phase which inverted the Mesozoic preexisting extensive fault system in Northern Tunisia.

Keywords: Tunisia, eocene compression, tectonic stress field, Bou Kornine-Ressas-Messella

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1113 Petroleum Play Fairway Analysis of the Middle Paleocene Lower Beda Formation, Concession 71, South-Central Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Hatem K. Hamed, Mohamed S. Hrouda

Abstract:

The Middle Paleocene Lower Beda Formation was deposited in a ramp system with local shoaling. The main constituent is limestone, with subordinate dolomites and Shales. Reservoir quality is largely influenced by depositional environments and diagenesis processes. Generally the reservoir quality of Lower Beda Formation is low risk on the Inferred Horst and in the Southern Shelf where the Lower Beda formation comprises mainly of calcarenties. In the vicinity of the well GG1 the Lower Beda comprise mainly of argillaceous calcilutites and shale. The reservoir quality gradually improves from high risk to moderate risk towards KK1, LL1 and NN1 wells. The average gross thickness of Lower Beda Formation is about 300 ft. The net thickness varies from about 270 ft. in the E1-71 well to about 30 ft. in the vicinity of GG1-71 well. The net thickest of Lower Beda form a NNW-SSW trend with an average of 250 ft. the change in facies is due to change in the depositional environment, from lagoonal to shoal barrier to open marine affected the reservoir quality. The Upper Cretaceous Sirte Shale is the main source rock. It is developed within the three troughs surrounding the study area. S-Marada Trough to the N- E, Gerad Trough to the N N-W, and Abu Tummym Sub-basin to the S-W of the Inferred Horst. Sirte shale reaches 1000ft, of organically rich section. It has good organic contents over large area 2% to 3%. Hydrocarbon shows were encountered in several wells in Beda Formation this is an indication of vertical and lateral migration of hydrocarbon. The overlying Upper Paleocene Khalifa Formation is a transgressive shale, it is an effective regional top seal. Lithofacies variations in Khalifa Shale, from shales to limestones in the southern shelf in R1-71 well approximately 50-75% of the secession is limestone. About 47 million barrel of hydrocarbon recoverable reserves is expected to be trapped in structural and stratigraphic traps in Beda Formation in the study area.

Keywords: Sirte basin, Beda formation, concession 71, petroleum play fairway analysis

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1112 Physical Properties Characterization Of Shallow Aquifer And Groundwater Quality Using Geophysical Method Based On Electrical Resistivity Tomography In Arid Region, Northeastern Area Of Tunisia: A Study Case Of Smar Aquifer

Authors: Nesrine Frifita

Abstract:

In recent years, serious interest in underground sources has led to more intensive studies of depth, thickness, geometry and properties of aquifers. Geophysical method is the common technique used in discovering the subsurface. However, determining the exact location of groundwater in subsurface layers is one of problems that needs to be resolved. While the biggest problem is the quality of the groundwater which suffers from pollution risk especially with water shortage in arid regions under a remarkable climate change. The present study was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography at Jeffara coastal area in Southeast Tunisia to image the potential shallow aquifer and studying their physical properties. The purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics and depth of the Smar aquifer. Therefore, it can be used as a reference in groundwater drilling in order to guide the farmers and to improve the living of the inhabitants of nearby cities. The use of the Winner-Schlumberger array for data acquisition is suitable to obtain a deeper profile in areas with homogeneous layers. For that, six electrical resistivity profiles were carried out in Smar watershed using 72 electrodes with 4 and 5 m spacing. The resistivity measurements were carefully interpreted by a least-square inversion technique using the RES2DINV program. Findings show that the Smar aquifer has about 31 m thickness and it extends to 36.5 m depth in the downstream area of Oued Smar. The defined depth and geometry of Smar aquifer indicate that the sedimentary cover thins toward the coast, and the Smar shallow aquifer becomes deeper toward the West. While the resistivity values show a significant contrast even reaching < 1 Ωm in ERT1, this resistivity value can be related to the saline water that foretells a risk of pollution and bad groundwater quality. The ERT1 geoelectrical model defines an unsaturated zone, while under ERT3 site, the geoelectrical model presents a saturated zone, which reflect a low resistivity values indicate the locally surface water coming from the nearby Office of the National Sanitation Utility (ONAS) that can be a source of recharge of the studied shallow aquifer and more deteriorate the groundwater quality in this region.

Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography, groundwater, recharge, smar aquifer, southeastern tunisia

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1111 Modeling of Long Wave Generation and Propagation via Seabed Deformation

Authors: Chih-Hua Chang

Abstract:

This study uses a three-dimensional (3D) fully nonlinear model to simulate the wave generation problem caused by the movement of the seabed. The numerical model is first simplified into two dimensions and then compared with the existing two-dimensional (2D) experimental data and the 2D numerical results of other shallow-water wave models. Results show that this model is different from the earlier shallow-water wave models, with the phase being closer to the experimental results of wave propagation. The results of this study are also compared with those of the 3D experimental results of other researchers. Satisfactory results can be obtained in both the waveform and the flow field. This study assesses the application of the model to simulate the wave caused by the circular (radius r0) terrain rising or falling (moving distance bm). The influence of wave-making parameters r0 and bm are discussed. This study determines that small-range (e.g., r0 = 2, normalized by the static water depth), rising, or sinking terrain will produce significant wave groups in the far field. For large-scale moving terrain (e.g., r0 = 10), uplift and deformation will potentially generate the leading solitary-like waves in the far field.

Keywords: seismic wave, wave generation, far-field waves, seabed deformation

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1110 Mining and Analysing Social Networks Derived from Event Logs

Authors: Ahmed A. Fares

Abstract:

Process mining aims to extract information from the event log by providing techniques and tools for discovering these logs’ processes, control flow, and organizational and social structures. This work will cover definitions of process mining, social network analysis, and how we can mine a social network using process mining techniques. Event logs commonly record information about the users executing the activities, so it is possible to extract social networks from these logs for further analysis. To do so, we combine concepts from process mining and social network analysis. Also, a case study will be executed to prove the applicability using real-life data.

Keywords: process mining, event logs, network science, organizational aspects, mining social networks

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1109 Safety-critical Alarming Strategy Based on Statistically Defined Slope Deformation Behaviour Model Case Study: Upright-dipping Highwall in a Coal Mining Area

Authors: Lintang Putra Sadewa, Ilham Prasetya Budhi

Abstract:

Slope monitoring program has now become a mandatory campaign for any open pit mines around the world to operate safely. Utilizing various slope monitoring instruments and strategies, miners are now able to deliver precise decisions in mitigating the risk of slope failures which can be catastrophic. Currently, the most sophisticated slope monitoring technology available is the Slope Stability Radar (SSR), whichcan measure wall deformation in submillimeter accuracy. One of its eminent features is that SSRcan provide a timely warning by automatically raise an alarm when a predetermined rate-of-movement threshold is reached. However, establishing proper alarm thresholds is arguably one of the onerous challenges faced in any slope monitoring program. The difficulty mainly lies in the number of considerations that must be taken when generating a threshold becausean alarm must be effectivethat it should limit the occurrences of false alarms while alsobeing able to capture any real wall deformations. In this sense, experience shows that a site-specific alarm thresholdtendsto produce more reliable results because it considers site distinctive variables. This study will attempt to determinealarming thresholds for safety-critical monitoring based on an empirical model of slope deformation behaviour that is defined statistically fromdeformation data captured by the Slope Stability Radar (SSR). The study area comprises of upright-dipping highwall setting in a coal mining area with intense mining activities, andthe deformation data used for the study were recorded by the SSR throughout the year 2022. The model is site-specific in nature thus, valuable information extracted from the model (e.g., time-to-failure, onset-of-acceleration, and velocity) will be applicable in setting up site-specific alarm thresholds and will give a clear understanding of how deformation trends evolve over the area.

Keywords: safety-critical monitoring, alarming strategy, slope deformation behaviour model, coal mining

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1108 The Review of Permanent Downhole Monitoring System

Authors: Jing Hu, Dong Yang

Abstract:

With the increasingly difficult development and operating environment of exploration, there are many new challenges and difficulties in developing and exploiting oil and gas resources. These include the ability to dynamically monitor wells and provide data and assurance for the completion and production of high-cost and complex wells. A key technology in providing these assurances and maximizing oilfield profitability is real-time permanent reservoir monitoring. The emergence of optical fiber sensing systems has gradually begun to replace traditional electronic systems. Traditional temperature sensors can only achieve single-point temperature monitoring, but fiber optic sensing systems based on the Bragg grating principle have a high level of reliability, accuracy, stability, and resolution, enabling cost-effective monitoring, which can be done in real-time, anytime, and without well intervention. Continuous data acquisition is performed along the entire wellbore. The integrated package with the downhole pressure gauge, packer, and surface system can also realize real-time dynamic monitoring of the pressure in some sections of the downhole, avoiding oil well intervention and eliminating the production delay and operational risks of conventional surveys. Real-time information obtained through permanent optical fibers can also provide critical reservoir monitoring data for production and recovery optimization.

Keywords: PDHM, optical fiber, coiled tubing, photoelectric composite cable, digital-oilfield

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1107 Distribution, Settings, and Genesis of Burj-Dolomite Shale-Hosted Copper Mineralization in the Central Wadi Araba, Jordan

Authors: Mohammad Salem Abdullah Al-Hwaiti

Abstract:

The stratiform copper mineralization of the Burj-Dolomite shale (BDS) formations of deposits shows that the copper mineralization within the BDS occurs as hydrated copper chlorides and carbonates (mainly paratacamite and malachite, respectively), while copper silicates (mainly chrysocolla and planchette) are the major ore minerals in the BDS. Thus, on the basis of the petrographic and field occurrence, three main stages operated during the development of the copper ore in the sandy and shaly lithofacies. During the first stage, amorphous chrysocolla replaced clays, feldspars, and quartz. This stage was followed by the transition from an amorphous phase to a better-crystallized phase, i.e., the formation of planchette and veins from chrysocolla. The third stage was the formation of chrysocolla along fracture planes. Other secondary minerals are pseudomalachite, dioptase, neoticite together with authigenic fluorapatite. Paratacamite and malachite, which are common in the dolomitic lithofacies, are relatively rare in the sandy and silty lithofacies. The Rare Earth Elements (REEs) patterns for the BDS showed three stages in the evolution of the Precambrian–Cambrian copper mineralization system, involving the following: (A) Epigenetic mobilization of Cu-bearing solution with formation Cu-carbonate in dolomite and limestone mineralization and Cu-silicate mineralization in sandstone; (B) Transgression of Cambrian Sea and SSC deposition of Cu-sulphides during dolomite diagenesis in the BDS Formation; continued diagenesis and oxidation leads to the formation of Cu(II) minerals; (C) Erosion and supergene enrichment of Cu in basement rocks. Detrital copper-bearing sediments accumulate in the lower Cambrian clastic sequence.

Keywords: dolomite shale, copper mineralization, REE, Jordan

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1106 Geomorphometric Analysis of the Hydrologic and Topographic Parameters of the Katsina-Ala Drainage Basin, Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyatayo Kehinde Taofik, Ndabula Christopher

Abstract:

Drainage basins are the central theme of the green economy. The rising challenges in flooding, erosion or sediment transport, and sedimentation threatens the green economy. This has led to increasing emphasis on quantitative analysis of drainage basin parameters for better understanding, estimation, and prediction of fluvial responses and, thus, associated hazards or disasters. This can be achieved through direct measurement, characterization, parameterization, or modelling. This study applied the remote sensing and geographic information system approach of parameterization and characterization of the morphometric variables of Katsina – Ala basin using 30 m resolution Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM). This was complemented with topographic and hydrological maps of Katsina-Ala on a scale of 1:50,000. Linear, areal, and relief parameters were characterized. The result of the study shows that Ala and Udene sub-watersheds are 4th and 5th order basins, respectively. The stream network shows a dendritic pattern, indicating homogeneity in texture and a lack of structural control in the study area. Ala and Udene sub-watersheds have the following values for elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor and relief ratio: 0.48 / 0.39 / 0.35/ 9.97 and 0.40 / 0.35 / 0.32 / 6.0. They also have the following values for drainage texture and ruggedness index of 0.86 / 0.011 and 1.57 / 0.016. The study concludes that the two sub-watersheds are elongated, suggesting that they are susceptible to erosion and, thus, higher sediment load in the river channels, which will dispose the watersheds to higher flood peaks. The study also concludes that the sub-watersheds have a very coarse texture, with good permeability of sub-surface materials and infiltration capacity, which significantly recharge the groundwater. The study recommends that efforts should be put in place by the Local and State Governments to reduce the size of paved surfaces in these sub-watersheds by implementing a robust agroforestry program at the grass root level.

Keywords: erosion, flood, mitigation, morphometry, watershed

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1105 Seismic Hazard Study and Strong Ground Motion in Southwest Alborz, Iran

Authors: Fereshteh Pourmohammad, Mehdi Zare

Abstract:

The city of Karaj, having a population of 2.2 millions (est. 2022) is located in the South West of Alborz Mountain Belt in Northern Iran. The region is known to be a highly active seismic zone. This study is focused on the geological and seismological analyses within a radius of 200 km from the center of Karaj. There are identified five seismic zones and seven linear seismic sources. The maximum magnitude was calculated for the seismic zones. Scine tghe seismicity catalog is incomplete, we have used a parametric-historic algorithm and the Kijko and Sellevoll (1992) method was used to calculate seismicity parameters, and the return periods and the probability frequency of recurrence of the earthquake magnitude in each zone obtained for 475-years return period. According to the calculations, the highest and lowest earthquake magnitudes of 7.6 and 6.2 were respectively obtained in Zones 1 and 4. This result is a new and extremely important in view point of earthquake risk in a densely population city. The maximum strong horizontal ground motion for the 475-years return period 0.42g and for 2475-year return period 0.70g also the maximum strong vertical ground motion for 475-years return period 0.25g and 2475-years return period 0.44g was calculated using attenuation relationships. These acceleration levels are new, and are obtained to be about 25% higher than presented values in the Iranian building code.

Keywords: seismic zones, ground motion, return period, hazard analysis

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1104 Trace Element Compositions of Placer Gold Samples: Implication for Gold Exploration in Northern Cameroon

Authors: Yanick Blaise Ketchaya, Taofa Zhou

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The type of primary source of gold deposit can be explored by using the study of trace element analysis of placer gold which is a valuable exploration tool. Au-bearing deposits are investigated through the placer gold, which is an important indicator mineral. The hydrothermal fluid interacting with diverse geological settings exerts an important function on the chemical composition of gold. Consequently, alluvial gold particles from the placer deposits within the Gamba district in northern Cameroon were examined by an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) to show discriminant chemical signatures. The gold grains from a different locality show the same trace element composition, which appears to be in a solid solution in Au. These trace element compositions, contained in gold grains, indicate a homogeneous source. The placer gold particles have significant chemical characteristics (low Ag content), consistent with a mesothermal source. The gold particle signatures in the Gamba district, with high Te and Bi contents, reflect the chemical characteristics of the felsic host rock superimposed on the chemical signature of the hydrothermal fluid.

Keywords: hypogene source, Northern Cameroon, placer gold, trace element

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1103 Slope Stability Assessment in Metasedimentary Deposit of an Opencast Mine: The Case of the Dikuluwe-Mashamba (DIMA) Mine in the DR Congo

Authors: Dina Kon Mushid, Sage Ngoie, Tshimbalanga Madiba, Kabutakapua Kakanda

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Slope stability assessment is still the biggest challenge in mining activities and civil engineering structures. The slope in an opencast mine frequently reaches multiple weak layers that lead to the instability of the pit. Faults and soft layers throughout the rock would increase weathering and erosion rates. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the stability of the complex strata to figure out how stable they are. In the Dikuluwe-Mashamba (DIMA) area, the lithology of the stratum is a set of metamorphic rocks whose parent rocks are sedimentary rocks with a low degree of metamorphism. Thus, due to the composition and metamorphism of the parent rock, the rock formation is different in hardness and softness, which means that when the content of dolomitic and siliceous is high, the rock is hard. It is softer when the content of argillaceous and sandy is high. Therefore, from the vertical direction, it appears as a weak and hard layer, and from the horizontal direction, it seems like a smooth and hard layer in the same rock layer. From the structural point of view, the main structures in the mining area are the Dikuluwe dipping syncline and the Mashamba dipping anticline, and the occurrence of rock formations varies greatly. During the folding process of the rock formation, the stress will concentrate on the soft layer, causing the weak layer to be broken. At the same time, the phenomenon of interlayer dislocation occurs. This article aimed to evaluate the stability of metasedimentary rocks of the Dikuluwe-Mashamba (DIMA) open-pit mine using limit equilibrium and stereographic methods Based on the presence of statistical structural planes, the stereographic projection was used to study the slope's stability and examine the discontinuity orientation data to identify failure zones along the mine. The results revealed that the slope angle is too steep, and it is easy to induce landslides. The numerical method's sensitivity analysis showed that the slope angle and groundwater significantly impact the slope safety factor. The increase in the groundwater level substantially reduces the stability of the slope. Among the factors affecting the variation in the rate of the safety factor, the bulk density of soil is greater than that of rock mass, the cohesion of soil mass is smaller than that of rock mass, and the friction angle in the rock mass is much larger than that in the soil mass. The analysis showed that the rock mass structure types are mostly scattered and fragmented; the stratum changes considerably, and the variation of rock and soil mechanics parameters is significant.

Keywords: slope stability, weak layer, safety factor, limit equilibrium method, stereography method

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1102 Evaluation of Water-Soluble Ionic Liquids Based on Quaternized Hyperbranched Polyamidoamine and Amino Acids for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Rasha Hosny, Ahmed Zahran, Mahmoud Ramzi, Fatma Mahmoud Abdelhafiz, Ammona S. Mohamed, Mahmoud Fathy Mubarak

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Ionic liquids' ability to be tuned and stability under challenging environmental conditions are their significant features in enhanced oil recovery. In this study, two amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) were prepared from quaternized hyperbranched polyamidoamine PAMAM (G0.5 C12) and amino acids (Cysteine and Lysine). The chemical structures of the prepared AAILs were verified by using FTIR and 1H-NMR spectra. These AAILs were tested for solubility, thermal stability, and surface activity in the presence of Egyptian medium crude oils under different PVT parameters after being diluted in several brine solutions of various salt compositions at 10% (w/w) salinity. The measurements reveal that the produced AAILs have good solubility and thermal stability. The effect of different concentrations of AAILs (0.1-5%) and salinity (20000-70000 ppm) on Interfacial tension (IFT) were studied. To test the efficacy of (AAILs) for a CEOR, numerous flooding experiments were carried out in samples of sandstone rock. Rock wettability is important for sandstone rocks, so conduct wettability alteration by contact angle (CA) of (30-55) and IFT of (7-13). The additional oil recovery was largely influenced by ionic liquid concentration, which may be changed by dilution with the formation and injected brines. This research has demonstrated that EOR techniques led to a recovery wt. (22-45%).

Keywords: amino acid ionic liquids, surface activity, critical micelle concentration, interfacial tension, contact angle, chemical enhanced oil recovery, wettability

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1101 A Zero-Flaring Flowback Solution to Revive Liquid Loaded Gas Wells

Authors: Elsayed Amer, Tarek Essam, Abdullah Hella, Mohammed Al-Ajmi

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Hydrocarbon production decline in mature gas fields is inevitable, and mitigating these circumstances is essential to ensure a longer production period. Production decline is not only influenced by reservoir pressure and wellbore integrity; however, associated liquids in the reservoir rock have a considerable impact on the production process. The associated liquid may result in liquid loading, near wellbore damage, condensate banking, fine sand migration, and wellhead pressure depletion. Consequently, the producing well will suffocate, and the liquid column will seize the well from flowing. A common solution in such circumstances is reducing the surface pressure by opening the well to the atmospheric pressure and flaring the produced liquids. This practice may not be applicable to many cases since the atmospheric pressure is not low enough to create a sufficient driving force to flow the well. In addition, flaring the produced hydrocarbon is solving the issue on account of the environment, which is against the world's efforts to mitigate the impact of climate change. This paper presents a novel approach and a case study that utilizes a multi-phase mobile wellhead gas compression unit (MMWGC) to reduce surface pressure to the sub-atmospheric level and transfer the produced hydrocarbons to the sales line. As a result, the liquid column will unload in a zero-flaring manner, and the life of the producing well will extend considerably. The MMWGC unit was able to successfully kick off a dead well to produce up to 10 MMSCFD after reducing the surface pressure for 3 hours. Applying such novelty on a broader scale will not only extend the life of the producing wells yet will also provide a zero-flaring, economically and environmentally preferred solution.

Keywords: petroleum engineering, zero-flaring, liquid loading, well revival

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1100 The Chromitites of the Collo Ultramafic Rocks (NE Algeria): Two Generations Evidenced From Petrological, Mineralogical and Isotopic Studies

Authors: Rabah Laouar, Yahia Boudra, Adel Satouh, Adrian Boyce

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The ultramafic rocks of the Collo region crop out as « stratified » masses that cross-cut older metamorphic formation of the basement. These rocks are mainly peridotites and serpentinites. The peridotites are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel (chromite). The chemical composition of these lherzolites show a magnesian character with high MgO contents (34.4 to 37.5%), high Cr (0.14 to 0.27%), Ni (0.14 to 0.26%) and Co (34 to 133 ppm) and low CaO and Al₂O₃ (0.02 to 2.2 and 0.5 to 2.8 % respectively). They represent a residue (restite) of a mantle magmas partial melting. The chromite which represents about 2 to 3% of the rock is a ubiquitous mineral and shows two different generations: primary idiomorphic millimetric crystals and secondary very fine, xenomorphic and interstitial aggregates. The primary chromites are alumino-ferro-magnesian crystals. They show high Al₂O₃ (25.77% to 27.36%) and MgO (10.70% to 13.36%). Cr# (100*Cr/ (Al+Cr)) varies between 45 and 48, and Mg# (100*Mg/Mg+Fe₂+) varies between 49 and 59. On the other hand, the secondary interstitial grains are iron-rich chromites; they show low Al₂O₃ (4.67% to 9.54%) and MgO (4.60% to 4.65%). Cr# is relatively high (77 to 88) whereas Mg# show relatively low values, varying between 22 and 25. Oxygen isotopic composition of both types of chromites is consistent with their derivation from a mantle source (ð¹⁸O vary between +3.9 and +5.2‰), though a contribution of ¹⁶O-rich component to the secondary chromites is not ruled out.

Keywords: peridotites, serpentinites, chromite, partial melting, collo, Algeria

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1099 Geoecological Problems of Karst Waters in Chiatura Municipality, Georgia

Authors: Liana Khandolishvili, Giorgi Dvalashvili

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Karst waters in the world play an important role in the water supply. Among them, the Vaucluse in Chiatura municipality (Georgia) is used as drinking water and is irreplaceable for the local population. Accordingly, it is important to assess their geo-ecological conditions and take care to maintain sustainability. The aim of the paper is to identify the hazards of pollution of underground waters in the karst environment and to develop a scheme for their protection, which will take into consideration both the hydrogeological characteristics and the role of humans. To achieve this goal, the EPIK method was selected using which an epikarst zone of the study area was studied in detail, as well as the protective cover, infiltration conditions and frequency of karst network development, after which the conditions of karst waters in Chiatura municipality was assessed, their main pollutants were identified and the recommendations were prepared for their protection. The results of the study showed that the karst water pollution rate in Chiatura municipality is highest, where karst-fissured layers are represented and intensive extraction works are underway. The EPIK method is innovative in Georgia and was first introduced on the example of karst waters of Chiatura municipality.

Keywords: cave, EPIK method, pollution, Karst waters, geology, geography, ecology

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1098 Sclerobiont Assemblages on Macro-Invertebrates from the Cenomanian Strata of Djebel Bouarif (Aurès Range, Algeria)

Authors: Salmi-laouar Sihem, Kara Ahmed Imad

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The ichnological study of the Djebel BouarifCenomaniandeposits(Northern Aurès Range, Algeria) revealed relatively abundant and diverse sclerobiont communities that are preserved in corals, bivalves, and gastropods ; all are described herein. Fossil traces are dominated by exceptionally preserved Gastrochaenolitesoften with tracemakers (bivalves), which are preserved in situ, Entobia, and Maeandropolydora. Other borings are rare and are represented by a single specimen of Rogerella, Nihilichnus, and Spirolites. Amongsclerozoans, encrustingjuvenile oysters, and non-oyster bivalves (Pseudolimea?granulata) are the mostabundant groups. Otherepibionts, such as gastropods and polychaetes (Glomerulaserpentina), are lesscommon; dwarfgastropods were located on a single oyster Costagyraolisiponensis, whereas Glomerula specimens were clustered on the lower and upper surfaces of coral Aspidiscuscristatus. Gastrochaenoliteswith original tracemakers and all the epibionts studied herein have not been described from the Djebel BouarifCenomaniandeposits to date. The rare occurrences of Spirolites and Nihilichnus are reported from Algeria for the first time.

Keywords: bioerosion, sclerobionts, upper creataceous, southern tethys, atlasic domain

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1097 Contamination of Groundwater by Nitrates, Nitrites, Ammonium and Phosphate in the Guelma-bouchegouf Irrigated Area (Northeastern Algeria)

Authors: Benhamza Moussa, Aissaoui Marwa, Touati Mounira, Chaoui Widad

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The Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigated area is located in the northeast of Algeria, and it extends about 80 km. It was commissioned in 1996, with an irrigable area of 9250 ha, it spreads on both banks of the Seybouse Wadi and it is subdivided into five autonomous distribution sectors. In order to assess the state of groundwater quality, the results of the chemical analyzes were plotted on the Piper diagram, which shows that the chemical facies are sulfate-calcium chloride and sulfate-calcium with a slight tendency to migrate to chlorinated sulphate - sodium. The predominance of sulphates in the waters of the region is geologically explained by the existence in the Guelma Basin of evaporitic deposits, which are mainly represented by rock salt and gypsum. In addition to this natural origin, we can mention the anthropogenic origin, following the use of chemical fertilizers in the Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigated area. Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ show moderate to significant mineralization of water, closely correlated with very high conductivities. The values of the recorded conductivities vary from 1360 μs / cm (P3) to 4610 μs / cm (P10). These important values are due to dissolved salts on the one hand and the leaching of fertilizers by irrigation water on the other hand. NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ show little to significant pollution throughout the study area. Phosphate represents significant pollution, with excessive values far exceeding the allowable standard. With respect to ammonium, 87% of the sampling points present little pollution and 13 % significant pollution. Regarding phosphates, in the form of PO₄³⁻, groundwater in the study area represents significant pollution; all values far exceed the allowable standard.

Keywords: groundwater, organic parameters, standards, Pollution

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1096 Effect of Several Soil Amendments on Water Quality in Mine Soils: Leaching Columns

Authors: Carmela Monterroso, Marc Romero-Estonllo, Carlos Pascual, Beatriz Rodríguez-Garrido

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The mobilization of heavy metals from polluted soils causes their transfer to natural waters, with consequences for ecosystems and human health. Phytostabilization techniques are applied to reduce this mobility, through the establishment of a vegetal cover and the application of soil amendments. In this work, the capacity of different organic amendments to improve water quality and reduce the mobility of metals in mine-tailings was evaluated. A field pilot test was carried out with leaching columns installed on an old Cu mine ore (NW of Spain) which form part of the PhytoSUDOE network of phytomanaged contaminated field sites (PhytoSUDOE Project (SOE1/P5/E0189)). Ten columns (1 meter high by 25 cm in diameter) were packed with untreated mine tailings (control) or those treated with organic amendments. Applied amendments were based on different combinations of municipal wastes, bark chippings, biomass fly ash and nanoparticles like aluminum oxides or ferrihydrite-type iron oxides. During the packing of the columns, rhizon-samplers were installed at different heights (10, 20 and 50 cm) from the top and pore water samples were obtained by suction. Additionally, in each column, a bottom leachate sample was collected through a valve installed at the bottom of the column. After packing, the columns were sown with grasses. Water samples were analyzed for: pH and redox potential, using combined electrodes; salinity by conductivity-meter: bicarbonate by titration, sulfate, nitrate and chloride, by ion chromatography (Dionex 2000); phosphate, by colorimetry with ammonium molybdate/ascorbic acid; Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb by flame atomic absorption/emission spectrometry (Perkin Elmer). Porewater and leachate from the control columns (packed with unamended mine tailings) were extremely acidic and had a high concentration of Al, Fe and Cu. In these columns, no plant development was observed. The application of organic amendments improved soil conditions, which allowed the establishment of a dense cover of grasses in the rest of the columns. The combined effect of soil amendment and plant growth had a positive impact on water quality and reduced mobility of aluminum and heavy metals.

Keywords: leaching, organic amendments, phytostabilization, polluted soils

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1095 Glasshouse Experiment to Improve Phytomanagement Solutions for Cu-Polluted Mine Soils

Authors: Marc Romero-Estonllo, Judith Ramos-Castro, Yaiza San Miguel, Beatriz Rodríguez-Garrido, Carmela Monterroso

Abstract:

Mining activity is among the main sources of trace and heavy metal(loid) pollution worldwide, which is a hazard to human and environmental health. That is why several projects have been emerging for the remediation of such polluted places. Phytomanagement strategies draw good performances besides big side benefits. In this work, a glasshouse assay with trace element polluted soils from an old Cu mine ore (NW of Spain) which forms part of the PhytoSUDOE network of phytomanaged contaminated field sites (PhytoSUDOE Project (SOE1/P5/E0189)) was set. The objective was to evaluate improvements induced by the following phytoremediation-related treatments. Three increasingly complex amendments alone or together with plant growth (Populus nigra L. alone and together with Tripholium repens L.) were tested. And three different rhizosphere bioinocula were applied (Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGP), mycorrhiza (MYC), or mixed (PGP+MYC)). After 110 days of growth, plants were collected, biomass was weighed, and tree length was measured. Physical-chemical analyses were carried out to determine pH, effective Cation Exchange Capacity, carbon and nitrogen contents, bioavailable phosphorous (Olsen bicarbonate method), pseudo total element content (microwave acid digested fraction), EDTA extractable metals (complexed fraction), and NH4NO3 extractable metals (easily bioavailable fraction). On plant material, nitrogen content and acid digestion elements were determined. Amendment usage, plant growth, and bioinoculation were demonstrated to improve soil fertility and/or plant health within the time span of this study. Particularly, pH levels increased from 3 (highly acidic) to 5 (acidic) in the worst-case scenario, even reaching 7 (neutrality) in the best plots. Organic matter and pH increments were related to polluting metals’ bioavailability decrements. Plants grew better both with the most complex amendment and the middle one, with few differences due to bioinoculation. Using the less complex amendment (just compost) beneficial effects of bioinoculants were more observable, although plants didn’t thrive very well. On unamended soils, plants neither sprouted nor bloomed. The scheme assayed in this study is suitable for phytomanagement of these kinds of soils affected by mining activity. These findings should be tested now on a larger scale.

Keywords: aided phytoremediation, mine pollution, phytostabilization, soil pollution, trace elements

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1094 Hydro-Gravimetric Ann Model for Prediction of Groundwater Level

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Ghosh, Himangshu Sarkar, Swastik Sunil Goriwale

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Ground water (GW) is the most important natural resource for existence of mankind and environment sustainability. For better planning and management of water resources, prediction of groundwater level (GWL) is essential. So, it is important to develop predictive model for GWL. Level of GW gets fluctuated by boundary constraints as well as variations in hydrological and meteorological variables, including rainfall, evaporation, temperature etc. Due to complex nature of hydrological and meteorological variables and their chaotic relationships, modeling GWL is a tough task. Since, machine leaning (ML) techniques are capable of modeling chaotic processes, over the past two decades, ML models are being getting developed for prediction of GWL. These models made use of GWL as well as hydrological and meteorological information as antecedent data. However, increased number of input variables hinder the process of developing reliable and accurate models. So, researchers are looking for development of ML based predictive model based on limited parameters enhancing the model learning process, saving time and reducing computational costs. Thus, the objective of this research work is to develop a ML based model using restricted input parameter/s for prediction of GWL. This research work has been realized through development of a hydro-gravimetric based ANN model. Since, accumulation and depletion of groundwater at any location lead to increase and decrease in mass around it and causes change in gravity force on the station point. So, surface gravity measurement near a well corresponding to its water level has been considered as input parameter for development of hydro-gravimetric ML model. Since, gravity value at any station also depends on its location with reference to moon, a temporal phenomena, thus time of gravity observation has also been taken as one of the inputs towards development and prediction of model. The model has been developed making use 120 training samples from observation spread over 8 months. Making use of training samples, based on MSE, a 4 layers predictive ANN model has been developed. The developed model has been tested for 27 independent samples (considered, beyond observation period for training samples) and provided an RMSE of 0.390 meter in a well where average height of water above MSL is 247.940 meter. Thus, it can be concluded that in order to develop ML model from small number of input parameters, hydro-gravimetry based ANN model can be used for prediction of GWL and also, can be used as alternative to hydro-meteorological based ML model. However, to improve quality of model, some relevant hydro-gravimetric parameter/s may be considered in future.

Keywords: ANN, hydro-gravimetry, ground water level, predictive model, ML model

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