Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 908

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

908 Helical Motions Dynamics and Hydraulics of River Channel Confluences

Authors: Ali Aghazadegan, Ali Shokria, Julia Mullarneya, Jon Tunnicliffe

Abstract:

River channel confluences are dynamic systems with branching structures that exhibit a high degree of complexity both in natural and man-made open channel networks. Recent and past fields and modeling have investigated the river dynamics modeling of confluent based on a series of over-simplified assumptions (i.e. straight tributary channel with a bend with a 90° junction angle). Accurate assessment of such systems is important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and river engineering processes. Despite their importance, there has been little study of the hydrodynamics characteristics of river confluences, and the link between flow hydrodynamics and confluence morphodynamics in the confluence is still incompletely understood. This paper studies flow structures in confluences, morphodynamics and deposition patterns in 30 and 90 degrees confluences with different flow conditions. The results show that the junction angle is primarily the key factor for the determination of the confluence bed morphology and sediment pattern, while the discharge ratio is a secondary factor. It also shows that super elevation created by mixing flows is a key function of the morphodynamics patterns.

Keywords: shear layer, secondary flows, helical flow, river confluence, bed morphology

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907 Virtual Dimension Analysis of Hyperspectral Imaging to Characterize a Mining Sample

Authors: J. Rodriguez, L. Chevez, A. Apaza, R. Puga, H. Loro, Juan Z. Davalos

Abstract:

Virtual Dimension (VD) procedure is used to analyze Hyperspectral Image (HIS) treatment-data in order to estimate the abundance of mineral components of a mining sample. Hyperspectral images coming from reflectance spectra (NIR region) are pre-treated using Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) methodologies. The endmember components are identified by the Simplex Growing Algorithm (SVG) and after adjusted to the reflectance spectra of reference-databases using Simulated Annealing (SA) methodology. The obtained abundance of minerals of the sample studied is very near to the ones obtained using XRD with a total relative error of 2%.

Keywords: Hyperspectral Imaging, XRD, MNF, SNV, SGA, minimum noise fraction, simplex growing algorithm, standard normal variance, virtual dimension

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906 Soil/Phytofisionomy Relationship in Southeast of Chapada Diamantina: Bahia, Brazil

Authors: Marcelo Araujo Da Nobrega, Ariel Moura Vilas Boas

Abstract:

This study aims to characterize the physical-chemical aspects of the soils of southeastern Chapada Diamantina - Bahia related to the phytophysiognomies of this area, rupestrian field, small savanna (savanna fields), small dense savanna (savanna fields), savanna (Cerrado), dry thorny forest (Caatinga), dry thorny forest/savanna, scrub (Carrasco - ecotone), forest island (seasonal semi-deciduous forest - Capão) and seasonal semi-deciduous forest. To achieve the research objective, soil samples were collected in each plant formation and analyzed in the soil laboratory of ESALQ - USP in order to identify soil fertility through the determination of pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, potential acidity, the sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The composition of soil particles was also checked; this is, the texture, step made in the terrestrial ecosystems laboratory of the Department of Ecology of USP and in the soil laboratory of ESALQ. Another important factor also studied was to show the variations in the vegetation cover in the region as a function of soil moisture in the different existing physiographic environments. Another study carried out was a comparison between the average soil moisture data with precipitation data from three locations with very different phytophysiognomies. The soils found in this part of Bahia can be classified into 5 classes, with a predominance of oxisols. All of these classes have a great diversity of physical and chemical properties, as can be seen in photographs and in particle size and fertility analyzes. The deepest soils are located in the Central Pediplano of Chapada Diamantina where the dirty field, the clean field, the executioner, and the semideciduous seasonal forest (Capão) are located, and the shallower soils were found in the rupestrian field, dry thorny forest, and savanna fields, the latter located on a hillside. As for the variations in water in the region's soil, the data indicate that there were large spatial variations in humidity in both the rainy and dry periods.

Keywords: Soils, Brazil, Bahia, chapada diamantina, phytophysiognomies

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905 A Study of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in the Manganese Mining in Drama, Greece

Authors: Apostolia Argiri, Aikaterini Molla, Nikolaos Danalatos

Abstract:

The release of heavy metals into the environment has increased over the last years. A lot of studies have shown that heavy metal pollution in the environment comes from anthropogenic sources such as agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, and mining. In this study, twenty-five soil samples (0-15cm) from the fields which are near the mining were selected. The locations of sample sites were determined using a portable GPS. The samples were analyzed for seven heavy metals, namely Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn. In the laboratory, soil samples were air-dried at room temperature, then pulverized and sieved. Then 5g of the soil samples were digested in aqua regia (HNO3 - HCl. The total metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn) in digests were determined by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. According to the results, the mean concentration of the listed heavy metals in 25 soil samples are Cd 1.1mg/kg, Cr 15mg/kg, Cu 21.7mg/kg, Ni 30.1mg/kg, Pd 50.8mg/kg, Zn 99.5mg/kg and Mn 815.3mg/kg. The results show that the heavy metals remain in the soil even if the mining closed many years ago.

Keywords: Pollution, Mining, Heavy Metals, Greece

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904 Impact of External Temperature on the Speleothem Growth in the Moravian Karst

Authors: Frantisek Odvarka

Abstract:

Based on the data from the Moravian Karst, the influence of the calcite speleothem growth by selected meteorological factors was evaluated. External temperature was determined as one of the main factors influencing speleothem growth in Moravian Karst. This factor significantly influences the CO₂ concentration in soil/epikarst, and cave atmosphere in the Moravian Karst and significantly contributes to the changes in the CO₂ partial pressure differences between soil/epikarst and cave atmosphere in Moravian Karst, which determines the drip water supersaturation with respect to the calcite and quantity of precipitated calcite in the Moravian Karst cave environment. External air temperatures and cave air temperatures were measured using a COMET S3120 data logger, which can measure temperatures in the range from -30 to +80 °C with an accuracy of ± 0.4 °C. CO₂ concentrations in the cave and soils were measured with a FT A600 CO₂H Ahlborn probe (value range 0 ppmv to 10,000 ppmv, accuracy 1 ppmv), which was connected to the data logger ALMEMO 2290-4, V5 Ahlborn. The soil temperature was measured with a FHA646E1 Ahlborn probe (temperature range -20 to 70 °C, accuracy ± 0.4 °C) connected to an ALMEMO 2290-4 V5 Ahlborn data logger. The airflow velocities into and out of the cave were monitored by a FVA395 TH4 Thermo anemometer (speed range from 0.05 to 2 m s⁻¹, accuracy ± 0.04 m s⁻¹), which was connected to the ALMEMO 2590-4 V5 Ahlborn data logger for recording. The flow was measured in the lower and upper entrance of the Imperial Cave. The data were analyzed in MS Office Excel 2019 and PHREEQC.

Keywords: speleothem growth, carbon dioxide partial pressure, Moravian Karst, external temperature

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903 Risk Indicators of Massive Removal Phenomena According to the Mora - Vahrson Method, Applied in Pitalito and Campoalegre Municipalities

Authors: Laura Fernanda Pedreros Araque, Sebastian Rivera Pardo

Abstract:

The massive removal phenomena have been one of the most frequent natural disasters in the world, causing thousands of deaths, victims, damage to homes and diseases. In Pitalito, and Campoalegre department of Huila municipalities - Colombia, disasters have occurred due to various events such as high rainfall, earthquakes; it has caused landslides, floods, among others, affected the economy, the community, and transportation. For this reason, a study was carried out on the area’s most prone to suffer these phenomena to take preventive measures in favor of the protection of the population, the resources of management, and the planning of civil works. For the proposed object, the Mora-Varshon method was used, which allows classifying the degree of susceptibility to landslides in which the areas are found. Also, various factors or parameters were evaluated such as the soil moisture, lithology, slope, seismicity, and rain, each of these indicators were obtained using information from IDEAM, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) and using geographic information for geoprocessing in the Arcgis software to realize a mapping to indicate the susceptibility to landslides, classifying the areas of the municipalities such as very low, low, medium, moderate, high or very high.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Landslide, mass removal phenomena, Mora-Varshon method

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902 A PHREEQC Reactive Transport Simulation for Simply Determining Scaling during Desalination

Authors: Andrew Freiburger, Sergi Molins

Abstract:

Freshwater is a vital resource; yet, the supply of clean freshwater is diminishing as the consequence of melting snow and ice from global warming, pollution from industry, and an increasing demand from human population growth. The unsustainable trajectory of diminishing water resources is projected to jeopardize water security for billions of people in the 21st century. Membrane desalination technologies may resolve the growing discrepancy between supply and demand by filtering arbitrary feed water into a fraction of renewable, clean water and a fraction of highly concentrated brine. The leading hindrance of membrane desalination is fouling, whereby the highly concentrated brine solution encourages micro-organismal colonization and/or the precipitation of occlusive minerals (i.e. scale) upon the membrane surface. Thus, an understanding of brine formation is necessary to mitigate membrane fouling and to develop efficacious desalination technologies that can bolster the supply of available freshwater. This study presents a reactive transport simulation of brine formation and scale deposition during reverse osmosis (RO) desalination. The simulation conceptually represents the RO module as a one-dimensional domain, where feed water directionally enters the domain with a prescribed fluid velocity and is iteratively concentrated in the immobile layer of a dual porosity model. Geochemical PHREEQC code numerically evaluated the conceptual model with parameters for the BW30-400 RO module and for real water feed sources – e.g. the Red and Mediterranean seas, and produced waters from American oil-wells, based upon peer-review data. The presented simulation is computationally simpler, and hence less resource intensive, than the existent and more rigorous simulations of desalination phenomena, like TOUGHREACT. The end-user may readily prepare input files and execute simulations on a personal computer with open source software. The graphical results of fouling-potential and brine characteristics may therefore be particularly useful as the initial tool for screening candidate feed water sources and/or informing the selection of an RO module.

Keywords: Desalination, Scaling, Reactive Transport, PHREEQC

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901 The Benefits of End-To-End Integrated Planning from the Mine to Client Supply for Minimizing Penalties

Authors: G. Martino, F. Silva, E. Marchal

Abstract:

The control over delivered iron ore blend characteristics is one of the most important aspects of the mining business. The iron ore price is a function of its composition, which is the outcome of the beneficiation process. So, end-to-end integrated planning of mine operations can reduce risks of penalties on the iron ore price. In a standard iron mining company, the production chain is composed of mining, ore beneficiation, and client supply. When mine planning and client supply decisions are made uncoordinated, the beneficiation plant struggles to deliver the best blend possible. Technological improvements in several fields allowed bridging the gap between departments and boosting integrated decision-making processes. Clusterization and classification algorithms over historical production data generate reasonable previsions for quality and volume of iron ore produced for each pile of run-of-mine (ROM) processed. Mathematical modeling can use those deterministic relations to propose iron ore blends that better-fit specifications within a delivery schedule. Additionally, a model capable of representing the whole production chain can clearly compare the overall impact of different decisions in the process. This study shows how flexibilization combined with a planning optimization model between the mine and the ore beneficiation processes can reduce risks of out of specification deliveries. The model capabilities are illustrated on a hypothetical iron ore mine with magnetic separation process. Finally, this study shows ways of cost reduction or profit increase by optimizing process indicators across the production chain and integrating the different plannings with the sales decisions.

Keywords: Optimization, Mathematical Modeling, integrated planning, clusterization and classification algorithms, penalty minimization

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900 Application of Highly Deviated Well Pressure Transient Data Analysis in Reservoir Characterization and Field Development

Authors: Zachary William Cunningham

Abstract:

This paper examines the application of pressure transient analysis (PTA) for reservoir characterization and field development in a highly deviated well in the Nelson field, located in the UK North Sea. Utilized are log-log diagnostic plotting and sensitivity analysis to create a model to best match a short pressure build-up (PBU) test. In addition to creating a model and calculating reservoir characteristics such as permeability, porosity, and reservoir height, wellbore characteristics such as skin were also modeled and analyzed. To confirm the validity of these models, core logs, seismic data, and wireline logs were compiled, and averages were taken for various wells within the Nelson field. By using PTA in conjunction with field data, reservoir characterization was achieved that enhanced existing macro and micro datasets. With the use of this additional data, field development strategies can be made with more certainty.

Keywords: Reservoir Characterization, Field development, nelson field, pressure transient analysis

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899 Modeling of Landslide-Generated Tsunamis in Georgia Strait, Southern British Columbia

Authors: Fatemeh Nemati, Lucinda Leonard, Gwyn Lintern, Richard Thomson

Abstract:

In this study, we will use modern numerical modeling approaches to estimate tsunami risks to the southern coast of British Columbia from landslides. Wave generation is to be simulated using the NHWAVE model, which solves the Navier-Stokes equations due to the more complex behavior of flow near the landslide source; far-field wave propagation will be simulated using the simpler model FUNWAVE_TVD with high-order Boussinesq-type wave equations, with a focus on the accurate simulation of wave propagation and regional- or coastal-scale inundation predictions.

Keywords: Tsunami risk, FUNWAVE-TVD, landslide-generated tsunami, NHWAVE

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898 Refolding Structures in Mahirud Fold-and-Thrust Belt: Example of Secondary Orocline in Eastern Iran

Authors: Shahriar Keshtgar, Sasan Bagheri

Abstract:

The Mahirud Fold-and-Thrust (MFT) belt known as Cheshmeh-Ostad Group is a rock assemblage, including several lower cretaceous plutons and volcano-sedimentary successions crops out at the northeastern part of the Sistan Suture Zone. Structural studies focused on the Cretaceous to Paleogene sedimentary rocks lying on the MFT notify us about complicated tectonic history of the complex located between Lut block in the west and Sistan-Afghan block in the east. First, a progressive deformational phase (D₁) is the event before the Lut-Afghan collision-coeval to subduction and accretion of the Mahirud Island-arc to the active margin of the Afghan block. The axial plane of the F₁ folds generated by this phase that has an N70 direction, consequently, is associated with the thrust sloping to the north. Second deformational phase (D₂) is a syn-collision event during the late Eocene-Oligocene time. The previous fold axis (F₁) was refolded (F₂ fold axis with N330 direction) and appeared type-I (dome-and-basin) and type-II (Crescent) Ramsay’s interference fold pattern. The thrust's plane remained of D₁, have been folded by D₂, and consequently reoriented into the new stage of N-S trending thrusts. Most of the new thrusts which accompany the axial-planes of recumbent folds slope towards west. The last deformational phase, D₃, is a post-collision compressional event. We proposed North-convexing arc-shaped MFT, which was caused by a 'Syn-Orocline' deformation in eastern Iran. The plate-scale buckling, which was formed by this orogenic event, is considered as a 'Secondary Orocline', which was formed by collision-related escape tectonics. The Eastern Iranian Orocline and its origin can be explained by the Indian plate collision with a Eurasian plate in the late Eocene-early Oligocene time.

Keywords: superimposed fold, fold-thrust belt, Mahrud, orocline, Eastern Iran

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897 Geophysical Contribution to Reveal the Subsurface Structural Setting Using Gravity, Seismic and Seismological Data in the Chott Belts, Southern Atlas of Tunisia

Authors: Nesrine Frifita, Mohamed Gharbi, Kevin Mickus

Abstract:

Physical methods based on gravity, seismic and seismological data were adopted to clarify the relationship between the distribution of seismicity and the crustal deformations under the chott belts and surrounding regions, in southern atlas of Tunisia. Gafsa and its surrounding were described as a moderate seismic zone, and the fault of Gafsa is one of most seismically active faults in Tunisia in general, and in the southern Atlas in particularly. The present work aims to prove a logical relationship between the distribution of seismicity and deformations which strongly related to thickness and density variations within the basement and sedimentary cover along the study area, through several physical methods; gravity, seismic and seismological data were interpreted to calculate physical propriety of the subsurface rocks, the depth and geometry of active faults and causatives bodies. Findings show that depths variation and mixed thin and thick skinned structural style characterizing the chott belts explain the moderate seismicity in the study area.

Keywords: seismicity, Tunisia, potential fields, Southern Atlas

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896 Geomechanical Numerical Modeling of Well Wall in Drilling with Finite Difference Method

Authors: Marzieh Zarei

Abstract:

Well instability is one of the most fundamental challenges faced by the oil and gas industry. Well wall stability analysis is a gap to be filled in the oil industry. The collection of static data such as well logging leads to the construction of a geomechanical numerical model, which will help in assessing the probable risks in future drilling. In this paper, geomechanical model was designed, and mechanical properties of the rock was determined at all points of the model. It was found the safe mud window was determined and the minimum and maximum mud pressures were determined in the ranges of 70-60 MPa and 110-100 MPa, respectively.

Keywords: Geomechanics, numerical model, well stability, in-situ stress, underbalanced drilling

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895 Investigation on Ultrahigh Heat Flux of Nanoporous Membrane Evaporation Using Dimensionless Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: J. Li, W. H. Zheng, F. J. Hong

Abstract:

Thin liquid film evaporation in ultrathin nanoporous membranes, which reduce the viscous resistance while still maintaining high capillary pressure and efficient liquid delivery, is a promising thermal management approach for high-power electronic devices cooling. Given the challenges and technical limitations of experimental studies for accurate interface temperature sensing, complex manufacturing process, and short duration of membranes, a dimensionless lattice Boltzmann method capable of restoring thermophysical properties of working fluid is particularly derived. The evaporation of R134a to its pure vapour ambient in nanoporous membranes with the pore diameter of 80nm, thickness of 472nm, and three porosities of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.5 are numerically simulated. The numerical results indicate that the highest heat transfer coefficient is about 1740kW/m²·K; the highest heat flux is about 1.49kW/cm² with only about the wall superheat of 8.59K in the case of porosity equals to 0.5. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity because of the increasing effective evaporative area. Additionally, the self-regulation of the shape and curvature of the meniscus under different operating conditions is also observed. This work shows a promising approach to forecast the membrane performance for different geometry and working fluids.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, high heat flux, ultrathin nanoporous membrane, thin film evaporation

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894 Conversion of Carcinogenic Liquid-Wastes of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Industry to ‎an Environmentally Safe Product: Corrosion Inhibitor and Biocide

Authors: Mohamed A. Hegazy

Abstract:

Most of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) petrochemical companies produce huge amount of byproduct which characterized as carcinogenic liquid-wastes, insoluble in water, highly corrosive and highly offensive. This byproduct is partially use, a small part, in the production of hydrochloric acid and the huge part is a waste. Therefore, the aim of this work was to conversion of such PVC wastes, to an environmentally safe product that act as a corrosion Inhibitor for metals in ‎aqueous media and as a biocide for microorganisms. This conversion method was accomplished mainly to protect the environment and to produce high economic value-products. The conversion process was established and the final product was tested for the toxicity, water solubility in comparison to the crude product. Furthermore, the end product was tested as a corrosion inhibitor in 1M HCl and as a broad-spectrum biocide against standard microbial strains and against the environmentally isolated Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) microbial community.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitor, surfactant, PVC, biocide, SRB

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893 Optimization of the Dam Management to Satisfy the Irrigation Demand: A Case Study in Algeria

Authors: Merouane Boudjerda, Bénina Touaibia, Mustapha K Mihoubi

Abstract:

In Algeria, water resources play a crucial role in economic development. But over the last decades, they are relatively limited and gradually decreasing to the detriment of agriculture. The agricultural irrigation is the primary water consuming sector followed by the domestic and industrial sectors. The research presented in this paper focuses on the optimization of irrigation water demand. Dynamic Programming-Neural Network (DPNN) method is applied to investigate reservoir optimization. The optimal operation rule is formulated to minimize the gap between water release and water irrigation demand. As a case study, Boukerdane dam’s reservoir system in North of Algeria has been selected to examine our proposed optimization model. The application of DPNN method allowed increasing the satisfaction rate (SR) from 34% to 60%. In addition, the operation rule generated showed more reliable and resilience operation for the examined case study.

Keywords: Water management, Dynamic Programming, Artificial Neural Network, agricultural demand, Boukerdane dam

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892 Elemental and Magnetic Properties of Bed Sediment of Siang River, a Major River of Brahmaputra Basin

Authors: Abhishek Dixit, Sandip S. Sathe, Chandan Mahanta

Abstract:

The Siang river originates in Angsi glacier in southern Tibet (there known as the Yarlung Tsangpo). After traveling through Indus-Tsangpo suture zone and deep gorges near Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a south-ward turn and enters India, where it is known as Siang river and becomes a major tributary of the Brahmaputra in Assam plains. In this study, we have analyzed the bed sediment of the Siang river at two locations (one at extreme upstream near the India-China border and one downstream before Siang Brahmaputra confluence). We have also sampled bed sediment at the remote location of Yammeng river, an eastern tributary of Siang. The magnetic hysteresis properties show the combination of paramagnetic and weak ferromagnetic behavior with a multidomain state. Moreover, curie temperature analysis shows titanomagnetite solid solution series, which is causing the weak ferromagnetic signature. Given that the magnetic mineral was in a multidomain state, the presence of Ti, Fe carrying heave mineral, may be inferred. The Chemical index of alteration shows less weathered sediment. However, the Yammeng river sample being close to source shows fresh grains subjected to physical weathering and least chemically alteration. Enriched Ca and K and depleted Na and Mg with respect to upper continental crust concentration also points toward the less intense chemical weathering along with the dominance of calcite weathering.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Weathering, bed sediment, Siang

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891 3d Property Modelling of the Lower Acacus Reservoir, Ghadames Basin, Libya

Authors: Aimen Saleh

Abstract:

The Silurian Lower Acacus sandstone is one of the main reservoirs in North West Libya. Our aim in this study is to grasp a robust understanding of the hydrocarbon potential and distribution in the area. To date, the depositional environment of the Lower Acacus reservoir still open to discussion and contradiction. Henceforth, building three dimensional (3D) property modelling is one way to support the analysis and description of the reservoir, its properties and characterizations, so this will be of great value in this project. The 3D model integrates different data set, these incorporates well logs data, petrophysical reservoir properties and seismic data as well. The finalized depositional environment model of the Lower Acacus concludes that the area is located in a deltaic transitional depositional setting, which ranges from a wave dominated delta into tide dominated delta type. This interpretation carried out through a series of steps of model generation, core description and Formation Microresistivity Image tool (FMI) interpretation. After the analysis of the core data, the Lower Acacus layers shows a strong effect of tidal energy. Whereas these traces found imprinted in different types of sedimentary structures, for examples; presence of some crossbedding, such as herringbones structures, wavy and flaser cross beddings. In spite of recognition of some minor marine transgression events in the area, on the contrary, the coarsening upward cycles of sand and shale layers in the Lower Acacus demonstrate presence of a major regressive phase of the sea level. However, consequently, we produced a final package of this model in a complemented set of facies distribution, porosity and oil presence. And also it shows the record of the petroleum system, and the procedure of Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. Finally, this model suggests that the area can be outlined into three main segments of hydrocarbon potential, which can be a textbook guide for future exploration and production strategies in the area.

Keywords: Libya, Silurian, Ghadames, Acacus

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890 Evaluation of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in Parts of Umunneochi Southeast, Nigeria

Authors: Joshua Chima Chizoba, Wisdom Izuchukwu Uzoma, Elizabeth Ifeyiwa Okoyeh

Abstract:

Water cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality is periodically assessed. The study area Umunneochi and environs are located in south eastern part of Nigeria. It stretches geographically from latitudes 50501N to 60000N and longitudes 70201E to 70301. The major geologic formations in the area include the Asu River group, Nkporo Shale, and Ajali Sandstone. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of surface and ground water sources in parts of Umunneochi and environs in order to establish portability of the water sources for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes. A total of 15 samples were collected randomly from streams, springs and wells. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters and heavy metals using handheld digital kits, photometer, titration method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) following acceptable standards. The obtained analytical data were interpreted, and results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The concentration of pH, SO42-and Cl- range from 5.81 mg/l – 6.07 mg/l, 41.93 mg/l – 142.95 mg/l and 20.00 mg/l – 111 mg/l respectively, while Pb and Zn revealed a relative low mean concentration of 0.14 mg/l and 0.40 mg/l, which are all within (WHO) permissible limits except pH. About 27% of the samples are moderately hard. This is attributed to the mining activities in the areas. The abundance of cations and anions in the area are in the order of K+>Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+ and SO4->Cl->HCO3->NO3-, respectively. Chloride, bicarbonate, and nitrate are all within the permissible limits. 13.33% of the total samples contain Sulphate above the standard permissible limits. The values of calculated Water Quality Index (WQI) are less than 50 indicating excellent water. The predominant water-type in the study area is Na-Cl water type and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl water type based on the sample plots on the Piper diagram. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) calculations showed excellent water for consumption and also good water for irrigation purpose with low sodium and alkalinity ratio respectively. Government water projects are recommended in the area for sustainable domestic and agricultural water supply to ease the stress of water supply problems.

Keywords: Groundwater, sodium adsorption ratio, hydrochemical, physichochemical, water-type

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889 Different Data-Driven Bivariate Statistical Approaches to Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (Uzundere, Erzurum, Turkey)

Authors: Azimollah Aleshzadeh, Enver Vural Yavuz

Abstract:

The main goal of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps using different data-driven bivariate statistical approaches; namely, entropy weight method (EWM), evidence belief function (EBF), and information content model (ICM), at Uzundere county, Erzurum province, in the north-eastern part of Turkey. Past landslide occurrences were identified and mapped from an interpretation of high-resolution satellite images, and earlier reports as well as by carrying out field surveys. In total, 42 landslide incidence polygons were mapped using ArcGIS 10.4.1 software and randomly split into a construction dataset 70 % (30 landslide incidences) for building the EWM, EBF, and ICM models and the remaining 30 % (12 landslides incidences) were used for verification purposes. Twelve layers of landslide-predisposing parameters were prepared, including total surface radiation, maximum relief, soil groups, standard curvature, distance to stream/river sites, distance to the road network, surface roughness, land use pattern, engineering geological rock group, topographical elevation, the orientation of slope, and terrain slope gradient. The relationships between the landslide-predisposing parameters and the landslide inventory map were determined using different statistical models (EWM, EBF, and ICM). The model results were validated with landslide incidences, which were not used during the model construction. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curves were applied, and the area under the curve (AUC) was determined for the different susceptibility maps using the success (construction data) and prediction (verification data) rate curves. The results revealed that the AUC for success rates are 0.7055, 0.7221, and 0.7368, while the prediction rates are 0.6811, 0.6997, and 0.7105 for EWM, EBF, and ICM models, respectively. Consequently, landslide susceptibility maps were classified into five susceptibility classes, including very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Additionally, the portion of construction and verification landslides incidences in high and very high landslide susceptibility classes in each map was determined. The results showed that the EWM, EBF, and ICM models produced satisfactory accuracy. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps may be useful for future natural hazard mitigation studies and planning purposes for environmental protection.

Keywords: landslide susceptibility mapping, entropy weight method, evidence belief function, information content model

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888 Hydrogeochemical Assessment, Evaluation and Characterization of Groundwater Quality in Ore, South-Western, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Olusola Falowo

Abstract:

One of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals is to have sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. In line with this objective, an assessment of groundwater quality was carried out in Odigbo Local Government Area of Ondo State in November – February, 2019 to assess the drinking, domestic and irrigation uses of the water. Samples from 30 randomly selected ground water sources; 16 shallow wells and 14 from boreholes and analyzed using American Public Health Association method for the examination of water and wastewater. Water quality index calculation, and diagrams such as Piper diagram, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox diagram have been used to assess the groundwater in conjunction with irrigation indices such as % sodium, sodium absorption ratio, permeability index, magnesium ratio, Kelly ratio, and electrical conductivity. In addition statistical Principal component analysis were used to determine the homogeneity and source(s) influencing the chemistry of the groundwater. The results show that all the parameters are within the permissible limit of World Health Organization. The physico-chemical analysis of groundwater samples indicates that the dominant major cations are in decreasing order of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and the dominant anions are HCO-3, Cl-, SO-24, NO-3. The values of water quality index varies suggest a Good water (WQI of 50-75) accounts for 70% of the study area. The dominant groundwater facies revealed in this study are the non-carbonate alkali (primary salinity) exceeds 50% (zone 7); and transition zone with no one cation-anion pair exceeds 50% (zone 9), while evaporation; rock–water interaction, and precipitation; and silicate weathering process are the dominant processes in the hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater. The study indicates that waters were found within the permissible limits of irrigation indices adopted, and plot on excellent category on Wilcox plot. In conclusion, the water in the study area are good/suitable for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes with low equivalent salinity concentrate and moderate electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Groundwater Quality, Water-Rock Interaction, equivalent salinity concentration, hydrochemical facies

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887 Assessment for the Backfill Using the Run of the Mine Tailings and Portland Cement

Authors: Abdelsalam Abugharara, Stephen Butt, Javad Someehneshin, Weizhou Quan

Abstract:

Narrow vein mining (NVM) is exploiting very thin but valuable ore bodies that are uneconomical to extract by conventional mining methods. NVM applies the technique of Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD). The SMD method is used to mine stranded, steeply dipping ore veins, which are too small or isolated to mine economically using conventional methods since the dilution is minimized. This novel mining technique uses drilling rigs to extract the ore through directional drilling surgically. This paper is focusing on utilizing the run of the mine tailings and Portland cement as backfill material to support the hanging wall for providing safe mine operation. Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is designed by mixing waste tailings, water, and cement of the precise percentage for optimal outcomes. It is a non-homogenous material that contains 70-85% solids. Usually, a hydraulic binder is added to the mixture to increase the strength of the CPB. The binder fraction mostly accounts for 2–10% of the total weight. In the mining industry, CPB has been improved and expanded gradually because it provides safety and support for the mines. Furthermore, CPB helps manage the waste tailings in an economical method and plays a significant role in environmental protection.

Keywords: Portland Cement, tailings, backfilling, cement backfill

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886 Evaluation of Drilling Performance through Bit-Rock Interaction Using Passive Vibration Assisted Rotation Drilling (PVARD) Tool

Authors: Md. Shaheen Shah, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Dipesh Maharjan, Syed Imtiaz, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Drilling performance is an essential goal in petroleum and mining industry. Drilling rate of penetration (ROP), which is inversely proportional to the mechanical specific energy (MSE) is influenced by numerous factors among which are the applied parameter: torque (T), weight on bit (WOB), fluid flow rate, revolution per minute (rpm), rock related parameters: rock type, rock homogeneousness, rock anisotropy orientation, and mechanical parameters: bit type, configuration of the bottom hole assembly (BHA). This paper is focused on studying the drilling performance by implementing a passive vibration assisted rotary drilling tool (pVARD) as part of the BHA through using different bit types: coring bit, roller cone bit, and PDC bit and various rock types: rock-like material, granite, sandstone, etc. The results of this study aim to produce a pVARD index for optimal drilling performance considering the recommendations of the pVARD’s spring compression tests and stress-strain analysis of rock samples conducted prior to drilling experiments, analyzing the cutting size distribution, and evaluating the applied drilling parameters as a function of WOB. These results are compared with those obtained from drilling without pVARD, which represents the typical rigid BHA of the conventional drilling.

Keywords: MSE, ROP, unconfined compressive strength, BHA, rate of penetration, drilling performance, pVARD, tensile and shear fractures

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885 Coherent All-Fiber and Polarization Maintaining Source for CO2 Range-Resolved Differential Absorption Lidar

Authors: Erwan Negre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Juha Toivonen

Abstract:

The need for CO2 monitoring technologies grows simultaneously with the worldwide concerns regarding environmental challenges. To that purpose, we developed a compact coherent all-fiber ranged-resolved Differential Absorption Lidar (RR-DIAL). It has been designed along a tunable 2x1fiber optic switch set to a frequency of 1 Hz between two Distributed FeedBack (DFB) lasers emitting in the continuous-wave mode at 1571.41 nm (absorption line of CO2) and 1571.25 nm (CO2 absorption-free line), with linewidth and tuning range of respectively 1 MHz and 3 nm over operating wavelength. A three stages amplification through Erbium and Erbium-Ytterbium doped fibers coupled to a Radio Frequency (RF) driven Acousto-Optic Modulator (AOM) generates 100 ns pulses at a repetition rate from 10 to 30 kHz with a peak power up to 2.5 kW and a spatial resolution of 15 m, allowing fast and highly resolved CO2 profiles. The same afocal collection system is used for the output of the laser source and the backscattered light which is then directed to a circulator before being mixed with the local oscillator for heterodyne detection. Packaged in an easily transportable box which also includes a server and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card for on-line data processing and storing, our setup allows an effective and quick deployment for versatile in-situ analysis, whether it be vertical atmospheric monitoring, large field mapping or sequestration site continuous oversight. Setup operation and results from initial field measurements will be discussed.

Keywords: CO2 profiles, coherent DIAL, in-situ atmospheric sensing, near infrared fiber source

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884 Earth Tremors in Nigeria: A Precursor to Major Disaster?

Authors: Oluseyi Adunola Bamisaiye

Abstract:

The frequency of occurrence of earth tremor in Nigeria has increased tremendously in recent years. Slow earthquakes/ tremor have preceded some large earthquakes in some other regions of the world and the Nigerian case may not be an exception. Timely and careful investigation of these tremors may reveal their relation to large earthquakes and provides important clues to constrain the slip rates on tectonic faults. Thus making it imperative to keep under watch and also study carefully the tectonically active terrains within the country, in order to adequately forecast, prescribe mitigation measures and in order to avoid a major disaster. This report provides new evidence of a slow slip transient in a strongly locked seismogenic zone of the Okemesi fold belt. The aim of this research is to investigate the different methods of earth tremor monitoring using fault slip analysis and mapping of Okemesi hills, which has been the most recent epicenter to most of the recent tremors.

Keywords: Plate Tectonics, earth tremor, fault slip, intraplate activities

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883 Artificial Intelligence Methods in Estimating the Minimum Miscibility Pressure Required for Gas Flooding

Authors: Emad A. Mohammed

Abstract:

Utilizing the capabilities of Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence in the prediction of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) required for multi-contact miscible (MCM) displacement of reservoir petroleum by hydrocarbon gas flooding using Fuzzy Logic models and Artificial Neural Network models will help a lot in giving accurate results. The factors affecting the (MMP) as it is proved from the literature and from the dataset are as follows: XC2-6: Intermediate composition in the oil-containing C2-6, CO2 and H2S, in mole %, XC1: Amount of methane in the oil (%),T: Temperature (°C), MwC7+: Molecular weight of C7+ (g/mol), YC2+: Mole percent of C2+ composition in injected gas (%), MwC2+: Molecular weight of C2+ in injected gas. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks have been used widely in prediction and classification, with relatively high accuracy, in different fields of study. It is well known that the Fuzzy Inference system can handle uncertainty within the inputs such as in our case. The results of this work showed that our proposed models perform better with higher performance indices than other emprical correlations.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, correlation, MMP, gas flooding

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882 Permeability Prediction Based on Hydraulic Flow Unit Identification and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Emad A. Mohammed

Abstract:

The concept of hydraulic flow units (HFU) has been used for decades in the petroleum industry to improve the prediction of permeability. This concept is strongly related to the flow zone indicator (FZI) which is a function of the reservoir rock quality index (RQI). Both indices are based on reservoir porosity and permeability of core samples. It is assumed that core samples with similar FZI values belong to the same HFU. Thus, after dividing the porosity-permeability data based on the HFU, transformations can be done in order to estimate the permeability from the porosity. The conventional practice is to use the power law transformation using conventional HFU where percentage of error is considerably high. In this paper, neural network technique is employed as a soft computing transformation method to predict permeability instead of power law method to avoid higher percentage of error. This technique is based on HFU identification where Amaefule et al. (1993) method is utilized. In this regard, Kozeny and Carman (K–C) model, and modified K–C model by Hasan and Hossain (2011) are employed. A comparison is made between the two transformation techniques for the two porosity-permeability models. Results show that the modified K-C model helps in getting better results with lower percentage of error in predicting permeability. The results also show that the use of artificial intelligence techniques give more accurate prediction than power law method. This study was conducted on a heterogeneous complex carbonate reservoir in Oman. Data were collected from seven wells to obtain the permeability correlations for the whole field. The findings of this study will help in getting better estimation of permeability of a complex reservoir.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, correlation, Permeability, hydraulic flow units

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881 Sedimentation and Morphology of the Kura River-Deltaic System in the Southern Caucasus under Anthropogenic and Sea-Level Controls

Authors: Elmira Aliyeva, Dadash Huseynov, Robert Hoogendoorn, Salomon Kroonenberg

Abstract:

The Kura River is the major water artery in the Southern Caucasus; it is a third river in the Caspian Sea basin in terms of length and size of the catchment area, the second in terms of the water budget, and the first in the volume of sediment load. Understanding of major controls on the Kura fluvial- deltaic system is valuable for efficient management of the highly populated river basin and coastal zone. We have studied grain size of sediments accumulated in the river channels and delta and dated by 210Pb method, astrophotographs, old topographic and geological maps, and archive data. At present time sediments are supplied by the Kura River to the Caspian Sea through three distributary channels oriented north-east, south-east, and south-west. The river is dominated by the suspended load - mud, silt, very fine sand. Coarse sediments are accumulated in the distributaries, levees, point bar, and delta front. The annual suspended sediment budget in the time period 1934-1952 before construction of the Mingechavir water reservoir in 1953 in the Kura River midstream area was 36 mln.t/yr. From 1953 to 1964, the suspended load has dropped to 12 mln.t/yr. After regulation of the Kura River discharge the volume of suspended load transported via north-eastern channel reduced from 35% of the total sediment amount to 4%, and through the main south-eastern channel increased from 65% to 96% with further fall to 56% due to creation of new south-western channel in 1964. Between 1967-1976 the annual sediment budget of the Kura River reached 22,5 mln. t/yr. From 1977 to 1986, the sediment load carried by the Kura River dropped to 17,6 mln.t/yr. The historical data show that between 1860 and 1907, during relatively stable Caspian Sea level two channels - N and SE, appear to have distributed an equal amount of sediments as seen from the bilateral geometry of the delta. In the time period 1907-1929, two new channels - E and NE, appeared. The growth of three delta lobes - N, NE, and SE, and rapid progradation of the delta has occurred on the background of the Caspian Sea level rise as a result of very high sediment supply. Since 1929 the Caspian Sea level decline was followed by the progradation of the delta occurring along the SE channel. The eastern and northern channels have been silted up. The slow rate of progradation at its initial stage was caused by the artificial reduction in the sediment budget. However, the continuous sea-level fall has brought to this river bed gradient increase, high erosional rate, increase in the sediment supply, and more rapid progradation. During the subsequent sea-level rise after 1977 accompanied by the decrease in the sediment budget, the southern part of the delta has turned into a complex of small, shallow channels oriented to the south. The data demonstrate that behaviour of the Kura fluvial – deltaic system and variations in the sediment budget besides anthropogenic regulation are strongly governed by the Caspian Sea level very rapid changes.

Keywords: anthropogenic control on sediment budget, Caspian sea-level variations, Kura river sediment load, morphology of the Kura river delta, sedimentation in the Kura river delta

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880 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Strengthening with Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Abdulsamee Halahla, Emad Allout

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the behavior of exterior beam-column joints (BCJs) strengthened with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), in terms of the shear strength and maximum displacement using pushover analysis at the tip of the beam. A finite element (F.E) analysis was performed to study three main parameters – the level of the axial load in the column (N), the beam shear reinforcement (Av/s)B, and the effect of using UHPC. The normal concrete at the studied joint region was replaced by UHPC. The model was verified by using experimental results taken from the literature. The results showed that the UHPC contributed to the transference of the plastic hinge from the joint to the beam-column interface. In addition, the strength of the UHPC-strengthened joints was enhanced dramatically from 8% to 38% for the joints subjected to 12.8MPa and zero axial loads, respectively. Moreover, the UHPC contributed in improving the maximum deflection. This improvement amounted to 1% and 176% for the joints subjected to zero and 12.8MPa axial load, respectively.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Ductility, Ultra High Performance Concrete, reinforced concrete joints, nonlinear behavior; pushover analysis

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879 Analyzing the Influence of Hydrometeorlogical Extremes, Geological Setting, and Social Demographic on Public Health

Authors: Irfan Ahmad Afip

Abstract:

This main research objective is to accurately identify the possibility for a Leptospirosis outbreak severity of a certain area based on its input features into a multivariate regression model. The research question is the possibility of an outbreak in a specific area being influenced by this feature, such as social demographics and hydrometeorological extremes. If the occurrence of an outbreak is being subjected to these features, then the epidemic severity for an area will be different depending on its environmental setting because the features will influence the possibility and severity of an outbreak. Specifically, this research objective was three-fold, namely: (a) to identify the relevant multivariate features and visualize the patterns data, (b) to develop a multivariate regression model based from the selected features and determine the possibility for Leptospirosis outbreak in an area, and (c) to compare the predictive ability of multivariate regression model and machine learning algorithms. Several secondary data features were collected locations in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, based on the possibility it would be relevant to determine the outbreak severity in the area. The relevant features then will become an input in a multivariate regression model; a linear regression model is a simple and quick solution for creating prognostic capabilities. A multivariate regression model has proven more precise prognostic capabilities than univariate models. The expected outcome from this research is to establish a correlation between the features of social demographic and hydrometeorological with Leptospirosis bacteria; it will also become a contributor for understanding the underlying relationship between the pathogen and the ecosystem. The relationship established can be beneficial for the health department or urban planner to inspect and prepare for future outcomes in event detection and system health monitoring.

Keywords: Geographical Information System, hydrometeorological, leptospirosis, multivariate regression

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