Abstracts | Geological and Environmental Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1302

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1302 Characterization of Aerosol Particles in Ilorin, Nigeria: Ground-Based Measurement Approach

Authors: Razaq A. Olaitan, Ayansina Ayanlade


Understanding aerosol properties is the main goal of global research in order to lower the uncertainty associated with climate change in the trends and magnitude of aerosol particles. In order to identify aerosol particle types, optical properties, and the relationship between aerosol properties and particle concentration between 2019 and 2021, a study conducted in Ilorin, Nigeria, examined the aerosol robotic network's ground-based sun/sky scanning radiometer. The AERONET algorithm version 2 was utilized to retrieve monthly data on aerosol optical depth and angstrom exponent. The version 3 algorithm, which is an almucantar level 2 inversion, was employed to retrieve daily data on single scattering albedo and aerosol size distribution. Excel 2016 was used to analyze the data's monthly, seasonal, and annual mean averages. The distribution of different types of aerosols was analyzed using scatterplots, and the optical properties of the aerosol were investigated using pertinent mathematical theorems. To comprehend the relationships between particle concentration and properties, correlation statistics were employed. Based on the premise that aerosol characteristics must remain constant in both magnitude and trend across time and space, the study's findings indicate that the types of aerosols identified between 2019 and 2021 are as follows: 29.22% urban industrial (UI) aerosol type, 37.08% desert (D) aerosol type, 10.67% biomass burning (BB), and 23.03% urban mix (Um) aerosol type. Convective wind systems, which frequently carry particles as they blow over long distances in the atmosphere, have been responsible for the peak-of-the-columnar aerosol loadings, which were observed during August of the study period. The study has shown that while coarse mode particles dominate, fine particles are increasing in seasonal and annual trends. Burning biomass and human activities in the city are linked to these trends. The study found that the majority of particles are highly absorbing black carbon, with the fine mode having a volume median radius of 0.08 to 0.12 meters. The investigation also revealed that there is a positive coefficient of correlation (r = 0.57) between changes in aerosol particle concentration and changes in aerosol properties. Human activity is rapidly increasing in Ilorin, causing changes in aerosol properties, indicating potential health risks from climate change and human influence on geological and environmental systems.

Keywords: aerosol loading, aerosol types, health risks, optical properties

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1301 Use of Artificial Intelligence and Two Object-Oriented Approaches (k-NN and SVM) for the Detection and Characterization of Wetlands in the Centre-Val de Loire Region, France

Authors: Bensaid A., Mostephaoui T., Nedjai R.


Nowadays, wetlands are the subject of contradictory debates opposing scientific, political and administrative meanings. Indeed, given their multiple services (drinking water, irrigation, hydrological regulation, mineral, plant and animal resources...), wetlands concentrate many socio-economic and biodiversity issues. In some regions, they can cover vast areas (>100 thousand ha) of the landscape, such as the Camargue area in the south of France, inside the Rhone delta. The high biological productivity of wetlands, the strong natural selection pressures and the diversity of aquatic environments have produced many species of plants and animals that are found nowhere else. These environments are tremendous carbon sinks and biodiversity reserves depending on their age, composition and surrounding environmental conditions, wetlands play an important role in global climate projections. Covering more than 3% of the earth's surface, wetlands have experienced since the beginning of the 1990s a tremendous revival of interest, which has resulted in the multiplication of inventories, scientific studies and management experiments. The geographical and physical characteristics of the wetlands of the central region conceal a large number of natural habitats that harbour a great biological diversity. These wetlands, one of the natural habitats, are still influenced by human activities, especially agriculture, which affects its layout and functioning. In this perspective, decision-makers need to delimit spatial objects (natural habitats) in a certain way to be able to take action. Thus, wetlands are no exception to this rule even if it seems to be a difficult exercise to delimit a type of environment as whose main characteristic is often to occupy the transition between aquatic and terrestrial environment. However, it is possible to map wetlands with databases, derived from the interpretation of photos and satellite images, such as the European database Corine Land cover, which allows quantifying and characterizing for each place the characteristic wetland types. Scientific studies have shown limitations when using high spatial resolution images (SPOT, Landsat, ASTER) for the identification and characterization of small wetlands (1 hectare). To address this limitation, it is important to note that these wetlands generally represent spatially complex features. Indeed, the use of very high spatial resolution images (>3m) is necessary to map small and large areas. However, with the recent evolution of artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning methods for satellite image processing have shown a much better performance compared to traditional processing based only on pixel structures. Our research work is also based on spectral and textural analysis on THR images (Spot and IRC orthoimage) using two object-oriented approaches, the nearest neighbour approach (k-NN) and the Super Vector Machine approach (SVM). The k-NN approach gave good results for the delineation of wetlands (wet marshes and moors, ponds, artificial wetlands water body edges, ponds, mountain wetlands, river edges and brackish marshes) with a kappa index higher than 85%.

Keywords: land development, GIS, sand dunes, segmentation, remote sensing

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1300 The Map of Cassini: An Accurate View of Current Border Between Spain and France

Authors: Barbara Polo Martin


During the 18th century, the border between Spain and France underwent various changes, primarily due to territorial agreements, wars, and treaties between the two nations and other European powers. For studying these changes, the Cassini maps remain valuable historical documents, offering a glimpse into the landscape and geography of 18th-century France and its neighboring regions, including the border between Spain and France. However, it's essential to recognize that these maps may not reflect modern political boundaries or territorial changes that have occurred since their creation. The project was initiated by King Louis XV in 1744 and continued by his successor, Louis XVI. The primary objective was to produce accurate maps of France, which would serve various purposes, including military, administrative, and scientific. The Cassini maps were groundbreaking for their time, as they were among the earliest attempts to create topographic maps on a national scale. They covered the entirety of France and were based on meticulous surveying and cartographic techniques. The maps featured precise geographic details, including elevation contours, rivers, roads, forests, and settlements. This study aims to analyze this rich and unknown cartography of France, study the rich place names it offers, as well as the accuracy of delimitations created over time between both empires in a historical way but also through a Geographical Information System. This study will offer a deeper knowledge about the cartography that supposes the beginning of topography in Europe.

Keywords: cartography, engineering, borders, Spain, France, Cassini

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1299 The Effect of Artificial Intelligence on Petroleum Industry and Production

Authors: Mina Shokry Hanna Saleh Tadros


The centrality of the Petroleum Industry in the world energy is undoubted. The world economy almost runs and depends on petroleum. Petroleum industry is a multi-trillion industry; it turns otherwise poor and underdeveloped countries into wealthy nations and thrusts them at the center of international diplomacy. Although these developing nations lack the necessary technology to explore and exploit petroleum resources they are not without help as developed nations, represented by their multinational corporations are ready and willing to provide both the technical and managerial expertise necessary for the development of this natural resource. However, the exploration of these petroleum resources comes with, sometimes, grave, concomitant consequences. These consequences are especially pronounced with respect to the environment. From the British Petroleum Oil rig explosion and the resultant oil spillage and pollution in New Mexico, United States to the Mobil Oil spillage along Egyptian coast, the story and consequence is virtually the same. Egypt’s delta Region produces Nigeria’s petroleum which accounts for more than ninety-five percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Between 1999 and 2007, Egypt earned more than $400 billion from petroleum exports. Nevertheless, petroleum exploration and exploitation has devastated the Delta environment. From oil spillage which pollutes the rivers, farms and wetlands to gas flaring by the multi-national corporations; the consequences is similar-a region that has been devastated by petroleum exploitation. This paper thus seeks to examine the consequences and impact of petroleum pollution in the Egypt Delta with particular reference on the right of the people of Niger Delta to a healthy environment. The paper further seeks to examine the relevant international, regional instrument and Nigeria’s municipal laws that are meant to protect the result of the people of the Egypt Delta and their enforcement by the Nigerian State. It is quite worrisome that the Egypt Delta Region and its people have suffered and are still suffering grave violations of their right to a healthy environment as a result of petroleum exploitation in their region. The Egypt effort at best is half-hearted in its protection of the people’s right.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection systemenvironment, exploration, petroleum, pollutionDuvernay petroleum system, oil generation, oil-source correlation, Re-Os

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1298 Tectonic Setting of Hinterland and Foreland Basins According to Tectonic Vergence in Eastern Iran

Authors: Shahriyar Keshtgar, Mahmoud Reza Heyhat, Sasan Bagheri, Ebrahim Gholami, Seyed Naser Raiisosadat


Various tectonic interpretations have been presented by different researchers to explain the geological evolution of eastern Iran, but there are still many ambiguities and many disagreements about the geodynamic nature of the Paleogene mountain range of eastern Iran. The purpose of this research is to clarify and discuss the tectonic position of the foreland and hinterland regions of eastern Iran from the tectonic perspective of sedimentary basins. In the tectonic model of oceanic subduction crust under the Afghan block, the hinterland is located to the east and on the Afghan block, and the foreland is located on the passive margin of the Sistan open ocean in the west. After the collision of the two microcontinents, the foreland basin must be located somewhere on the passive margin of the Lut block. This basin can deposit thick Paleocene to Oligocene sediments on the Cretaceous and older sediments. Thrust faults here will move towards the west. If we accept the subduction model of the Sistan Ocean under the Lut Block, the hinterland is located to the west towards the Lut Block, and the foreland basin is located towards the Sistan Ocean in the east. After the collision of the two microcontinents, the foreland basin with Paleogene sediments should expand on the Sefidaba basin. Thrust faults here will move towards the east. If we consider the two-sided subduction model of the ocean crust under both Lut and Afghan continental blocks, the tectonic position of the foreland and hinterland basins will not change and will be similar to the one-sided subduction models. After the collision of two microcontinents, the foreland basin should develop in the central part of the eastern Iranian orogen. In the oroclinic buckling model, the foreland basin will continue not only in the east and west but continuously in the north as well. In this model, since there is practically no collision, the foreland basin is not developed, and the remnants of the Sistan Ocean ophiolites and their deep turbidite sediments appear in the axial part of the mountain range, where the Neh and Khash complexes are located. The structural data from this research in the northern border of the Sistan belt and the Lut block indicate the convergence of the tectonic vergence directions towards the interior of the Sistan belt (in the Ahangaran area towards the southwest, in the north of Birjand towards the south-southeast, in the Sechengi area to the southeast). According to this research, not only the general movement of thrust sheets do not follow the linear orogeny models, but the expected active foreland basins have not been formed in the mentioned places in eastern Iran. Therefore, these results do not follow previous tectonic models for eastern Iran (i.e., rifting of eastern Iran continental crust and subsequent linear collision of the Lut and Afghan blocks), but it seems that was caused by buckling model in the Late Eocene-Oligocene.

Keywords: foreland, hinterland, tectonic vergence, orocline buckling, eastern Iran

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1297 Geospatial Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Dynamic and Environmental Impact of Informal Settlement: A Case of Adama City, Ethiopia

Authors: Zenebu Adere Tola


Informal settlements behave dynamically over space and time and the number of people living in such housing areas is growing worldwide. In the cities of developing countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty, unemployment rate, poor living condition, lack transparency and accountability, lack of good governance are the major factors to contribute for the people to hold land informally and built houses for residential or other purposes. In most of Ethiopian cities informal settlement is highly seen in peripheral areas this is because people can easily to hold land for housing from local farmers, brokers, speculators without permission from concerning bodies. In Adama informal settlement has created risky living conditions and led to environmental problems in natural areas the main reason for this was the lack of sufficient knowledge about informal settlement development. On the other side there is a strong need to transform informal into formal settlements and to gain more control about the actual spatial development of informal settlements. In another hand to tackle the issue it is at least very important to understand the scale of the problem. To understand the scale of the problem it is important to use up-to-date technology. For this specific problem, it is good to use high-resolution imagery to detect informal settlement in Adama city. The main objective of this study is to assess the spatiotemporal dynamics and environmental impacts of informal settlement using OBIA. Specifically, the objective of this study is to; identify informal settlement in the study area, determine the change in the extent and pattern of informal settlement and to assess the environmental and social impacts of informal settlement in the study area. The methods to be used to detect the informal settlement is object-oriented image analysis. Consequently, reliable procedures for detecting the spatial behavior of informal settlements are required in order to react at an early stage to changing housing situations. Thus, obtaining spatial information about informal settlement areas which is up to date is vital for any actions of enhancement in terms of urban or regional planning. Using data for this study aerial photography for growth and change of informal settlements in Adama city. Software ECognition software for classy to built-up and non-built areas. Thus, obtaining spatial information about informal settlement areas which is up to date is vital for any actions of enhancement in terms of urban or regional planning.

Keywords: informal settlement, change detection, environmental impact, object based analysis

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1296 Geological, Geochronological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Characteristics of the Dalli Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit in Central Iran; Implications for Exploration

Authors: Hooshag Asadi Haroni, Maryam Veiskarami, Yongjun Lu


The Dalli gold-rich porphyry deposit (17 Mt @ 0.5% Cu and 0.65 g/t Au) is located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA), a small segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt, hosting several porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) systems in Iran. This research characterizes the Dalli deposit to define exploration criteria in advanced exploration such as the drilling of possible blind porphyry centers. Geological map, trench/drill hole geochemical and ground magnetic data, and age dating and isotope trace element analyses, carried out at the John De Laeter Research Center of Curtin University, were used to characterize the Delli deposit. Mineralization at Dalli is hosted by NE-trending quartz-diorite porphyry stocks (~ 200m in diameter) intruded by a wall-rock andesite porphyry. Disseminated and stockwork Cu-Au mineralization is related to potassic alteration, comprising magnetite, late K-feldspar and biotite, and quartz-sericite-specularite overprint, surrounded by extensive barren argillic and propylitic alterations. In the peripheries of the porphyry centers, there are N-trending vuggy quartz veins, hosting epithermal Au-Ag-As-Sb mineralization. Geochemical analyses of drill core samples showed that the core of the porphyry stocks is low-grade, whereas the high-grade disseminated and stockwork mineralization (~ 1% Cu and ~ 1.2 g/t Au) occurred at the contact of the porphyry stocks and andesite porphyry. Geochemical studies of the drill hole and trench samples showed a strong correlation between Cu and Au and both show a second-order correlation with Fe and As. Magnetic survey revealed two significant magnetic anomalies, associated with intensive potassic alteration, in the reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map of the area. A relatively weaker magnetic anomaly, showing no surface porphyry expressions, is located on a lithocap, consisting of advanced argillic alteration, vuggy quartz veins, and surface expressions of epithermal geochemical signatures. The association of the lithocap and the weak magnetic anomaly could be indicative of a hidden mineralized porphyry center. Litho-geochemical analyses of the least altered Dalli intrusions and volcanic rocks indicated high Sr/Y (49-61) and Eu/Eu* (0.89-0.92), features typical of Cu porphyries. The U-Pb dating of zircons of the mineralized quartz diorite and andesite porphyry, carried out by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, yielded magmatic crystallization ages of 15.4-16.0 Ma (Middle Miocene). The zircon trace element concentrations of Dalli are characterized by high Eu/Eu* (0.3-0.8), (Ce/Nd)/Y (0.01-0.3), and 10000*(Eu/Eu*)/Y (2-15) ratios, similar to fertile porphyry suites such as the giant Sar-Cheshmeh and Qulong porphyry Cu deposits along the Tethyan belt. This suggests that the Middle Miocene Dalli intrusions are fertile and require extensive deep drillings to define their potential. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns show no significant Eu anomalies, and are characterized by light-REE enrichments (La/Sm)n = 2.57–6.40). In normalized multi-element diagrams, analyzed rocks are characterized by enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletions in high field strength elements (HFSE), and display typical features of subduction-related calc-alkaline magmas. The characteristics of the Dalli deposit provided several recognition criteria for detailed exploration of Cu-Au porphyry deposits and highlighted the importance of the UDMA as a potentially significant, economically important, but relatively underexplored porphyry province.

Keywords: porphyry, gold, geochronology, magnetic, exploration

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1295 Close-Range Remote Sensing Techniques for Analyzing Rock Discontinuity Properties

Authors: Sina Fatolahzadeh, Sergio A. Sepúlveda


This paper presents advanced developments in close-range, terrestrial remote sensing techniques to enhance the characterization of rock masses. The study integrates two state-of-the-art laser-scanning technologies, the HandySCAN and GeoSLAM laser scanners, to extract high-resolution geospatial data for rock mass analysis. These instruments offer high accuracy, precision, low acquisition time, and high efficiency in capturing intricate geological features in small to medium size outcrops and slope cuts. Using the HandySCAN and GeoSLAM laser scanners facilitates real-time, three-dimensional mapping of rock surfaces, enabling comprehensive assessments of rock mass characteristics. The collected data provide valuable insights into structural complexities, surface roughness, and discontinuity patterns, which are essential for geological and geotechnical analyses. The synergy of these advanced remote sensing technologies contributes to a more precise and straightforward understanding of rock mass behavior. In this case, the main parameters of RQD, joint spacing, persistence, aperture, roughness, infill, weathering, water condition, and joint orientation in a slope cut along the Sea-to-Sky Highway, BC, were remotely analyzed to calculate and evaluate the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and Geological Strength Index (GSI) classification systems. Automatic and manual analyses of the acquired data are then compared with field measurements. The results show the usefulness of the proposed remote sensing methods and their appropriate conformity with the actual field data.

Keywords: remote sensing, rock mechanics, rock engineering, slope stability, discontinuity properties

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1294 Spatial Interpolation of Intermediate Soil Properties to Enhance Geotechnical Surveying for Foundation Design

Authors: Yelbek B. Utepov, Assel T. Mukhamejanova, Aliya K. Aldungarova, Aida G. Nazarova, Sabit A. Karaulov, Nurgul T. Alibekova, Aigul K. Kozhas, Dias Kazhimkanuly, Akmaral K. Tleubayeva


This research focuses on enhancing geotechnical surveying for foundation design through the spatial interpolation of intermediate soil properties. Traditional geotechnical practices rely on discrete data from borehole drilling, soil sampling, and laboratory analyses, often neglecting the continuous nature of soil properties and disregarding values in intermediate locations. This study challenges these omissions by emphasizing interpolation techniques such as Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting, and Spline interpolation to capture the nuanced spatial variations in soil properties. The methodology is applied to geotechnical survey data from two construction sites in Astana, Kazakhstan, revealing continuous representations of Young's Modulus, Cohesion, and Friction Angle. The spatial heatmaps generated through interpolation offered valuable insights into the subsurface environment, highlighting heterogeneity and aiding in more informed foundation design decisions for considered cites. Moreover, intriguing patterns of heterogeneity, as well as visual clusters and transitions between soil classes, were explored within seemingly uniform layers. The study bridges the gap between discrete borehole samples and the continuous subsurface, contributing to the evolution of geotechnical engineering practices. The proposed approach, utilizing open-source software geographic information systems, provides a practical tool for visualizing soil characteristics and may pave the way for future advancements in geotechnical surveying and foundation design.

Keywords: soil mechanical properties, spatial interpolation, inverse distance weighting, heatmaps

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1293 Troubleshooting Petroleum Equipment Based on Wireless Sensors Based on Bayesian Algorithm

Authors: Vahid Bayrami Rad


In this research, common methods and techniques have been investigated with a focus on intelligent fault finding and monitoring systems in the oil industry. In fact, remote and intelligent control methods are considered a necessity for implementing various operations in the oil industry, but benefiting from the knowledge extracted from countless data generated with the help of data mining algorithms. It is a avoid way to speed up the operational process for monitoring and troubleshooting in today's big oil companies. Therefore, by comparing data mining algorithms and checking the efficiency and structure and how these algorithms respond in different conditions, The proposed (Bayesian) algorithm using data clustering and their analysis and data evaluation using a colored Petri net has provided an applicable and dynamic model from the point of view of reliability and response time. Therefore, by using this method, it is possible to achieve a dynamic and consistent model of the remote control system and prevent the occurrence of leakage in oil pipelines and refineries and reduce costs and human and financial errors. Statistical data The data obtained from the evaluation process shows an increase in reliability, availability and high speed compared to other previous methods in this proposed method.

Keywords: wireless sensors, petroleum equipment troubleshooting, Bayesian algorithm, colored Petri net, rapid miner, data mining-reliability

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1292 Best Practical Technique to Drain Recoverable Oil from Unconventional Deep Libyan Oil Reservoir

Authors: Tarek Duzan, Walid Esayed


Fluid flow in porous media is attributed fundamentally to parameters that are controlled by depositional and post-depositional environments. After deposition, digenetic events can act negatively on the reservoir and reduce the effective porosity, thereby making the rock less permeable. Therefore, exploiting hydrocarbons from such resources requires partially altering the rock properties to improve the long-term production rate and enhance the recovery efficiency. In this study, we try to address, firstly, the phenomena of permeability reduction in tight sandstone reservoirs and illustrate the implemented procedures to investigate the problem roots; finally, benchmark the candidate solutions at the field scale and recommend the mitigation strategy for the field development plan. During the study, two investigations have been considered: subsurface analysis using ( PLT ) and Laboratory tests for four candidate wells of the interested reservoir. Based on the above investigations, it was obvious that the Production logging tool (PLT) has shown areas of contribution in the reservoir, which is considered very limited, considering the total reservoir thickness. Also, Alcohol treatment was the first choice to go with for the AA9 well. The well productivity has been relatively restored but not to its initial productivity. Furthermore, Alcohol treatment in the lab was effective and restored permeability in some plugs by 98%, but operationally, the challenge would be the ability to distribute enough alcohol in a wellbore to attain the sweep Efficiency obtained within a laboratory core plug. However, the Second solution, which is based on fracking wells, has shown excellent results, especially for those wells that suffered a high drop in oil production. It is suggested to frac and pack the wells that are already damaged in the Waha field to mitigate the damage and restore productivity back as much as possible. In addition, Critical fluid velocity and its effect on fine sand migration in the reservoir have to be well studied on core samples, and therefore, suitable pressure drawdown will be applied in the reservoir to limit fine sand migration.

Keywords: alcohol treatment, post-depositional environments, permeability, tight sandstone

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1291 Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Coupling in Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Esmael Makarian, Ayub Elyasi, Fatemeh Saberi, Olusegun Stanley Tomomewo


Geothermal reservoirs (GTRs) have garnered global recognition as a sustainable energy source. The Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) integration coupling proves to be a practical and effective method for optimizing production in GTRs. The study outcomes demonstrate that THMC coupling serves as a versatile and valuable tool, offering in-depth insights into GTRs and enhancing their operational efficiency. This is achieved through temperature analysis and pressure changes and their impacts on mechanical properties, structural integrity, fracture aperture, permeability, and heat extraction efficiency. Moreover, THMC coupling facilitates potential benefits assessment and risks associated with different geothermal technologies, considering the complex thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical interactions within the reservoirs. However, THMC-coupling utilization in GTRs presents a multitude of challenges. These challenges include accurately modeling and predicting behavior due to the interconnected nature of processes, limited data availability leading to uncertainties, induced seismic events risks to nearby communities, scaling and mineral deposition reducing operational efficiency, and reservoirs' long-term sustainability. In addition, material degradation, environmental impacts, technical challenges in monitoring and control, accurate assessment of resource potential, and regulatory and social acceptance further complicate geothermal projects. Addressing these multifaceted challenges is crucial for successful geothermal energy resources sustainable utilization. This paper aims to illuminate the challenges and opportunities associated with THMC coupling in enhanced geothermal systems. Practical solutions and strategies for mitigating these challenges are discussed, emphasizing the need for interdisciplinary approaches, improved data collection and modeling techniques, and advanced monitoring and control systems. Overcoming these challenges is imperative for unlocking the full potential of geothermal energy making a substantial contribution to the global energy transition and sustainable development.

Keywords: geothermal reservoirs, THMC coupling, interdisciplinary approaches, challenges and opportunities, sustainable utilization

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1290 Internet of Things, Edge and Cloud Computing in Rock Mechanical Investigation for Underground Surveys

Authors: Esmael Makarian, Ayub Elyasi, Fatemeh Saberi, Olusegun Stanley Tomomewo


Rock mechanical investigation is one of the most crucial activities in underground operations, especially in surveys related to hydrocarbon exploration and production, geothermal reservoirs, energy storage, mining, and geotechnics. There is a wide range of traditional methods for driving, collecting, and analyzing rock mechanics data. However, these approaches may not be suitable or work perfectly in some situations, such as fractured zones. Cutting-edge technologies have been provided to solve and optimize the mentioned issues. Internet of Things (IoT), Edge, and Cloud Computing technologies (ECt & CCt, respectively) are among the most widely used and new artificial intelligence methods employed for geomechanical studies. IoT devices act as sensors and cameras for real-time monitoring and mechanical-geological data collection of rocks, such as temperature, movement, pressure, or stress levels. Structural integrity, especially for cap rocks within hydrocarbon systems, and rock mass behavior assessment, to further activities such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and underground gas storage (UGS), or to improve safety risk management (SRM) and potential hazards identification (P.H.I), are other benefits from IoT technologies. EC techniques can process, aggregate, and analyze data immediately collected by IoT on a real-time scale, providing detailed insights into the behavior of rocks in various situations (e.g., stress, temperature, and pressure), establishing patterns quickly, and detecting trends. Therefore, this state-of-the-art and useful technology can adopt autonomous systems in rock mechanical surveys, such as drilling and production (in hydrocarbon wells) or excavation (in mining and geotechnics industries). Besides, ECt allows all rock-related operations to be controlled remotely and enables operators to apply changes or make adjustments. It must be mentioned that this feature is very important in environmental goals. More often than not, rock mechanical studies consist of different data, such as laboratory tests, field operations, and indirect information like seismic or well-logging data. CCt provides a useful platform for storing and managing a great deal of volume and different information, which can be very useful in fractured zones. Additionally, CCt supplies powerful tools for predicting, modeling, and simulating rock mechanical information, especially in fractured zones within vast areas. Also, it is a suitable source for sharing extensive information on rock mechanics, such as the direction and size of fractures in a large oil field or mine. The comprehensive review findings demonstrate that digital transformation through integrated IoT, Edge, and Cloud solutions is revolutionizing traditional rock mechanical investigation. These advanced technologies have empowered real-time monitoring, predictive analysis, and data-driven decision-making, culminating in noteworthy enhancements in safety, efficiency, and sustainability. Therefore, by employing IoT, CCt, and ECt, underground operations have experienced a significant boost, allowing for timely and informed actions using real-time data insights. The successful implementation of IoT, CCt, and ECt has led to optimized and safer operations, optimized processes, and environmentally conscious approaches in underground geological endeavors.

Keywords: rock mechanical studies, internet of things, edge computing, cloud computing, underground surveys, geological operations

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1289 Petrology Investigation of Apatite Minerals in the Esfordi Mine

Authors: Haleh Rezaei Zanjirabadi, Fatemeh Saberi, Bahman Rahimzadeh, Fariborz Masoudi, Mohammad Rahgosha


In this study, apatite minerals from the iron-phosphate deposit of Yazd have been investigated within the microcontinent zone of Iran in the Zagros structural zone. The geological units in the Esfordi area belong to the pre-Cambrian to lower-Cambrian age, consisting of a succession of carbonate rocks (dolomite), shale, tuff, sandstone, and volcanic rocks. In addition to the mentioned sedimentary and volcanic rocks, the granitoid mass of Bahabad, which is the largest intrusive mass in the region, has intruded into the eastern part of this series and has caused its metamorphism and alteration. After collecting the available data, various samples of Esfordi’s apatite were prepared, and their mineralogy and crystallography were investigated using laboratory methods such as petrographic microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, EDS, and SEM. In non-destructive Raman spectroscopy, the molecular structure of apatite minerals was revealed in four distinct spectral ranges. Initially, the spectra of phosphate and aluminum bonds with O2HO, OH, were observed, followed by the identification of Cl, OH, Al, Na, Ca and hydroxyl units depending on the type of apatite mineral family. In SEM analysis, based on various shapes and different phases of apatites, their constituent major elements were identified through EDS, indicating that the samples from the Esfordi mining area exhibit a dense and coherent texture with smooth surfaces. Based on the elemental analysis results by EDS, the apatites in the Esfordi area are classified into the calcic apatite group.

Keywords: petrology, apatite, Esfordi, EDS, SEM, Raman spectroscopy

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1288 Land Cover Classification System for the Estimation of Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems

Authors: Lei Zhang


The carbon cycle greatly influences global change, and the land cover changes contribute to the status and rate of the carbon budget in ecosystems. This paper proposes a land cover classification system for mapping land cover, the national ecological environment assessment, and estimating carbon storage in ecosystems. The classification system consists of basic land cover classes at levels Ⅰ and Ⅱ and auxiliary features at level III. The basic 38 classes characterizing land cover features are derived from 19 criteria referring to composition, structure, pattern, phenology, etc. The basic classes reflect the status of carbon storage in ecosystems. The auxiliary classes at level III complement the attributes of higher levels by 9 criteria. The 5 environmental criteria of temperature, moisture, landform, aspect and slope mainly reflect the potential and intensity of carbon storage in ecosystems. The disturbance of vegetation succession caused by land use type influences the vegetation carbon budget. The other 3 vegetation cover criteria, growth period, and species characteristics further refine the vegetation types. The hierarchical structure of the land cover map (the classes of levels Ⅰ and Ⅱ) is independent of the products of level III, which is helpful for land cover product management and applications. The classification system has been adopted in the Chinese national land cover database for the carbon budget in ecosystems at a 30 m scale.

Keywords: classification system, land cover, ecosystem, carbon storage, object based

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1287 Reconstructability Analysis for Landslide Prediction

Authors: David Percy


Landslides are a geologic phenomenon that affects a large number of inhabited places and are constantly being monitored and studied for the prediction of future occurrences. Reconstructability analysis (RA) is a methodology for extracting informative models from large volumes of data that work exclusively with discrete data. While RA has been used in medical applications and social science extensively, we are introducing it to the spatial sciences through applications like landslide prediction. Since RA works exclusively with discrete data, such as soil classification or bedrock type, working with continuous data, such as porosity, requires that these data are binned for inclusion in the model. RA constructs models of the data which pick out the most informative elements, independent variables (IVs), from each layer that predict the dependent variable (DV), landslide occurrence. Each layer included in the model retains its classification data as a primary encoding of the data. Unlike other machine learning algorithms that force the data into one-hot encoding type of schemes, RA works directly with the data as it is encoded, with the exception of continuous data, which must be binned. The usual physical and derived layers are included in the model, and testing our results against other published methodologies, such as neural networks, yields accuracy that is similar but with the advantage of a completely transparent model. The results of an RA session with a data set are a report on every combination of variables and their probability of landslide events occurring. In this way, every combination of informative state combinations can be examined.

Keywords: reconstructability analysis, machine learning, landslides, raster analysis

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1286 Marzuq Basin Palaeozoic Petroleum System

Authors: M. Dieb, T. Hodairi


In the Southwest Libya area, the Palaeozoic deposits are an important petroleum system, with Silurian shale considered a hydrocarbon source rock and Cambro-Ordovician recognized as a good reservoir. The Palaeozoic petroleum system has the greatest potential for conventional and is thought to represent the significant prospect of unconventional petroleum resources in Southwest Libya. Until now, the lateral and vertical heterogeneity of the source rock was not well evaluated, and oil-source correlation is still a matter of debate. One source rock, which is considered the main source potential in Marzuq Basin, was investigated for its uranium contents using gamma-ray logs, rock-eval pyrolysis, and organic petrography for their bulk kinetic characteristics to determine the petroleum potential qualitatively and quantitatively. Thirty source rock samples and fifteen oil samples from the Tannezzuft source rock were analyzed by Rock-Eval Pyrolysis, microscopely investigation, GC, and GC-MS to detect acyclic isoprenoids and aliphatic, aromatic, and NSO biomarkers. Geochemistry tools were applied to screen source and age-significant biomarkers to high-spot genetic relationships. A grating heterogeneity exists among source rock zones from different levels of depth with varying uranium contents according to gamma-ray logs, rock-eval pyrolysis results, and kinetic features. The uranium-rich Tannezzuft Formations (Hot Shales) produce oils and oil-to-gas hydrocarbons based on their richness, kerogen type, and thermal maturity. Biomarker results such as C₂₇, C₂₈, and C₂₉ steranes concentrations and C₂₄ tetracyclic terpane/C₂₉ tricyclic terpane ratios, with sterane and hopane ratios, are considered the most promising biomarker information in differentiating within the Silurian Shale Tannezzuft Formation and in correlating with its expelled oils. The Tannezzuft Hot Shale is considered the main source rock for oil and gas accumulations in the Cambro-Ordovician reservoirs within the Marzuq Basin. Migration of the generated and expelled oil and gas from the Tannezzuft source rock to the reservoirs of the Cambro-Ordovician petroleum system was interpreted to have occurred along vertical and lateral pathways along the faults in the Palaeozoic Strata. The Upper Tannezzuft Formation (cold shale) is considered the primary seal in the Marzuq Basin.

Keywords: heterogeneity, hot shale, kerogen, Silurian, uranium

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1285 Well Logs and Seismic Based Machine Learning Facies Classification in Jurassic Reservoirs of Raudhatain Field, Kuwait

Authors: Nadima Dwihusna, Ge Jin, Ali Tura, Narhari Srinivasa Rao, Abdullah E. Al-Otaibi, Shamima Akther


This research provides valuable insights into applying different types of machine learning for the geologic interpretation of the Raudhatain Field, Kuwait. Facies recognition utilizing machine learning has high potential in reducing uncertainties of reservoir characterization. ML-based algorithm enables automation of interpretation techniques in large portions of data which reduces the seismic and well log interpretation workflows cycle time. Facies classifications through predictive learning were obtained from two case studies: 1) semi-supervised learning to unlabeled well logs and 2) unsupervised learning to unlabeled post-stack seismic data in Raudhatain Field, Kuwait. The first case demonstrates that K-means semi-supervised learning reduces cycle time for facies classification in well logs. Combining petrophysics-based domain knowledge with machine learning increases efficiency in facies classification. In the second case, Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) prove to be a good tool for seismic interpretation. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of leveraging machine learning in the interpretation of facies in Raudhatain Field, Kuwait. SOM is a practical way to identify natural clusters in multi-attribute seismic data. As a lesson learned, the ability to determine a good seismic data set is a deciding factor for a successful SOM analysis and for developing meaningful neural classes. In the end, this K-Means and SOM data-driven approach allows for automation of facies classification in large amount of unlabeled well logs and seismic data, reduces human biased, and permits new possible findings of clusters and characteristics hidden in the data which is essential for reservoir characterization.

Keywords: machine learning, facies, reservoir characterization, petrophysics

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1284 Noise Source Identification on Urban Construction Sites Using Signal Time Delay Analysis

Authors: Balgaisha G. Mukanova, Yelbek B. Utepov, Aida G. Nazarova, Alisher Z. Imanov


The problem of identifying local noise sources on a construction site using a sensor system is considered. Mathematical modeling of detected signals on sensors was carried out, considering signal decay and signal delay time between the source and detector. Recordings of noises produced by construction tools were used as a dependence of noise on time. Synthetic sensor data was constructed based on these data, and a model of the propagation of acoustic waves from a point source in the three-dimensional space was applied. All sensors and sources are assumed to be located in the same plane. A source localization method is checked based on the signal time delay between two adjacent detectors and plotting the direction of the source. Based on the two direct lines' crossline, the noise source's position is determined. Cases of one dominant source and the case of two sources in the presence of several other sources of lower intensity are considered. The number of detectors varies from three to eight detectors. The intensity of the noise field in the assessed area is plotted. The signal of a two-second duration is considered. The source is located for subsequent parts of the signal with a duration above 0.04 sec; the final result is obtained by computing the average value.

Keywords: acoustic model, direction of arrival, inverse source problem, sound localization, urban noises

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1283 Petroleum Generative Potential of Eocene-Paleocene Sequences of Potwar Basin, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Bilawal Ali Shah


The investigation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of Eocene-Paleocene formations of Potwar Basin, part of Upper Indus Basin Pakistan, was done using geochemical and petrological techniques. Analysis was performed on forty-five core-cutting samples from two wells. The sequences analysed are Sakesar, Lockhart and Patala formations of Potwar Basin. Patala Formation is one of Potwar Basin's major petroleum-bearing source rocks. The Lockhart Formation samples VR (%Ro) and Tmax data indicate that the formation is early mature to immature for petroleum generation for hydrocarbon generation; samples from the Patala and Sakesar formations, however, have a peak oil generation window and an early maturity (oil window). With 3.37 weight percent mean TOC and HI levels up to 498 mg HC/g TOC, the source rock characteristics of the Sakesar and Patala formations generally exhibit good to very strong petroleum generative potential. The majority of sediments representing Lockhart Formation have 1.5 wt.% mean TOC having fair to good potential with HI values ranging between 203-498 mg HC/g TOC. 1. The analysed sediments of all formations possess primarily mixed Type II/III and Type III kerogen. Analysed sediments indicate that both the Sakesar and Patala formations can possess good oil-generation potential and may act as an oil source rock in the Potwar Basin.

Keywords: Potwar Basin, Patala Shale, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Indus Basin, VR %Ro

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1282 Fold and Thrust Belts Seismic Imaging and Interpretation

Authors: Sunjay


Plate tectonics is of very great significance as it represents the spatial relationships of volcanic rock suites at plate margins, the distribution in space and time of the conditions of different metamorphic facies, the scheme of deformation in mountain belts, or orogens, and the association of different types of economic deposit. Orogenic belts are characterized by extensive thrust faulting, movements along large strike-slip fault zones, and extensional deformation that occur deep within continental interiors. Within oceanic areas there also are regions of crustal extension and accretion in the backarc basins that are located on the landward sides of many destructive plate margins.Collisional orogens develop where a continent or island arc collides with a continental margin as a result of subduction. collisional and noncollisional orogens can be explained by differences in the strength and rheology of the continental lithosphere and by processes that influence these properties during orogenesis.Seismic Imaging Difficulties-In triangle zones, several factors reduce the effectiveness of seismic methods. The topography in the central part of the triangle zone is usually rugged and is associated with near-surface velocity inversions which degrade the quality of the seismic image. These characteristics lead to low signal-to-noise ratio, inadequate penetration of energy through overburden, poor geophone coupling with the surface and wave scattering. Depth Seismic Imaging Techniques-Seismic processing relates to the process of altering the seismic data to suppress noise, enhancing the desired signal (higher signal-to-noise ratio) and migrating seismic events to their appropriate location in space and depth. Processing steps generally include analysis of velocities, static corrections, moveout corrections, stacking and migration. Exploration seismology Bow-tie effect -Shadow Zones-areas with no reflections (dead areas). These are called shadow zones and are common in the vicinity of faults and other discontinuous areas in the subsurface. Shadow zones result when energy from a reflector is focused on receivers that produce other traces. As a result, reflectors are not shown in their true positions. Subsurface Discontinuities-Diffractions occur at discontinuities in the subsurface such as faults and velocity discontinuities (as at “bright spot” terminations). Bow-tie effect caused by the two deep-seated synclines. Seismic imaging of thrust faults and structural damage-deepwater thrust belts, Imaging deformation in submarine thrust belts using seismic attributes,Imaging thrust and fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques, Balanced structural cross sections seismic interpretation pitfalls checking, The seismic pitfalls can originate due to any or all of the limitations of data acquisition, processing, interpretation of the subsurface geology,Pitfalls and limitations in seismic attribute interpretation of tectonic features, Seismic attributes are routinely used to accelerate and quantify the interpretation of tectonic features in 3D seismic data. Coherence (or variance) cubes delineate the edges of megablocks and faulted strata, curvature delineates folds and flexures, while spectral components delineate lateral changes in thickness and lithology. Carbon capture and geological storage leakage surveillance because fault behave as a seal or a conduit for hydrocarbon transportation to a trap,etc.

Keywords: tectonics, seismic imaging, fold and thrust belts, seismic interpretation

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1281 Flood Vulnerability Zoning for Blue Nile Basin Using Geospatial Techniques

Authors: Melese Wondatir


Flooding ranks among the most destructive natural disasters, impacting millions of individuals globally and resulting in substantial economic, social, and environmental repercussions. This study's objective was to create a comprehensive model that assesses the Nile River basin's susceptibility to flood damage and improves existing flood risk management strategies. Authorities responsible for enacting policies and implementing measures may benefit from this research to acquire essential information about the flood, including its scope and susceptible areas. The identification of severe flood damage locations and efficient mitigation techniques were made possible by the use of geospatial data. Slope, elevation, distance from the river, drainage density, topographic witness index, rainfall intensity, distance from road, NDVI, soil type, and land use type were all used throughout the study to determine the vulnerability of flood damage. Ranking elements according to their significance in predicting flood damage risk was done using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and geospatial approaches. The analysis finds that the most important parameters determining the region's vulnerability are distance from the river, topographic witness index, rainfall, and elevation, respectively. The consistency ratio (CR) value obtained in this case is 0.000866 (<0.1), which signifies the acceptance of the derived weights. Furthermore, 10.84m2, 83331.14m2, 476987.15m2, 24247.29m2, and 15.83m2 of the region show varying degrees of vulnerability to flooding—very low, low, medium, high, and very high, respectively. Due to their close proximity to the river, the northern-western regions of the Nile River basin—especially those that are close to Sudanese cities like Khartoum—are more vulnerable to flood damage, according to the research findings. Furthermore, the AUC ROC curve demonstrates that the categorized vulnerability map achieves an accuracy rate of 91.0% based on 117 sample points. By putting into practice strategies to address the topographic witness index, rainfall patterns, elevation fluctuations, and distance from the river, vulnerable settlements in the area can be protected, and the impact of future flood occurrences can be greatly reduced. Furthermore, the research findings highlight the urgent requirement for infrastructure development and effective flood management strategies in the northern and western regions of the Nile River basin, particularly in proximity to major towns such as Khartoum. Overall, the study recommends prioritizing high-risk locations and developing a complete flood risk management plan based on the vulnerability map.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, Blue Nile Basin, geospatial techniques, flood vulnerability, multi-criteria decision making

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1280 Geochemistry of Silt Size Fraction of the Beach Sands Along the Coast Between Al Kuwifia and Tolmeita, NE Libya

Authors: Basem A. El Werfallia, Osama R. Shaltamiab, Ragab M. Al Alwanyc


The present work aims to characterize the geochemistry of the beach sands along the Mediterranean Coast from Al Kuwifia to Tolmeita, NE Libya. The major oxides CaO and MgO are the main constituents of the carbonate minerals; calcite and aragonite. SiO2 is mainly in the form of quartz. Sometimes a high quotient of SiO2 together with the oxides; Al2O3, K2O and partly of Na2O, TiO2 and Fe2O3 are essentially allocated within the structure of the feldspars. Part of Na2O and the content of Cl belong mainly to halite. Part of Fe2O3 and TiO2 may be accommodated as iron oxyhydroxides. Part of CaO and the content of SO3 are allotted within the gypsum structure. Ba, Sr, Th, U and REE are basicallycontrolled by the carbonate fraction, while Cu, Zn, V and Cr are strongly correlated with Al2O3.

Keywords: geochemistry, major oxides, Al Kuwifia, Tolmeita

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1279 Seismic Perimeter Surveillance System (Virtual Fence) for Threat Detection and Characterization Using Multiple ML Based Trained Models in Weighted Ensemble Voting

Authors: Vivek Mahadev, Manoj Kumar, Neelu Mathur, Brahm Dutt Pandey


Perimeter guarding and protection of critical installations require prompt intrusion detection and assessment to take effective countermeasures. Currently, visual and electronic surveillance are the primary methods used for perimeter guarding. These methods can be costly and complicated, requiring careful planning according to the location and terrain. Moreover, these methods often struggle to detect stealthy and camouflaged insurgents. The object of the present work is to devise a surveillance technique using seismic sensors that overcomes the limitations of existing systems. The aim is to improve intrusion detection, assessment, and characterization by utilizing seismic sensors. Most of the similar systems have only two types of intrusion detection capability viz., human or vehicle. In our work we could even categorize further to identify types of intrusion activity such as walking, running, group walking, fence jumping, tunnel digging and vehicular movements. A virtual fence of 60 meters at GCNEP, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India, was created by installing four underground geophones at a distance of 15 meters each. The signals received from these geophones are then processed to find unique seismic signatures called features. Various feature optimization and selection methodologies, such as LightGBM, Boruta, Random Forest, Logistics, Recursive Feature Elimination, Chi-2 and Pearson Ratio were used to identify the best features for training the machine learning models. The trained models were developed using algorithms such as supervised support vector machine (SVM) classifier, kNN, Decision Tree, Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes, and Artificial Neural Networks. These models were then used to predict the category of events, employing weighted ensemble voting to analyze and combine their results. The models were trained with 1940 training events and results were evaluated with 831 test events. It was observed that using the weighted ensemble voting increased the efficiency of predictions. In this study we successfully developed and deployed the virtual fence using geophones. Since these sensors are passive, do not radiate any energy and are installed underground, it is impossible for intruders to locate and nullify them. Their flexibility, quick and easy installation, low costs, hidden deployment and unattended surveillance make such systems especially suitable for critical installations and remote facilities with difficult terrain. This work demonstrates the potential of utilizing seismic sensors for creating better perimeter guarding and protection systems using multiple machine learning models in weighted ensemble voting. In this study the virtual fence achieved an intruder detection efficiency of over 97%.

Keywords: geophone, seismic perimeter surveillance, machine learning, weighted ensemble method

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1278 Investigation of the Litho-Structure of Ilesa Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data

Authors: Oladejo Olagoke Peter, Adagunodo T. A., Ogunkoya C. O.


The research investigated the arrangement of some geological features under Ilesa employing aeromagnetic data. The obtained data was subjected to various data filtering and processing techniques, which are Total Horizontal Derivative (THD), Depth Continuation and Analytical Signal Amplitude using Geosoft Oasis Montaj 6.4.2 software. The Reduced to the Equator –Total Magnetic Intensity (TRE-TMI) outcomes reveal significant magnetic anomalies, with high magnitude (55.1 to 155 nT) predominantly at the Northwest half of the area. Intermediate magnetic susceptibility, ranging between 6.0 to 55.1 nT, dominates the eastern part, separated by depressions and uplifts. The southern part of the area exhibits a magnetic field of low intensity, ranging from -76.6 to 6.0 nT. The lineaments exhibit varying lengths ranging from 2.5 and 16.0 km. Analyzing the Rose Diagram and the analytical signal amplitude indicates structural styles mainly of E-W and NE-SW orientations, particularly evident in the western, SW and NE regions with an amplitude of 0.0318nT/m. The identified faults in the area demonstrate orientations of NNW-SSE, NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE, situated at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m. Considering the divergence magnetic susceptibility, structural style or orientation of the lineaments, identified fault and their depth, these lithological features could serve as a valuable foundation for assessing ground motion, particularly in the presence of sufficient seismic energy.

Keywords: lineament, aeromagnetic, anomaly, fault, magnetic

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1277 Geospatial Analysis for Predicting Sinkhole Susceptibility in Greene County, Missouri

Authors: Shishay Kidanu, Abdullah Alhaj


Sinkholes in the karst terrain of Greene County, Missouri, pose significant geohazards, imposing challenges on construction and infrastructure development, with potential threats to lives and property. To address these issues, understanding the influencing factors and modeling sinkhole susceptibility is crucial for effective mitigation through strategic changes in land use planning and practices. This study utilizes geographic information system (GIS) software to collect and process diverse data, including topographic, geologic, hydrogeologic, and anthropogenic information. Nine key sinkhole influencing factors, ranging from slope characteristics to proximity to geological structures, were carefully analyzed. The Frequency Ratio method establishes relationships between attribute classes of these factors and sinkhole events, deriving class weights to indicate their relative importance. Weighted integration of these factors is accomplished using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method in a GIS environment, resulting in a comprehensive sinkhole susceptibility index (SSI) model for the study area. Employing Jenk's natural break classifier method, the SSI values are categorized into five distinct sinkhole susceptibility zones: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Validation of the model, conducted through the Area Under Curve (AUC) and Sinkhole Density Index (SDI) methods, demonstrates a robust correlation with sinkhole inventory data. The prediction rate curve yields an AUC value of 74%, indicating a 74% validation accuracy. The SDI result further supports the success of the sinkhole susceptibility model. This model offers reliable predictions for the future distribution of sinkholes, providing valuable insights for planners and engineers in the formulation of development plans and land-use strategies. Its application extends to enhancing preparedness and minimizing the impact of sinkhole-related geohazards on both infrastructure and the community.

Keywords: sinkhole, GIS, analytical hierarchy process, frequency ratio, susceptibility, Missouri

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1276 Evalutaion of the Surface Water Quality Using the Water Quality Index and Discriminant Analysis Method

Authors: Lazhar Belkhiri, Ammar Tiri, Lotfi Mouni


Water resources present to the public order of the world a very important problem for the protection and management of water quality given the complexity of water quality data sets. In this study, the water quality index (WQI) and irrigation water quality index (IWQI) were calculated in order to evaluate the surface water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes based on nine hydrochemical parameters. In order to separate the variables that are the most responsible for the spatial differentiation, the discriminant analysis (DA) was applied. The results show that the surface water quality for drinking is poor quality and very poor quality based on WQI values, however, the values of IWQI reflect that this water is acceptable for irrigation with a restriction for sensitive plants. Consequently, the discriminant analysis DA method has shown that the following parameters pH, potassium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate are significant discrimination between the different stations with the spatial variation of the surface water quality, therefore, the results obtained in this study provide very useful information to decision-makers

Keywords: surface water quality, drinking and irrigation purposes, water quality index, discriminant analysis

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1275 Simulating Studies on Phosphate Removal from Laundry Wastewater Using Biochar: Dudinin Approach

Authors: Eric York, James Tadio, Silas Owusu Antwi


Laundry wastewater contains a diverse range of chemical pollutants that can have detrimental effects on human health and the environment. In this study, simulation studies by Spyder Python software v 3.2 to assess the efficacy of biochar in removing PO₄³⁻ from wastewater were conducted. Through modeling and simulation, the mechanisms involved in the adsorption process of phosphate by biochar were studied by altering variables which is specific to the phosphate from common laundry phosphate detergents, such as the aqueous solubility, initial concentration, and temperature using the Dudinin Approach (DA). Results showed that the concentration equilibrate at near the highest concentrations for Sugar beet-120 mgL⁻¹, Tailing-85 mgL⁻¹, CaO- rich-50 mgL⁻¹, Eggshell and rice straw-48 mgL⁻¹, Undaria Pinnatifida Roots-190 mgL⁻¹, Ca-Alginate Granular Beads -240 mgL⁻¹, Laminaria Japonica Powder -900 mgL⁻¹, Pinesaw dust-57 mgL⁻¹, Ricehull-190 mgL⁻¹, sesame straw- 470 mgL⁻¹, Sugar Bagasse-380 mgL⁻¹, Miscanthus Giganteus-240 mgL⁻¹, Wood Bc-130 mgL⁻¹, Pine-25 mgL⁻¹, Sawdust-6.8 mgL⁻¹, Sewage Sludge-, Rice husk-12 mgL⁻¹, Corncob-117 mgL⁻¹, Maize straw- 1800 mgL⁻¹ while Peanut -Eucalyptus polybractea-, Crawfish equilibrated at near concentration. CO₂ activated Thalia, sewage sludge biochar, Broussonetia Papyrifera Leaves equilibrated just at the lower concentration. Only Soyer bean Stover exhibited a sharp rise and fall peak in mid-concentration at 2 mgL⁻¹ volume. The modelling results were consistent with experimental findings from the literature, ensuring the accuracy, repeatability, and reliability of the simulation study. The simulation study provided insights into adsorption for PO₄³⁻ from wastewater by biochar using concentration per volume that can be adsorbed ideally under the given conditions. Studies showed that applying the principle experimentally in real wastewater with all its complexity is warranted and not far-fetched.

Keywords: simulation studies, phosphate removal, biochar, adsorption, wastewater treatment

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1274 Knowledge Co-Production on Future Climate-Change-Induced Mass-Movement Risks in Alpine Regions

Authors: Elisabeth Maidl


The interdependence of climate change and natural hazard goes along with large uncertainties regarding future risks. Regional stakeholders, experts in natural hazards management and scientists have specific knowledge, resp. mental models on such risks. This diversity of views makes it difficult to find common and broadly accepted prevention measures. If the specific knowledge of these types of actors is shared in an interactive knowledge production process, this enables a broader and common understanding of complex risks and allows to agree on long-term solution strategies. Previous studies on mental models confirm that actors with specific vulnerabilities perceive different aspects of a topic and accordingly prefer different measures. In bringing these perspectives together, there is the potential to reduce uncertainty and to close blind spots in solution finding. However, studies that examine the mental models of regional actors on future concrete mass movement risks are lacking so far. The project tests and evaluates the feasibility of knowledge co-creation for the anticipatory prevention of climate change-induced mass movement risks in the Alps. As a key element, mental models of the three included groups of actors are compared. Being integrated into the research program Climate Change Impacts on Alpine Mass Movements (CCAMM2), this project is carried out in two Swiss mountain regions. The project is structured in four phases: 1) the preparatory phase, in which the participants are identified, 2) the baseline phase, in which qualitative interviews and a quantitative pre-survey are conducted with actors 3) the knowledge-co-creation phase, in which actors have a moderated exchange meeting, and a participatory modelling workshop on specific risks in the region, and 4) finally a public information event. Results show that participants' mental models are based on the place of origin, profession, believes, values, which results in narratives on climate change and hazard risks. Further, the more intensively participants interact with each other, the more likely is that they change their views. This provides empirical evidence on how changes in opinions and mindsets can be induced and fostered.

Keywords: climate change, knowledge-co-creation, participatory process, natural hazard risks

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1273 Immature Palm Tree Detection Using Morphological Filter for Palm Counting with High Resolution Satellite Image

Authors: Nur Nadhirah Rusyda Rosnan, Nursuhaili Najwa Masrol, Nurul Fatiha MD Nor, Mohammad Zafrullah Mohammad Salim, Sim Choon Cheak


Accurate inventories of oil palm planted areas are crucial for plantation management as this would impact the overall economy and production of oil. One of the technological advancements in the oil palm industry is semi-automated palm counting, which is replacing conventional manual palm counting via digitizing aerial imagery. Most of the semi-automated palm counting method that has been developed was limited to mature palms due to their ideal canopy size represented by satellite image. Therefore, immature palms were often left out since the size of the canopy is barely visible from satellite images. In this paper, an approach using a morphological filter and high-resolution satellite image is proposed to detect immature palm trees. This approach makes it possible to count the number of immature oil palm trees. The method begins with an erosion filter with an appropriate window size of 3m onto the high-resolution satellite image. The eroded image was further segmented using watershed segmentation to delineate immature palm tree regions. Then, local minimum detection was used because it is hypothesized that immature oil palm trees are located at the local minimum within an oil palm field setting in a grayscale image. The detection points generated from the local minimum are displaced to the center of the immature oil palm region and thinned. Only one detection point is left that represents a tree. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on three subsets with slopes ranging from 0 to 20° and different planting designs, i.e., straight and terrace. The proposed method was able to achieve up to more than 90% accuracy when compared with the ground truth, with an overall F-measure score of up to 0.91.

Keywords: immature palm count, oil palm, precision agriculture, remote sensing

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