Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 845

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

845 Vertical Electrical Sounding and Seismic Refraction Techniques in Resolving Groundwater Problems at Kujama Prison Farm, Kaduna, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, C. G, Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai

Abstract:

For two decades, the inhabitants of Kujama Prison Farm faced problems of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, even after the drilling of three deep boreholes. The scarcity of this groundwater resource led to the geophysical investigation of the basement complex of the prison farm. Two geophysical techniques, vertical electrical sounding and seismic refraction methods were deployed to unravel the cause(s) of the non-productivity of the three boreholes. The area of investigation covered was 400,000 m2 of ten profiles with six investigative points. In all, 60 vertical electrical points were sounded, and sixty sets of seismic refraction data were collected using the forward and reverse approach. From the geoelectric sections, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by three to five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. From the combined results of the two techniques, it was suggestive that all the three unproductive boreholes were drilled at points that were neither weathered nor fractured. It was, therefore, suggested that new boreholes should be drilled at areas identified with depressed bedrock topography having geophysical evidence of intense weathering and fracturing within the fresh basement.

Keywords: groundwater, Kujama prison farm, kaduna, nigeria, seismic refraction, vertical electrical sounding

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844 Dating of the Huglu Tuffites (Beysehir- Hoyran Nappes) Using Radiolarian Assemblages in the Central Taurides, Southern Turkey: Geochemical Records and Correlation

Authors: Ugur Kagan Tekin, Kaan Sayit, Cagri Güzgün, Cengiz Okuyucu, Yavuz Bedi

Abstract:

The Huglu Unit, as a part of the Beysehir-Hoyran Nappes, is made up of tuffites and basic volcanics with intercalations of Radiolaria-bearing limestones and shales (the Huglu Tuffites) at the base and pelagic limestones with chert nodules and clastics (the Huglu Limestone) at the top. Detailed studies on the Huglu Unit were carried out to clarify the stratigraphic properties, ages, and geochemical characteristics in the central Taurides (located in the southern part of Konya and Karaman cities among Kazimkarabekir, Taskent and Ermenek towns). For this purpose, samples were collected along five stratigraphic sections, namely, Alanözü, Göcer-north, Sazmevkii, Ayiyatagi, Sekininkiri. All these five stratigraphic sections measured from the tectonic slices and blocks in the matrix belonging to the Beysehir-Hoyran Nappes include grey- to green-colored, thin- to very thin-bedded tuffites with abundant Radiolarian-bearing limestone interlayers. All these sections contain similar radiolarian assemblages (the Alanözü section to the southwest of Kazımkarabekir town with Capnuchosphaera triassica, C. tricornis, Pseudohagiastrum cordevolicum, Divatella austriaca, Tetraporobrachia haeckeli, Xiphothecaella karpenissionensis etc; the Göcer-north section to the south of Kazımkarabekir town with Spongotortilispinus carnicus, Capnuchosphaera triassica, Hindeosphaera bispinosa, Divatella austriaca, Poulpus piabyx, Xiphothecaella longa etc; the Sazmevkii section to the northeast of Taskent town with Spongotortilispinus carnicus, S. tortilis, Triassocrucella triassica, Capnuchosphaera triassica, Hindeosphaera bispinosa, Vinassaspongus subsphaericus, Xiphothecaella longa etc; the Ayiyatagi section to the northeast of Taskent town with Ropanaella zapfei, Dumitricasphaera simplex, Triassocrucella triassica, Capnuchosphaera triassica, Xiphothecaella karpenissionensis, X. longa etc and the Sekininkiri section to the north of Ermenek town with Capnuchosphaera crassa, C. contracta, C. triassica, Spongotortilispinus carnicus, Weverella tetrabrachiata, Hindeosphaera bispinosa etc.). By correlation of radiolarian assemblages to the type localities in Austria and Turkey, the ages of these assemblages are assigned to the middle Carnian (Late Triassic). U. Kagan Tekin, Kaan Sayit, Cagri Güzgün, Cengiz Okuyucu, Yavuz Bedi Geochemical analyses of the tuffites from these sections indicate that they are felsic in composition, with SiO₂ contents over 70 wt.%. High Zr/TiO₂ ratios are also consistent with their acidic nature. On the multi-element plots (normalized to N-MORB), the tuffites show prominent negative Nb anomalies with high Th/Nb and La/Nb ratios (between 0.8-1.1 and 2.0-2.3, respectively). This indicates that the tuffites are ultimately linked to a source region modified by slab-derived fluids/melts, which, in turn, may suggest their derivation from a subduction-related environment. The studied tuffites show similar characteristics to those from the Mersin Mélange (Degirmenocagi area), which appear to have developed during the rifting of an oceanic arc. All these results are well-correlative with the previously obtained data from the eastern Taurides (the Köseyahya Nappe, close to Elbistan town) and central Taurides (Mersin Mélange, to the northwest of Mersin City). This study was funded by Hacettepe University, Scientific Research Projects (FBA-2018-16915)

Keywords: Felsic, Huglu Tuffites, middle Carnian, radiolarians, rifting of oceanic arc, Taurides

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843 Spatial Variability of Phyotoplankton Assemblages during the Intermonsoon in Baler Bay, Outer and Inner Casiguran Sound, Aurora, Fronting Philipine Rise

Authors: Aime P. Lampad-Dela Pena, Rhodora V. Azanza, Cesar L. Villanoy, Ephrime B. Metillo, Aletta T. Yniguez

Abstract:

Phytoplankton community changes in relation to environmental parameters were compared between and within, the three interconnected basins. Phytoplankton samples were collected from thirteen stations of Baler Bay and Casiguran Sound, Aurora last May 2013 by filtering 10 L buckets of surface water and 5 L Niskin samples at 20 meters and at 30 to 40 meters depths through a 20um sieve. Duplicate samples per station were preserved, counted, and identified up to genus level, in order to determine the horizontal and vertical spatial variation of different phytoplankton functional groups during the summer ebb and flood flow. Baler Bay, Outer and Inner Casiguran Sound had a total of 89 genera from four phytoplankton groups: Diatom (62), Dinoflagellate (25), Silicoflagellate (1) and Cyanobacteria (1). Non-toxic diatom Chaetoceros spp. bloom (averaged 2.0 x 105 to 2.73 x 106 cells L⁻¹) co-existed with Bacteriastrum spp. at surface waters in Inner and Outer Casiguran. Pseudonitzschia spp. (1.73 x 106 cells L⁻¹) bloomed at bottom waters of the innermost embayment near Casiguran mangrove estuary. Cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. significantly increased during ebb tide at the mid-water layers (20 meters depth) in the three basins (ranged from 6, 900 to 15, 125 filaments L⁻¹), forming another bloom. Gonyaulax spp. - dominated dinoflagellate did not significantly change with depth across the three basins. Overall, diatoms and dinoflagellates community assemblages significantly changed between sites (p < 0.001) while diatoms and cyanobacteria varied within Casiguran outer and inner sites (p < 0.001) only. Tidal fluctuations significantly affected dinoflagellates and diatom groups (p < 0.001) in inner and baler sites. Chlorophyll significantly varied between (KW, p < 0.001) and within each basins (KW, p < 0.05), no tidal influence, with the highest value at inner Casiguran and at deeper waters indicating deep chlorophyll maxima. Aurora’s distinct shelf morphology favoring counterclockwise circulation pattern, advective transport, and continuous stratification of the water column could basically affect the phytoplankton assemblages and water quality of Baler Bay and Casiguran inner and outer basins. Observed spatial phytoplankton community changes with multi-species diatom and cyanobacteria bloom at different water layers of the three inter-connected embayments would be vital for any environmental management initiatives in Aurora.

Keywords: aurora fronting Philippines Rise, intermonsoon, multi-species diatom bloom, spatial variability

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842 Delineation of Fracture Zones for Investigation of Groundwater Potentials Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in a Sedimentary Complex Terrain

Authors: M. N. Yahaya, K. A. Salako, U. Z. Magawata

Abstract:

Vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was used to investigate the groundwater potential at the southern part of Gulumbe district, Kebbi State, north-western part of Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the subsurface layer’s parameters (resistivity and thickness) and uses the same to characterize the groundwater potential of the study area. The Schlumberger configuration was used for data acquisition. A total number of thirty-three (33) sounding points (VES) were surveyed over six profiles. The software IPI2WIN was used to obtain n-layered geo-electric sections. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation revealed that three subsurface layers could be delineated, which comprise of top soil, sand, sandstone, coarse sand, limestone, and gravelly sand. The results of the resistivity sounding were correlated with the lithological logs of nearby boreholes that expose cross-section geologic units around the study area. We found out that the area is dominated by three subsurface layers. The coarse sand layers constituted the aquifer zones in the majority of sounding stations. Thus, this present study concluded that the depth of any borehole in the study area should be located between the depth of 18.5 to 39 m. The study further classified the VES points penetrated based on their conductivity content as highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitably, and poor zones for groundwater exploration. Hence, from this research, we recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones across VES 2, 11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 27, and 33, respectively.

Keywords: vertical electrical sounding, resistivity, geo-electric, resistivity, aquifer and groundwater

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841 State Rescaling of the Urban Development in Hong Kong after the Reunification: A Case Study of the Planning Process of the Hong Kong Section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Authors: Zhihua Xu

Abstract:

In the era of globalization, the urban question is increasingly being posed in the form of a scale question. Scale theory provides a new perspective for analyzing various dynamics and their influences on urban development. After the reunification, how the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) interacts with the actors at various scales and carries out state rescaling are the keys to exploring the issue of urban development and governance in Hong Kong. This paper examines the entire planning process of the Hong Kong Section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, from project conception, design, to consultation, and fund application, to identify the actors at different scales involved in the process, and analyze the modes and consequences of their interaction. This study shows that after the reunification, the Hong Kong SAR Government takes the initiative to scale up to expand its hinterland. Intergovernmental institutional cooperation is an important mode of state rescaling for the Hong Kong SAR government. Meanwhile, the gradually growing civil society plays an important role in the rescaling of urban development. Local actors use scalar politics to construct discourses and take actions at multiple scales to challenge the government’s proposal and trigger a discussion on the project throughout the Hong Kong society. The case study of Hong Kong can deepen the understanding of state rescaling of territorial organizations in the context of institutional transformation and enrich the theoretical connotation of state rescaling. It also helps the Mainland government to better understand the case of Hong Kong and formulate appropriate.

Keywords: Hong Kong, state rescaling, scalar politics, Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong express rail link, urban governance

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840 The Quality Assessment of Seismic Reflection Survey Data Using Statistical Analysis: A Case Study of Fort Abbas Area, Cholistan Desert, Pakistan

Authors: U. Waqas, M. F. Ahmed, A. Mehmood, M. A. Rashid

Abstract:

In geophysical exploration surveys, the quality of acquired data holds significant importance before executing the data processing and interpretation phases. In this study, 2D seismic reflection survey data of Fort Abbas area, Cholistan Desert, Pakistan was taken as test case in order to assess its quality on statistical bases by using normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), Cronbach’s alpha test (α) and null hypothesis tests (t-test and F-test). The analysis challenged the quality of the acquired data and highlighted the significant errors in the acquired database. It is proven that the study area is plain, tectonically least affected and rich in oil and gas reserves. However, subsurface 3D modeling and contouring by using acquired database revealed high degrees of structural complexities and intense folding. The NRMSE had highest percentage of residuals between the estimated and predicted cases. The outcomes of hypothesis testing also proved the biasness and erraticness of the acquired database. Low estimated value of alpha (α) in Cronbach’s alpha test confirmed poor reliability of acquired database. A very low quality of acquired database needs excessive static correction or in some cases, reacquisition of data is also suggested which is most of the time not feasible on economic grounds. The outcomes of this study could be used to assess the quality of large databases and to further utilize as a guideline to establish database quality assessment models to make much more informed decisions in hydrocarbon exploration field.

Keywords: Data quality, Null hypothesis, Seismic lines, Seismic reflection survey

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839 Predicting OpenStreetMap Coverage by Means of Remote Sensing: The Case of Haiti

Authors: Ran Goldblatt, Nicholas Jones, Jennifer Mannix, Brad Bottoms

Abstract:

Accurate, complete, and up-to-date geospatial information is the foundation of successful disaster management. When the 2010 Haiti Earthquake struck, accurate and timely information on the distribution of critical infrastructure was essential for the disaster response community for effective search and rescue operations. Existing geospatial datasets such as Google Maps did not have comprehensive coverage of these features. In the days following the earthquake, many organizations released high-resolution satellite imagery, catalyzing a worldwide effort to map Haiti and support the recovery operations. Of these organizations, OpenStreetMap (OSM), a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world, used the imagery to support volunteers to digitize roads, buildings, and other features, creating the most detailed map of Haiti in existence in just a few weeks. However, large portions of the island are still not fully covered by OSM. There is an increasing need for a tool to automatically identify which areas in Haiti, as well as in other countries vulnerable to disasters, that are not fully mapped. The objective of this project is to leverage different types of remote sensing measurements, together with machine learning approaches, in order to identify geographical areas where OSM coverage of building footprints is incomplete. Several remote sensing measures and derived products were assessed as potential predictors of OSM building footprints coverage, including: intensity of light emitted at night (based on VIIRS measurements), spectral indices derived from Sentinel-2 satellite (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), urban index (UI)), surface texture (based on Sentinel-1 SAR measurements)), elevation and slope. Additional remote sensing derived products, such as Hansen Global Forest Change, DLR`s Global Urban Footprint (GUF), and World Settlement Footprint (WSF), were also evaluated as predictors, as well as OSM street and road network (including junctions). Using a supervised classification with a random forest classifier resulted in the prediction of 89% of the variation of OSM building footprint area in a given cell. These predictions allowed for the identification of cells that are predicted to be covered but are actually not mapped yet. With these results, this methodology could be adapted to any location to assist with preparing for future disastrous events and assure that essential geospatial information is available to support the response and recovery efforts during and following major disasters.

Keywords: disaster management, Haiti, machine learning, OpenStreetMap, remote sensing

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838 Wildfire-Related Debris-Flow and Flooding Using 2-D Hydrologic Model

Authors: Cheong Hyeon Oh, Dongho Nam, Byungsik Kim

Abstract:

Due to the recent climate change, flood damage caused by local floods and typhoons has frequently occurred, the incidence rate and intensity of wildfires are greatly increased due to increased temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. Wildfires cause primary damage, such as loss of forest resources, as well as secondary disasters, such as landslides, floods, and debris flow. In many countries around the world, damage and economic losses from secondary damage are occurring as well as the direct effects of forest fires. Therefore, in this study, the Rainfall-Runoff model(S-RAT) was used for the wildfire affected areas in Gangneung and Goseong, which occurred on April 2019, when the stability of vegetation and soil were destroyed by wildfires. Rainfall data from Typhoon Rusa were used in the S-RAT model, and flood discharge was calculated according to changes in land cover before and after wildfire damage. The results of the calculation showed that flood discharge increased significantly due to changes in land cover, as the increase in flood discharge increases the possibility of the occurrence of the debris flow and the extent of the damage, the debris flow height and range were calculated before and after forest fire using RAMMS. The analysis results showed that the height and extent of damage increased after wildfire, but the result value was underestimated due to the characteristics that using DEM and maximum flood discharge of the RAMMS model. This research was supported by a grant(2017-MOIS31-004) from Fundamental Technology Development Program for Extreme Disaster Response funded by Korean Ministry of Interior and Safety (MOIS). This paper work (or document) was financially supported by Ministry of the Interior and Safety as 'Human resoure development Project in Disaster management'.

Keywords: wildfire, debris flow, land cover, rainfall-runoff meodel S-RAT, RAMMS, height

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837 Using Optical Character Recognition to Manage the Unstructured Disaster Data into Smart Disaster Management System

Authors: Dong Seop Lee, Byung Sik Kim

Abstract:

In the 4th Industrial Revolution, various intelligent technologies have been developed in many fields. These artificial intelligence technologies are applied in various services, including disaster management. Disaster information management does not just support disaster work, but it is also the foundation of smart disaster management. Furthermore, it gets historical disaster information using artificial intelligence technology. Disaster information is one of important elements of entire disaster cycle. Disaster information management refers to the act of managing and processing electronic data about disaster cycle from its’ occurrence to progress, response, and plan. However, information about status control, response, recovery from natural and social disaster events, etc. is mainly managed in the structured and unstructured form of reports. Those exist as handouts or hard-copies of reports. Such unstructured form of data is often lost or destroyed due to inefficient management. It is necessary to manage unstructured data for disaster information. In this paper, the Optical Character Recognition approach is used to convert handout, hard-copies, images or reports, which is printed or generated by scanners, etc. into electronic documents. Following that, the converted disaster data is organized into the disaster code system as disaster information. Those data are stored in the disaster database system. Gathering and creating disaster information based on Optical Character Recognition for unstructured data is important element as realm of the smart disaster management. In this paper, Korean characters were improved to over 90% character recognition rate by using upgraded OCR. In the case of character recognition, the recognition rate depends on the fonts, size, and special symbols of character. We improved it through the machine learning algorithm. These converted structured data is managed in a standardized disaster information form connected with the disaster code system. The disaster code system is covered that the structured information is stored and retrieve on entire disaster cycle such as historical disaster progress, damages, response, and recovery. The expected effect of this research will be able to apply it to smart disaster management and decision making by combining artificial intelligence technologies and historical big data.

Keywords: disaster information management, unstructured data, optical character recognition, machine learning

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836 Experimental Testing of a Synthetic Mulch to Reduce Runoff and Evaporative Water Losses

Authors: Yasmeen Saleem, Pedro Berliner, Nurit Agam

Abstract:

The most severe limitation for plant production in arid areas is water. Rainfall events are rare but can have pulses of high intensity. As a result, crusts are formed, which decreases infiltration into the soil, and results additionally in erosive losses of soil. Direct evaporation of water from the wetted soil can account for large fractions of the water stored in the soil. Different kinds of mulches have been used to decrease the loss of water in arid and semi-arid region. This study aims to evaluate the effect of polystyrene styrofoam pellets mulch on soil infiltration, runoff, and evaporation as a more efficient and economically viable mulch alternative. Polystyrene styrofoam pellets of two sizes (0.5 and 1 cm diameter) will be placed on top of the soil in two mulch layer depths (1 and 2 cm), in addition to the non-mulched treatment. The rainfall simulator will be used as an artificial source of rain. The preliminary results in the prototype experiment indicate that polystyrene styrofoam pellets decreased runoff, increased soil-water infiltration. We are still testing the effect of these pellets on decreasing the soil-water evaporation.

Keywords: synthetic mulch, runoff, evaporation, infiltration

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835 Forest Fire Risk Mapping Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS-Based Application: A Case Study in Hua Sai District, Thailand

Authors: Narissara Nuthammachot, Dimitris Stratoulias

Abstract:

Fire is one of the main causes of environmental and ecosystem change. Therefore, it is a challenging task for fire risk assessment fire potential mapping. The study area is Hua Sai district, Nakorn Sri Thammarat province, which covers in a part of peat swamp forest areas. 55 fire points in peat swamp areas were reported from 2012 to 2016. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were selected for this study. The risk fire area map was arranged on these factors; elevation, slope, aspect, precipitation, distance from the river, distance from town, and land use. The results showed that the predicted fire risk areas are found to be in appreciable reliability with past fire events. The fire risk map can be used for the planning and management of fire areas in the future.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fire risk assessment, geographic information system, peat swamp forest

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834 Quantitative Seismic Interpretation in the LP3D Concession, Central of the Sirte Basin, Libya

Authors: Tawfig Alghbaili

Abstract:

LP3D Field is located near the center of the Sirt Basin in the Marada Trough approximately 215 km south Marsa Al Braga City. The Marada Trough is bounded on the west by a major fault, which forms the edge of the Beda Platform, while on the east, a bounding fault marks the edge of the Zelten Platform. The main reservoir in the LP3D Field is Upper Paleocene Beda Formation. The Beda Formation is mainly limestone interbedded with shale. The reservoir average thickness is 117.5 feet. To develop a better understanding of the characterization and distribution of the Beda reservoir, quantitative seismic data interpretation has been done, and also, well logs data were analyzed. Six reflectors corresponding to the tops of the Beda, Hagfa Shale, Gir, Kheir Shale, Khalifa Shale, and Zelten Formations were picked and mapped. Special work was done on fault interpretation part because of the complexities of the faults at the structure area. Different attribute analyses were done to build up more understanding of structures lateral extension and to view a clear image of the fault blocks. Time to depth conversion was computed using velocity modeling generated from check shot and sonic data. The simplified stratigraphic cross-section was drawn through the wells A1, A2, A3, and A4-LP3D. The distribution and the thickness variations of the Beda reservoir along the study area had been demonstrating. Petrophysical analysis of wireline logging also was done and Cross plots of some petrophysical parameters are generated to evaluate the lithology of reservoir interval. Structure and Stratigraphic Framework was designed and run to generate different model like faults, facies, and petrophysical models and calculate the reservoir volumetric. This study concluded that the depth structure map of the Beda formation shows the main structure in the area of study, which is north to south faulted anticline. Based on the Beda reservoir models, volumetric for the base case has been calculated and it has STOIIP of 41MMSTB and Recoverable oil of 10MMSTB. Seismic attributes confirm the structure trend and build a better understanding of the fault system in the area.

Keywords: LP3D Field, Beda Formation, reservoir models, Seismic attributes

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833 Surface Deformation Studies in South of Johor Using the Integration of InSAR and Resistivity Methods

Authors: Sirajo Abubakar, Ismail Ahmad Abir, Muhammad Sabiu Bala, Muhammad Mustapha Adejo, Aravind Shanmugaveloo

Abstract:

Over the years, land subsidence has been a serious threat mostly to urban areas. Land subsidence is the sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of the ground’s surface with little or no horizontal motion. In most areas, land subsidence is a slow process that covers a large area; therefore, it is sometimes left unnoticed. South of Johor is the area of interest for this project because it is going through rapid urbanization. The objective of this research is to evaluate and identify potential deformations in the south of Johor using integrated remote sensing and 2D resistivity methods. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) which is a remote sensing technique has the potential to map coherent displacements at centimeter to millimeter resolutions. Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) stacking technique was applied to Sentinel-1 data to detect the earth deformation in the study area. A dipole-dipole configuration resistivity profiling was conducted in three areas to determine the subsurface features in that area. This subsurface features interpreted were then correlated with the remote sensing technique to predict the possible causes of subsidence and uplifts in the south of Johor. Based on the results obtained, West Johor Bahru (0.63mm/year) and Ulu Tiram (1.61mm/year) are going through uplift due to possible geological uplift. On the other end, East Johor Bahru (-0.26mm/year) and Senai (-1.16mm/year) undergo subsidence due to possible fracture and granitic boulders loading. Land subsidence must be taken seriously as it can cause serious damages to infrastructures and human life. Monitoring land subsidence and taking preventive actions must be done to prevent any disasters.

Keywords: interferometric synthetic aperture radar, persistent scatter, minimum spanning tree, resistivity, subsidence

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832 Analytical Method for Seismic Analysis of Shaft-Tunnel Junction under Longitudinal Excitations

Authors: Jinghua Zhang

Abstract:

Shaft-tunnel junction is a typical case of the structural nonuniformity in underground structures. The shaft and the tunnel possess greatly different structural features. Even under uniform excitations, they tend to behave discrepantly. Studies on shaft-tunnel junctions are mainly performed numerically. Shaking table tests are also conducted. Although many numerical and experimental data are obtained, an analytical solution still has great merits of gaining more insights into the shaft-tunnel problem. This paper will try to remedy the situation. Since the seismic responses of shaft-tunnel junctions are very related to directions of the excitations, they are studied in two scenarios: the longitudinal-excitation scenario and the transverse-excitation scenario. The former scenario will be addressed in this paper. Given that responses of the tunnel are highly dependent on the shaft, the analytical solutions would be developed firstly for the vertical shaft. Then, the seismic responses of the tunnel would be discussed. Since vertical shafts bear a resemblance to rigid caissons, the solution proposed in this paper is derived by introducing terms of shaft-tunnel and soil-tunnel interactions into equations originally developed for rigid caissons. The validity of the solution is examined by a validation model computed by finite element method. The mutual influence between the shaft and the tunnel is introduced. The soil-structure interactions are discussed parametrically based on the proposed equations. The shaft-tunnel relative displacement and the soil-tunnel relative stiffness are found to be the most important parameters affecting the magnitudes and distributions of the internal forces of the tunnel. A hinge-joint at the shaft-tunnel junction could significantly reduce the degree of stress concentration compared with a rigid joint.

Keywords: analytical solution, longitudinal excitation, numerical validation , shaft-tunnel junction

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831 Grid Based Traffic Vulnerability Model Using Betweenness Centrality for Urban Disaster Management Information

Authors: Okyu Kwon, Dongho Kang, Byungsik Kim, Seungkwon Jung

Abstract:

We propose a technique to measure the impact of loss of traffic function in a particular area to surrounding areas. The proposed method is applied to the city of Seoul, which is the capital of South Korea, with a population of about ten million. Based on the actual road network in Seoul, we construct an abstract road network between 1kmx1km grid cells. The link weight of the abstract road network is re-adjusted considering traffic volume measured at several survey points. On the modified abstract road network, we evaluate the traffic vulnerability by calculating a network measure of betweenness centrality (BC) for every single grid cells. This study analyzes traffic impacts caused by road dysfunction due to heavy rainfall in urban areas. We could see the change of the BC value in all other grid cells by calculating the BC value once again when the specific grid cell lost its traffic function, that is, when the node disappeared on the grid-based road network. The results show that it is appropriate to use the sum of the BC variation of other cells as the influence index of each lattice cell on traffic. This research was supported by a grant (2017-MOIS31-004) from Fundamental Technology Development Program for Extreme Disaster Response funded by Korean Ministry of Interior and Safety (MOIS).

Keywords: vulnerability, road network, beweenness centrality, heavy rainfall, road impact

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830 Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Climatic Zones over the Korean Peninsula for Natural Disaster Management Information

Authors: Sejin Jung, Dongho Kang, Byungsik Kim

Abstract:

Assessing the impact of climate change requires the use of a multi-model ensemble (MME) to quantify uncertainties between scenarios and produce downscaled outlines for simulation of climate under the influence of different factors, including topography. This study decreases climate change scenarios from the 13 global climate models (GCMs) to assess the impacts of future climate change. Unlike South Korea, North Korea lacks in studies using climate change scenarios of the CoupledModelIntercomparisonProject (CMIP5), and only recently did the country start the projection of extreme precipitation episodes. One of the main purposes of this study is to predict changes in the average climatic conditions of North Korea in the future. The result of comparing downscaled climate change scenarios with observation data for a reference period indicates high applicability of the Multi-Model Ensemble (MME). Furthermore, the study classifies climatic zones by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system to the MME, which is validated for future precipitation and temperature. The result suggests that the continental climate (D) that covers the inland area for the reference climate is expected to shift into the temperate climate (C). The coefficient of variation (CVs) in the temperature ensemble is particularly low for the southern coast of the Korean peninsula, and accordingly, a high possibility of the shifting climatic zone of the coast is predicted. This research was supported by a grant (MOIS-DP-2015-05) of Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Ministry of Interior and Safety (MOIS, Korea).

Keywords: MME, North Korea, Koppen–Geiger, climatic zones, coefficient of variation, CV

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829 Factors Controlling Marine Shale Porosity: A Case Study between Lower Cambrian and Lower Silurian of Upper Yangtze Area, South China

Authors: Xin Li, Zhenxue Jiang, Zhuo Li

Abstract:

Generally, shale gas is trapped within shale systems with low porosity and ultralow permeability as free and adsorbing states. Its production is controlled by properties, in terms of occurrence phases, gas contents, and percolation characteristics. These properties are all influenced by porous features. In this paper, porosity differences of marine shales were explored between Lower Cambrian shale and Lower Silurian shale of Sichuan Basin, South China. Both the two shales were marine shales with abundant oil-prone kerogen and rich siliceous minerals. Whereas Lower Cambrian shale (3.56% Ro) possessed a higher thermal degree than that of Lower Silurian shale (2.31% Ro). Samples were measured by a combination of organic-chemistry geology measurement, organic matter (OM) isolation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Lower Cambrian shale presented relatively low pore properties, with averaging 0.008ml/g pore volume (PV), averaging 7.99m²/g pore surface area (PSA) and averaging 5.94nm average pore diameter (APD). Lower Silurian shale showed as relatively high pore properties, with averaging 0.015ml/g PV, averaging 10.53m²/g PSA and averaging 18.60nm APD. Additionally, fractal analysis indicated that the two shales presented discrepant pore morphologies, mainly caused by differences in the combination of pore types between the two shales. More specifically, OM-hosted pores with pin-hole shape and dissolved pores with dead-end openings were the main types in Lower Cambrian shale, while OM-hosted pore with a cellular structure was the main type in Lower Silurian shale. Moreover, porous characteristics of isolated OM suggested that OM of Lower Silurian shale was more capable than that of Lower Cambrian shale in the aspect of pore contribution. PV of isolated OM in Lower Silurian shale was almost 6.6 times higher than that in Lower Cambrian shale, and PSA of isolated OM in Lower Silurian shale was almost 4.3 times higher than that in Lower Cambrian shale. However, no apparent differences existed among samples with various matrix compositions. At late diagenetic or metamorphic epoch, extensive diagenesis overprints the effects of minerals on pore properties and OM plays the dominant role in pore developments. Hence, differences of porous features between the two marine shales highlight the effect of diagenetic degree on OM-hosted pore development. Consequently, distinctive pore characteristics may be caused by the different degrees of diagenetic evolution, even with similar matrix basics.

Keywords: marine shale, lower Cambrian, lower Silurian, om isolation, pore properties, om-hosted pore

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828 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation in Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

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Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Sukhothai zone, petrography, Hong Hoi formation, Lampang, Triassic

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827 The Gravitational Impact of the Sun and the Moon on Heavy Mineral Deposits and Dust Particles in Low Gravity Regions of the Earth

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara

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The Earth’s gravity is not uniform. The satellite imageries of the Earth’s surface from NASA reveal a number of different gravity anomaly regions all over the globe. When the moon rotates around the earth, its gravity has a major physical influence on a number of regions on the earth. This physical change can be seen by the tides. The tides make sea levels high and low in coastal regions. During high tide, the gravitational force of the Moon pulls the Earth’s gravity so that the total gravitational intensity of Earth is reduced; it is further reduced in the low gravity regions of Earth. This reduction in gravity helps keep the suspended particles such as dust in the atmosphere, sand grains in the sea water for longer. Dramatic differences can be seen from the floating dust in the low gravity regions when compared with other regions. The above phenomena can be demonstrated from experiments. The experiments have to be done in high and low gravity regions of the earth during high and low tide, which will assist in comparing the final results. One of the experiments that can be done is by using a water filled cylinder about 80 cm tall, a few particles, which have the same density and same diameter (about 1 mm) and a stop watch. The selected particles were dropped from the surface of the water in the cylinder and the time taken for the particles to reach the bottom of the cylinder was measured using the stop watch. The times of high and low tide charts can be obtained from the regional government authorities. This concept is demonstrated by the particle drop times taken at high and low tides. The result of the experiment shows that the particle settlement time is less in low tide and high in high tide. The experiment for dust particles in air can be collected on filters, which are cellulose ester membranes and using a vacuum pump. The dust on filters can be used to make slides according to the NOHSC method. Counting the dust particles on the slides can be done using a phase contrast microscope. The results show that the concentration of dust is high at high tide and low in low tide. As a result of the high tides, a high concentration of heavy minerals deposit on placer deposits and dust particles retain in the atmosphere for longer in low gravity regions. These conditions are remarkably exhibited in the lowest low gravity region of the earth, mainly in the regions of India, Sri Lanka and in the middle part of the Indian Ocean. The biggest heavy mineral placer deposits are found in coastal regions of India and Sri Lanka and heavy dust particles are found in the atmosphere of India, particularly in the Delhi region.

Keywords: gravity, minerals, tides, moon, costal, atmosphere

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826 Coordinative Remote Sensing Observation Technology for a High Altitude Barrier Lake

Authors: Zhang Xin

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Barrier lakes are lakes formed by storing water in valleys, river valleys or riverbeds after being blocked by landslide, earthquake, debris flow, and other factors. They have great potential safety hazards. When the water is stored to a certain extent, it may burst in case of strong earthquake or rainstorm, and the lake water overflows, resulting in large-scale flood disasters. In order to ensure the safety of people's lives and property in the downstream, it is very necessary to monitor the barrier lake. However, it is very difficult and time-consuming to manually monitor the barrier lake in high altitude areas due to the harsh climate and steep terrain. With the development of earth observation technology, remote sensing monitoring has become one of the main ways to obtain observation data. Compared with a single satellite, multi-satellite remote sensing cooperative observation has more advantages; its spatial coverage is extensive, observation time is continuous, imaging types and bands are abundant, it can monitor and respond quickly to emergencies, and complete complex monitoring tasks. Monitoring with multi-temporal and multi-platform remote sensing satellites can obtain a variety of observation data in time, acquire key information such as water level and water storage capacity of the barrier lake, scientifically judge the situation of the barrier lake and reasonably predict its future development trend. In this study, The Sarez Lake, which formed on February 18, 1911, in the central part of the Pamir as a result of blockage of the Murgab River valley by a landslide triggered by a strong earthquake with magnitude of 7.4 and intensity of 9, is selected as the research area. Since the formation of Lake Sarez, it has aroused widespread international concern about its safety. At present, the use of mechanical methods in the international analysis of the safety of Lake Sarez is more common, and remote sensing methods are seldom used. This study combines remote sensing data with field observation data, and uses the 'space-air-ground' joint observation technology to study the changes in water level and water storage capacity of Lake Sarez in recent decades, and evaluate its safety. The situation of the collapse is simulated, and the future development trend of Lake Sarez is predicted. The results show that: 1) in recent decades, the water level of Lake Sarez has not changed much and remained at a stable level; 2) unless there is a strong earthquake or heavy rain, it is less likely that the Lake Sarez will be broken under normal conditions, 3) lake Sarez will remain stable in the future, but it is necessary to establish an early warning system in the Lake Sarez area for remote sensing of the area, 4) the coordinative remote sensing observation technology is feasible for the high altitude barrier lake of Sarez.

Keywords: coordinative observation, disaster, remote sensing, geographic information system, GIS

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825 Zeolite Origin within the Pliocene Sedimentary-Pyroclastic Deposits in the Southwestern Part of Syria

Authors: Abdulsalam Turkmani, Mohammed Khaled Yezbek, Farouk Al Imadi

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Geological surveys in the southwestern part of Syria showed the presence of sedimentary-pyroclastic deposits, volcanic tuff, to the age of the Upper Pliocene and contain the following minerals according petrographical study and XRD, SEM, XRF analysis and surface properties. X-Ray diffraction results indicate the presence of analcime, phillipsite and chabazite in in all the studied localities. There are also amorphous materials and clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. The non-zeolite constituents include olivine, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and spinel, and less of magnetite and feldspar. Some major oxides were determined through XRF geochemical analyses which include SiO₂, Al₂O₃, K₂O, Fe₂O₃, and CaO for volcanic tuff and zeolite. The formation of these depositions can be summarized in the following stages during the Pliocene: Volcanic activity at the edges of Al Rutba uplift and Jabal Al Arab depression was a rich by tuff bearing ultra basic and basic xenoliths plus second phase by scoria, during the early Pliocene. Volcanic calm with the activity of erosion and form lakes in which deposition of a set of wastes, including olivine resulting from the disintegration of xenoliths during the middle Pliocene. Zeolites minerals form later, which make up about 15-20% and increase and decrease in reverse relation with the olivine sand. Zeolite is formed from volcanic glass, and the results of SEM show that the zeolites minerals very well crystallized.

Keywords: minerals, origin, pyroclastic, zeolite

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824 An Overview of Pakistani Shales for Shale Gas Exploration and Comparison to North American Shale Plays

Authors: Ghulam Sohail, Christopher Hawkes

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Pakistan has been facing a growing energy crisis for the last decade, and the government is seeking new horizons for increasing oil and gas production to reduce the gap between supply and demand. Recent developments in technologies to produce natural gas from shales at economical rates has unlocked new horizons for hydrocarbon exploration and development throughout the world. Operating companies in the U.S.A. and Canada have been particularly successful at producing shale gas, so comparing against the properties of shale gas reservoirs in these countries is used for an initial assessment of prospective shale gas reservoirs in other parts of the world. In this study, selected source rocks of Pakistan are evaluated for their shale gas potential using analogs selected from various North American shales for which data have been published. Published data for Pakistani shales were compiled, then assessed and supplemented through consultation with industry professionals. Pakistani formations reviewed are the Datta (shaly sandstone), Hangu (sandy shale), Patala (sandy shale), Ranikot (shaly sandstone), Sembar (sandy shale) and Lower Goru (shaly sandstone) formations, all of which are known source rocks in the Indus Basin. For this study, available geological, geochemical, petrophysical and elastic parameters have been investigated and are correlated specifically with the eight most active shale gas plays of the U.S.A., while data for other North American shale gas plays are used for general discussion on prospective Pakistani shales. The results show that the geological and geochemical parameters of all the Pakistani shales reviewed in this work are promising regarding their shale gas. However, more petrophysical and geomechanical data are required before conclusions on economic production from these shales can be made with confidence.

Keywords: Canada shale gas, Indus Basin, Pakistani shales, U.S.A shale gas

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823 Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Myanmar, Based on Microtremor Measurement

Authors: Khaing Su Su Than, Hibino Yo

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Seismic evaluation is needed upon the buildings in Myanmar. Microtremor measurement was conducted in the main cities, Mandalay and Yangon. In order to evaluate the seismic properties of buildings currently under construction, seismic information was gathered for six buildings in Yangon city and four buildings in Mandalay city. The investigated buildings vary from 12m-80 m in height, and mostly public residence structures. The predominant period obtained from frequency results of the investigated buildings were given by horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) for each building. The fundamental period results have been calculated in the form of Fourier amplitude spectra of translation along with the main structure. Based on that, the height (H)-period(T) relationship was observed as T=0.012H-0.017H in the buildings of Yangon and, observed the relationship as T=0.014H-0.019H in the buildings of Mandalay. The results showed that the relationship between height and natural period was slightly under the relationship T=0.02H that is used for Japanese reinforced concrete buildings, which indicated that the results depend on the properties and characteristics of materials used.

Keywords: HVSR, height-period relationship, microtremor, Myanmar earthquake, reinforced concrete structures

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822 Installation of an Inflatable Bladder and Sill Walls for Riverbank Erosion Protection and Improved Water Intake Zone Smokey Hill River – Salina, Kansas

Authors: Jeffrey A. Humenik

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Environmental, Limited Liability Corporation (EMR) provided civil construction services to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District, for the placement of a protective riprap blanket on the west bank of the Smoky Hill River, construction of 2 shore abutments and the construction of a 140 foot long sill wall spanning the Smoky Hill River in Salina, Kansas. The purpose of the project was to protect the riverbank from erosion and hold back water to a specified elevation, creating a pool to ensure adequate water intake for the municipal water supply. Geotextile matting and riprap were installed for streambank erosion protection. An inflatable bladder (AquaDam®) was designed to the specific river dimension and installed to divert the river and allow for dewatering during the construction of the sill walls and cofferdam. AquaDam® consists of water filled polyethylene tubes to create aqua barriers and divert water flow or prevent flooding. A challenge of the project was the fact that 100% of the sill wall was constructed within an active river channel. The threat of flooding of the work area, damage to the aqua dam by debris, and potential difficulty of water removal presented a unique set of challenges to the construction team. Upon completion of the West Sill Wall, floating debris punctured the AquaDam®. The manufacturing and delivery of a new AquaDam® would delay project completion by at least 6 weeks. To keep the project ahead of schedule, the decision was made to construct an earthen cofferdam reinforced with rip rap for the construction of the East Abutment and East Sill Wall section. During construction of the west sill wall section, a deep scour hole was encountered in the wall alignment that prevented EMR from using the natural rock formation as a concrete form for the lower section of the sill wall. A formwork system was constructed, that allowed the west sill wall section to be placed in two horizontal lifts of concrete poured on separate occasions. The first sectional lift was poured to fill in the scour hole and act as a footing for the second sectional lift. Concrete wall forms were set on the first lift and anchored to the surrounding riverbed in a manner that the second lift was poured in a similar fashion as a basement wall. EMR’s timely decision to keep the project moving toward completion in the face of changing conditions enabled project completion two (2) months ahead of schedule. The use of inflatable bladders is an effective and cost-efficient technology to divert river flow during construction. However, a secondary plan should be part of project design in the event debris transported by river punctures or damages the bladders.

Keywords: abutment, AquaDam®, riverbed, scour

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821 Geochemical Evaluation of Weathering-Induced Release of Trace Metals from the Maastritchian Shales in Parts of Bida an Anambra Basins, Nigeria

Authors: Adetunji Olusegun Aderigibigbe

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Shales, especially black shales, are of great geological significance, in the study of heavy/trace metal contamination. This is due to their abundance in occurrence and high concentration of heavy metals embedded which are released during their weathering. Heavy metals constitute one of the most dangerous pollution known to human because they are toxic (i.e., carcinogenic), non-biodegradable and can enter the global eco-biological circle. In the past, heavy metal contamination in aquatic environment and agricultural top soil has been attributed to industrial wastes, mining extractions and pollution from traffic vehicles; only a few studies have focused on weathering of shale as possible source of heavy metal contamination. Based on the above background, this study attempts to establish weathering of shale as possible source of trace/heavy metal contaminations. This was done by carefully selecting fresh and their corresponding weathered shale samples from selected localities in Bida and Anambra Basins. The samples were analysed in Activation Laboratories Ltd; Ontario, Canada for trace/heavy metal. It was observed that some major and trace metals were released during weathering, i.e., some were depleted and some enriched. By this contamination of water zones and agricultural top soils are not only traceable to biogenic processes but geogenic inputs (weathering of shale) as well.

Keywords: contamination, fresh samples, heavy metals, pollution, shales, trace metals, weathered samples

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820 Early Detection of Major Earthquakes Using Broadband Accelerometers

Authors: Umberto Cerasani, Luca Cerasani

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Methods for earthquakes forecasting have been intensively investigated in the last decades, but there is still no universal solution agreed by seismologists. Rock failure is most often preceded by a tiny elastic movement in the failure area and by the appearance of micro-cracks. These micro-cracks could be detected at the soil surface and represent useful earth-quakes precursors. The aim of this study was to verify whether tiny raw acceleration signals (in the 10⁻¹ to 10⁻⁴ cm/s² range) prior to the arrival of main primary-waves could be exploitable and related to earthquakes magnitude. Mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), moving average and wavelets have been applied on raw acceleration data available on the ITACA web site, and the study focused on one of the most unpredictable earth-quakes, i.e., the August 24th, 2016 at 01H36 one that occurred in the central Italy area. It appeared that these tiny acceleration signals preceding main P-waves have different patterns both on frequency and time domains for high magnitude earthquakes compared to lower ones.

Keywords: earthquake, accelerometer, earthquake forecasting, seism

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819 Human’s Sensitive Reactions during Different Geomagnetic Activity: An Experimental Study in Natural and Simulated Conditions

Authors: Ketevan Janashia, Tamar Tsibadze, Levan Tvildiani, Nikoloz Invia, Elguja Kubaneishvili, Vasili Kukhianidze, George Ramishvili

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This study considers the possible effects of geomagnetic activity (GMA) on humans situated on Earth by performing experiments concerning specific sensitive reactions in humans in both: natural conditions during different GMA and by the simulation of different GMA in the lab. The measurements of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to different GMA via measuring the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and stress index (SI) and their comparison with the K-index of GMA have been presented and discussed. The results of experiments indicate an intensification of the sympathetic part of the ANS as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA as natural as well as in simulated conditions. Aim: We tested the hypothesis whether the GMF when disturbed can have effects on human ANS causing specific sensitive stress-reactions depending on the initial type of ANS. Methods: The study focuses on the effects of different GMA on ANS by comparing of HRV indices and stress index (SI) of n= 78, 18-24 years old healthy male volunteers. Experiments were performed as natural conditions on days of low (K= 1-3) and high (K= 5-7) GMA as well as in the lab by the simulation of different GMA using the device of geomagnetic storm (GMS) compensation and simulation. Results: In comparison with days of low GMA (K=1-3) the initial values of HRV shifted towards the intensification of the sympathetic part (SP) of the ANS during days of GMSs (K=5-7) with statistical significance p-values: HR (heart rate, p= 0.001), SDNN (Standard deviation of all Normal to Normal intervals, p= 0.0001), RMSSD (The square root of the arithmetical mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, p= 0.0001). In comparison with conditions during GMSs compensation mode (K= 0, B= 0-5nT), the ANS balance was observed to shift during exposure to simulated GMSs with intensities in the range of natural GMSs (K= 7, B= 200nT). However, the initial values of the ANS resulted in different dynamics in its variation depending of GMA level. In the case of initial balanced regulation type (HR > 80) significant intensification of SP was observed with p-values: HR (p= 0.0001), SDNN (p= 0.047), RMSSD (p= 0.28), LF/HF (p=0.03), SI (p= 0.02); while in the case of initial parasympathetic regulation type (HR < 80), an insignificant shift to the intensification of the parasympathetic part (PP) was observed. Conclusions: The results indicate an intensification of SP as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA in both natural and simulated conditions.

Keywords: autonomic nervous system, device of magneto compensation/simulation, geomagnetic storms, heart rate variability

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818 Trend and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil and Sediment: North of Thailand Region

Authors: Chatkaew Tansakul, Saovajit Nanruksa, Surasak Chonchirdsin

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Heavy metals in the environment can be occurred by both natural weathering process and human activity, which may present significant risks to human health and the wider environment. A number of heavy metals, i.e. Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn), are found with a relatively high concentration in the northern part of Thailand that was assumptively from natural parent rocks and materials. However, scarce literature is challenging to identify the accurate root cause and best available explanation. This study is, therefore, aim to gather heavy metals data in 5 provinces of the North of Thailand where PTT Exploration and Production (PTTEP) public company limited has operated for more than 20 years. A thousand heavy metal analysis is collected and interpreted in term of Enrichment Factor (EF). The trend and distribution of heavy metals in soil and sediment are analyzed by considering altogether the geochemistry of the regional soil and rock. . In addition, the relationship between land use and heavy metals distribution is investigated. In the first conclusion, heavy metal concentrations of (As) and (Mn) in the studied areas are equal to 7.0 and 588.6 ppm, respectively, which are comparable to those in regional parent materials (1 – 12 and 850 – 1,000 ppm for As and Mn respectively). Moreover, there is an insignificant escalation of the heavy metals in these studied areas over two decades.

Keywords: contaminated soil, enrichment factor, heavy metals, parent materials in North of Thailand

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817 Design of Large Parallel Underground Openings in Himalayas: A Case Study of Desilting Chambers for Punatsangchhu-I, Bhutan

Authors: Kanupreiya, Rajani Sharma

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Construction of a single underground structure is itself a challenging task, and it becomes more critical in tectonically active young mountains such as the Himalayas which are highly anisotropic. The Himalayan geology mostly comprises of incompetent and sheared rock mass in addition to fold/faults, rock burst, and water ingress. Underground tunnels form the most essential and important structure in run-of-river hydroelectric projects. Punatsangchhu I hydroelectric project (PHEP-I), Bhutan (1200 MW) is a run-of-river scheme which has four parallel underground desilting chambers. The Punatsangchhu River carries a large quantity of silt load during monsoon season. Desilting chambers were provided to remove the silt particles of size greater than and equal to 0.2 mm with 90% efficiency, thereby minimizing the rate of damage to turbines. These chambers are 330 m long, 18 m wide at the center and 23.87 m high, with a 5.87 m hopper portion. The geology of desilting chambers was known from an exploratory drift which exposed low dipping foliation joint and six joint sets. The RMR and Q value in this reach varied from 40 to 60 and 1 to 6 respectively. This paper describes different rock engineering principles undertaken for safe excavation and rock support of the moderately jointed, blocky and thinly foliated biotite gneiss. For the design of rock support system of desilting chambers, empirical and numerical analysis was adopted. Finite element analysis was carried out for cavern design and finalization of pillar width using Phase2. Phase2 is a powerful tool for simulation of stage-wise excavation with simultaneous provision of support system. As the geology of the region had 7 sets of joints, in addition to FEM based approach, safety factors for potentially unstable wedges were checked using UnWedge. The final support recommendations were based on continuous face mapping, numerical modelling, empirical calculations, and practical experiences.

Keywords: dam siltation, Himalayan geology, hydropower, rock support, numerical modelling

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816 Oil-Oil Correlation Using Polar and Non-Polar Fractions of Crude Oil: A Case Study in Iranian Oil Fields

Authors: Morteza Taherinezhad, Ahmad Reza Rabbani, Morteza Asemani, Rudy Swennen

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Oil-oil correlation is one of the most important issues in geochemical studies that enables to classify oils genetically. Oil-oil correlation is generally estimated based on non-polar fractions of crude oil (e.g., saturate and aromatic compounds). Despite several advantages, the drawback of using these compounds is their susceptibility of being affected by secondary processes. The polar fraction of crude oil (e.g., asphaltenes) has similar characteristics to kerogen, and this structural similarity is preserved during migration, thermal maturation, biodegradation, and water washing. Therefore, these structural characteristics can be considered as a useful correlation parameter, and it can be concluded that asphaltenes from different reservoirs with the same genetic signatures have a similar origin. Hence in this contribution, an integrated study by using both non-polar and polar fractions of oil was performed to use the merits of both fractions. Therefore, five oil samples from oil fields in the Persian Gulf were studied. Structural characteristics of extracted asphaltenes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Graphs based on aliphatic and aromatic compounds (predominant compounds in asphaltenes structure) and sulphoxide and carbonyl functional groups (which are representatives of sulphur and oxygen abundance in asphaltenes) were used for comparison of asphaltenes structures in different samples. Non-polar fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of asphaltenes showed the studied oil samples comprise two oil families with distinct genetic characteristics. The first oil family consists of Salman and Reshadat oil samples, and the second oil family consists of Resalat, Siri E, and Siri D oil samples. To validate our results, biomarker parameters were employed, and this approach completely confirmed previous results. Based on biomarker analyses, both oil families have a marine source rock, whereby marl and carbonate source rocks are the source rock for the first and the second oil family, respectively.

Keywords: biomarker, non-polar fraction, oil-oil correlation, petroleum geochemistry, polar fraction

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