Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 987

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

987 Impact of Changes in Travel Behavior Triggered by the Covid-19 Pandemic on Tourist Ininfrastructure. Water Reservoirs of the Vltava Cascade (Czechia) Case Study

Authors: Jiří Vágner, Dana Fialová


The Covid-19 pandemic and its effects have triggered significant changes in travel behavior. On the contrary to a deep decline in international tourism, domestic tourism has recovered. It has not fully replaced the total volume of national tourism so far. However, from a regional point of view, and especially according to the type of destinations, regional targeting has changed significantly compared to the previous period. Urban destinations, which used to be the domain of foreign tourists, have been relatively orphaned, in contrast to destinations tied to natural attractions, which have seen seasonal increases. Even here, at a lower hierarchical geographic level, we can observe the differentiation resulting from the existing localization and infrastructure. The case study is focused on the three largest water reservoirs of the Vltava Cascade in Czechia– Lipno, Orlík, and Slapy. Based on a detailed field survey, in the periods before and during the pandemic, as well as available statistical data (Tourdata; Czech Statistical Office, Czech Cadaster and Ordnance Survey), different trends in the exploitation of these destinations with regard to existing or planned infrastructure are documented, analyzed and explained. This gives us the opportunity to discuss on concrete examples of generally known phenomena that are usually neglected in tourism: slum, brownfield, greenfield. Changes in travel behavior – especially the focus on spending leisure time individually in naturally attractive destinations – can affect the use of sites, which can be defined as a tourist or recreational slum, brownfield, but also as a tourist greenfield development. Sociocultural changes and perception of destinations by tourists and other actors represent, besides environmental changes, major trends in current tourism.

Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, czechia, sociocultural and environmental impacts, tourist infrastructure, travel behavior, the Vltava Cascade water reservoirs

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986 Feature Selection for Production Schedule Optimization in Transition Mines

Authors: Angelina Anani, Ignacio Ortiz Flores, Haitao Li


The use of underground mining methods have increased significantly over the past decades. This increase has also been spared on by several mines transitioning from surface to underground mining. However, determining the transition depth can be a challenging task, especially when coupled with production schedule optimization. Several researchers have simplified the problem by excluding operational features relevant to production schedule optimization. Our research objective is to investigate the extent to which operational features of transition mines accounted for affect the optimal production schedule. We also provide a framework for factors to consider in production schedule optimization for transition mines. An integrated mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is developed that maximizes the NPV as a function of production schedule and transition depth. A case study is performed to validate the model, with a comparative sensitivity analysis to obtain operational insights.

Keywords: underground mining, transition mines, mixed-integer linear programming, production schedule

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985 Liquid Nitrogen as Fracturing Method for Hot Dry Rocks in Kazakhstan

Authors: Sotirios Longinos, Anna Loskutova, Assel Tolegenova, Assem Imanzhussip, Lei Wang


Hot, dry rock (HDR) has substantial potential as a thermal energy source. It has been exploited by hydraulic fracturing to extract heat and generate electricity, which is a well-developed technique known for creating the enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). These days, LN2 is being tested as an environmental friendly fracturing fluid to generate densely interconnected crevices to augment heat exchange efficiency and production. This study examines experimentally the efficacy of LN2 cryogenic fracturing for granite samples in Kazakhstan with immersion method. A comparison of two different experimental models is carried out. The first mode is rock heating along with liquid nitrogen treatment (heating with freezing time), and the second mode is multiple times of heating along with liquid nitrogen treatment (heating with LN2 freezing-thawing cycles). The experimental results indicated that with multiple heating and LN2-treatment cycles, the permeability of granite first ameliorates with increasing number of cycles and later reaches a plateau after a certain number of cycles. On the other hand, density, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus, and tensile strength indicate a downward trend with increasing heating and treatment cycles. The thermal treatment cycles do not seem to have an obvious effect on the Poisson’s ratio. The changing rate of granite rock properties decreases as the number of cycles increases. The deterioration of granite primarily happens within the early few cycles. The heating temperature during the cycles shows an important influence on the deterioration of granite. More specifically, mechanical deterioration and permeability amelioration become more remarkable as the heating temperature increases.LN2 fracturing generates many positives compared to conventional fracturing methods such as little water consumption, requirement of zero chemical additives, lessening of reservoir damage, and so forth. Based on the experimental observations, LN2 can work as a promising waterless fracturing fluid to stimulate hot, dry rock reservoirs.

Keywords: granite, hydraulic fracturing, liquid nitrogen, Kazakhstan

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984 The Influences of Facies and Fine Kaolinite Formation Migration on Sandstone's Reservoir Quality, Sarir Formation, Sirt Basin Libya

Authors: Faraj M. Elkhatri


The spatial and temporal distribution of diagenetic alterations related impact on the reservoir quality of the Sarir Formation. ( present day burial depth of about 9000 feet) Depositional facies and diagenetic alterations are the main controls on reservoir quality of Sarir Formation Sirt Basin Libya; these based on lithology and grain size as well as authigenic clay mineral types and their distributions. However, petrology investigation obtained on study area with five sandstone wells concentrated on main rock components and the parameters that may have impacts on reservoirs. the main authigenic clay minerals are kaolinite and dickite, these investigations have confirmed by X.R.D analysis and clay fraction. mainly Kaolinite and Dickite were extensively presented on all of wells with high amounts. As well as trace of detrital smectite and less amounts of illitized mud-matrix are possibly find by SEM image. Thin layers of clay presented as clay-grain coatings in local depth interpreted as remains of dissolved clay matrix is partly transformed into kaolinite adjacent and towards pore throat. This also may have impacts on most of the pore throats of this sandstone which are open and relatively clean with some fine martial have been formed on occluded pores. This material is identified by EDS analysis to be collections of not only kaolinite booklets but also small disaggregated kaolinite platelets derived from the disaggregation of larger kaolinite booklets. These patches of kaolinite not only fill this pore but also coat some of the surrounding framework grains. Quartz grains often enlarged by authigenic quartz overgrowths partially occlude and reduce porosity. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM) was conducted on the post-test samples to examine any mud filtrate particles that may be in the pore throats. Semi-qualitative elemental data on selected minerals observed during the SEM study were obtained through the use of an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) unit. The samples showed mostly clean open pore throats with limited occlusion by kaolinite. very fine-grained elemental combinations (Si/Al/Na/Cl, Si/Al Ca/Cl/Ti, and Qtz/Ti) have been identified and conformed by EDS analysis. However, the identification of the fine grained disaggregated material as mainly kaolinite though study area.

Keywords: pore throat, fine migration, formation damage, solids plugging, porosity loss

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983 Simulation of Surface Runoff in Mahabad Dam Basin, Iran

Authors: Leila Khosravi


A major part of the drinking water in North West of Iran is supplied from Mahabad reservoir 80 km northwest of Mahabad. This reservoir collects water from 750 km-catchment which is undergoing accelerated changes due to deforestation and urbanization. The main objective of this study is to develop a catchment modeling platform which translates ongoing land-use changes, soil data, precipitation and evaporation into surface runoff of the river discharging into the reservoir: Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT, model along with hydro -meteorological records of 1997–2011. A variety of statistical indices were used to evaluate the simulation results for both calibration and validation periods; among them, the robust Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients were found to be 0.52 and 0.62 in the calibration and validation periods, respectively. This project has developed a reliable modeling platform with the benchmark land physical conditions of the Mahabad dam basin.

Keywords: simulation, surface runoff, Mahabad dam, SWAT model

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982 Simultaneous Removal of Arsenic and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Soil: a Pilot-Scale Demonstration

Authors: Juan Francisco Morales Arteaga, Simon Gluhar, Anela Kaurin, Domen Lestan


Contaminated soils are recognized as one of the most pressing global environmental problems. As is one of the most hazardous elements: chronic exposure to arsenic has devastating effects on health, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and eventually death. Pb, Zn and Cd are very highly toxic metals that affect almost every organ in the body. With this in mind, new technologies for soil remediation processes are urgently needed. Calcareous artificially contaminated soil containing 231 mg kg-1 As and historically contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd was washed with a 1:1.5 solid-liquid ratio of 90 mM EDTA, 100 mM oxalic acid, and 50 mM sodium dithionite to remove 59, 75, 29, and 53% of As, Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively. To reduce emissions of residual EDTA and chelated metals from the remediated soil, zero valent iron (ZVI) was added (1% w/w) to the slurry of the washed soil immediately prior to rinsing. Experimental controls were conducted without the addition of ZVI after remediation. The use of ZVI reduced metal leachability and minimized toxic emissions 21 days after remediation. After this time, NH4NO3 extraction was performed to determine the mobility of toxic elements in the soil. In addition, Unified Human BioaccessibilityMethod (UBM) was performed to quantify the bioaccessibility levels of metals in stimulated human gastric and gastrointestinal phases.

Keywords: soil remediation, soil science, soil washing, toxic metals removal

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981 Modification Of Rubber Swab Tool With Brush To Reduce Rubber Swab Fraction Fishing Time

Authors: T. R. Hidayat, G. Irawan, F. Kurniawan, E. H. I. Prasetya, Suharto, T. F. Ridwan, A. Pitoyo, A. Juniantoro, R. T. Hidayat


Swab activities is an activity to lift fluid from inside the well with the use of a sand line that aims to find out fluid influx after conducting perforation or to reduce the level of fluid as an effort to get the difference between formation pressure with hydrostatic pressure in the well for underbalanced perforation. During the swab activity, problems occur frequent problems occur with the rubber swab. The rubber swab often breaks and becomes a fish inside the well. This rubber swab fishing activity caused the rig operation takes longer, the swab result data becomes too late and create potential losses of well operation for the company. The average time needed for fishing the fractions of rubber swab plus swab work is 42 hours. Innovation made for such problems is to modify the rubber swab tool. The rubber swab tool is modified by provided a series of brushes at the end part of the tool with a thread of connection in order to improve work safety, so when the rubber swab breaks, the broken swab will be lifted by the brush underneath; therefore, it reduces the loss time for rubber swab fishing. This tool has been applied, it and is proven that with this rubber swab tool modification, the rig operation becomes more efficient because it does not carry out the rubber swab fishing activity. The fish fractions of the rubber swab are lifted up to the surface. Therefore, it saves the fuel cost, and well production potentials are obtained. The average time to do swab work after the application of this modified tool is 8 hours.

Keywords: rubber swab, modifikasi swab, brush, fishing rubber swab, saving cost

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980 Exceptionally Glauconite-Rich Strata from the Miocene Bejaoua Facies of Northern Tunisia: Origin, Composition, and Depositional Conditions

Authors: Abdelbasset Tounekti, Kamel Boukhalfa, Tathagata Roy Choudhury, Mohamed Soussi, Santanu Banerjee


The exceptionally glauconite-rich Miocene strata are superbly exposed throughout the front of the nappes zone of northern Tunisia. Each of the glauconitic fine-grained intervals coincide with the peak rise of third order sea-level cycles during the Burdigalian-Langhiantime. These deposits show coarsening- and thickening-upward glauconitic shale and sandstone, recording a shallowing upward progression across offshore-shoreface settings. Petrographic investigation reveals that the glauconite was originated from the alteration of fecal pellets, and lithoclast including feldspar, volcanic particle, and quartz and infillings with intraparticle pores. Mineralogical analysis of both randomly oriented and air-dried, ethylene-glycolate, and heated glauconite pellets show the low intensity of (002) reflection peaks, indicating high iron substitution for aluminum in octahedral sites. Geochemical characterization of the Miocene glauconite reveals a high K2O and variable Fe2O3 (total) content. A combination of layer lattice and divertissement theories explains the origin of glauconite. The formation of glauconite was facilitated by the abundant supply of Fe through contemporaneous volcanism in Algeria and surrounding areas, which accompanied the African-European plate convergence. Therefore, the occurrence of glauconite in the Miocene succession of Tunisia is influenced by the combination of eustacy and volcanism.

Keywords: glauconite, autogenic, volcanism, geochemistry, chamosite, northern Tunisia, miocene

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979 An Integrated Approach for Optimizing Drillable Parameters to Increase Drilling Performance: A Real Field Case Study

Authors: Hamidoddin Yousife


Drilling optimization requires a prediction of drilling rate of penetration (ROP) since it provides a significant reduction in drilling costs. There are several factors that can have an impact on the ROP, both controllable and uncontrollable. Numerous drilling penetration rate models have been considered based on drilling parameters. This papers considered the effect of proper drilling parameter selection such as bit, Mud Type, applied weight on bit (WOB), Revolution per minutes (RPM), and flow rate on drilling optimization and drilling cost reduction. A predicted analysis is used in real-time drilling performance to determine the optimal drilling operation. As a result of these modeling studies, the real data collected from three directional wells at Azadegan oil fields, Iran, was verified and adjusted to determine the drillability of a specific formation. Simulation results and actual drilling results show significant improvements in inaccuracy. Once simulations had been validated, optimum drilling parameters and equipment specifications were determined by varying weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), hydraulics (hydraulic pressure), and bit specification for each well until the highest drilling rate was achieved. To evaluate the potential operational and economic benefits of optimizing results, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data was performed.

Keywords: drlling, cost, optimization, parameters

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978 Origin of the Eocene Volcanic Rocks in Muradlu Village, Azerbaijan Province, Northwest of Iran

Authors: A. Shahriari, M. Khalatbari Jafari, M. Faridi


Abstract The Muradlu volcanic area is located in Azerbaijan province, NW Iran. The studied area exposed in a vast region includes lesser Caucasus, Southeastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran, comprising Cenozoic volcanic and plutonic massifs. The geology of this extended region was under the influence of the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny. Cenozoic magmatic activities in this vast region evolved through the northward subduction of the Neotethyan subducted slab and subsequence collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Based on stratigraphy and paleontology data, most of the volcanic activities in the Muradlu area occurred in the Eocene period. The Studied volcanic rocks overly late Cretaceous limestone with disconformity. The volcanic sequence includes thick epiclastic and hyaloclastite breccia at the base, laterally changed to pillow lava and continued by hyaloclastite and lave flows at the top of the series. The lava flows display different textures from megaporphyric-phyric to fluidal and microlithic textures. The studied samples comprise picrobasalt basalt, tephrite basanite, trachybasalt, basaltic trachyandesite, phonotephrite, tephrophonolite, trachyandesite, and trachyte in compositions. Some xenoliths with lherzolitic composition are found in picrobasalt. These xenoliths are made of olivine, cpx (diopside), and opx (enstatite), probably the remain of mantle origin. Some feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite presence in the phonotephrite confirm an alkaline trend. Two types of augite phenocrysts are found in picrobasalt, basalt and trachybasalt. The first types are shapeless, with disharmony zoning and sponge texture with reaction edges probably resulted from sodic magma, which is affected by a potassic magma. The second shows a glomerocryst shape. In discriminative diagrams, the volcanic rocks show alkaline-shoshonitic trends. They contain (0.5-7.7) k2O values and plot in the shoshonitic field. Most of the samples display transitional to potassic alkaline trends, and some samples reveal sodic alkaline trends. The transitional trend probably results from the mixing of the sodic alkaline and potassic magmas. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns and spider diagrams indicate enrichment of Large-Ione Lithophile Element (LILE) and depletion of High Field Strength Elements (HFSE) relative to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE). Enrichment of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zr, Th, and U and the enrichment of Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) relative to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) indicate the effect of subduction-related fluids over the mantle source, which has been reported in the arc and continental collision zones. The studied samples show low Nb/La ratios. Our studied samples plot in the lithosphere and lithosphere-asthenosphere fields in the Nb/La versus La/Yb ratios diagram. These geochemical characters allow us to conclude that a lithospheric mantle source previously metasomatized by subduction components was the origin of the Muradlu volcanic rocks.

Keywords: alkaline, asthenosphere, lherzolite, lithosphere, Muradlu, potassic, shoshonitic, sodic, volcanism

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977 Enhancing the Dynamic Performance of Grid-Tied Inverters Using Manta Ray Foraging Algorithm

Authors: H. E. Keshta, A. A. Ali


Three phase grid-tied inverters are widely employed in micro-grids (MGs) as interphase between DC and AC systems. These inverters are usually controlled through standard decoupled d–q vector control strategy based on proportional integral (PI) controllers. Recently, advanced meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been used instead of deterministic methods to obtain optimum PI controller parameters. This paper provides a comparative study between the performance of the global Porcellio Scaber algorithm (GPSA) based PI controller and Manta Ray foraging optimization (MRFO) based PI controller.

Keywords: micro-grids, optimization techniques, grid-tied inverter control, PI controller

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976 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Prestress on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Conglomerate Based on 3D-SHPB System

Authors: Wei Jun, Liao Hualin, Wang Huajian, Chen Jingkai, Liang Hongjun, Liu Chuanfu


Kuqa Piedmont is rich in oil and gas resources and has great development potential in Tarim Basin, China. However, there is a huge thick gravel layer developed with high content, wide distribution and variation in size of gravel, leading to the condition of strong heterogeneity. So that, the drill string is in a state of severe vibration and the drill bit is worn seriously while drilling, which greatly reduces the rock-breaking efficiency, and there is a complex load state of impact and three-dimensional in-situ stress acting on the rock in the bottom hole. The dynamic mechanical properties and the influencing factors of conglomerate, the main component of gravel layer, are the basis of engineering design and efficient rock breaking method and theoretical research. Limited by the previously experimental technique, there are few works published yet about conglomerate, especially rare in dynamic load. Based on this, a kind of 3D SHPB system, three-dimensional prestress, can be applied to simulate the in-situ stress characteristics, is adopted for the dynamic test of the conglomerate. The results show that the dynamic strength is higher than its static strength obviously, and while the three-dimensional prestress is 0 and the loading strain rate is 81.25~228.42 s-1, the true triaxial equivalent strength is 167.17~199.87 MPa, and the strong growth factor of dynamic and static is 1.61~1.92. And the higher the impact velocity, the greater the loading strain rate, the higher the dynamic strength and the greater the failure strain, which all increase linearly. There is a critical prestress in the impact direction and its vertical direction. In the impact direction, while the prestress is less than the critical one, the dynamic strength and the loading strain rate increase linearly; otherwise, the strength decreases slightly and the strain rate decreases rapidly. In the vertical direction of impact load, the strength increases and the strain rate decreases linearly before the critical prestress, after that, oppositely. The dynamic strength of the conglomerate can be reduced properly by reducing the amplitude of impact load so that the service life of rock-breaking tools can be prolonged while drilling in the stratum rich in gravel. The research has important reference significance for the speed-increasing technology and theoretical research while drilling in gravel layer.

Keywords: huge thick gravel layer, conglomerate, 3D SHPB, dynamic strength, the deformation characteristics, prestress

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975 Forecasting Impacts on Vulnerable Shorelines: Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coastal Zone of Messologi Area - Western Greece

Authors: Evangelos Tsakalos, Maria Kazantzaki, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos


The coastal areas of the Mediterranean have been extensively affected by the transgressive event that followed the Last Glacial Maximum, with many studies conducted regarding the stratigraphic configuration of coastal sediments around the Mediterranean. The coastal zone of the Messologi area, western Greece, consists of low relief beaches containing low cliffs and eroded dunes, a fact which, in combination with the rising sea level and tectonic subsidence of the area, has led to substantial coastal. Coastal vulnerability assessment is a useful means of identifying areas of coastline that are vulnerable to impacts of climate change and coastal processes, highlighting potential problem areas. Commonly, coastal vulnerability assessment takes the form of an ‘index’ that quantifies the relative vulnerability along a coastline. Here we make use of the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, by considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates, and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range to assess the present-day vulnerability of the coastal zone of Messologi area. In light of this, an impact assessment is performed under three different sea level rise scenarios, and adaptation measures to control climate change events are proposed. This study contributes toward coastal zone management practices in low-lying areas that have little data information, assisting decision-makers in adopting best adaptations options to overcome sea level rise impact on vulnerable areas similar to the coastal zone of Messologi.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, sea level rise, GIS

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974 Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low-lying areas: Coastal Evolution and Impact of Future Sea Level Rise Scenarios in Mirabello Gulf - NE Crete

Authors: Maria Kazantzaki, Evangelos Tsakalos, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos


Mediterranean areas are characterized by intense seismic and volcanic activity as well as eustatic changes, the result of which is the creation of particularly vulnerable coastal zones. The most vulnerable are low-lying coastal areas, the geomorphological evolution of which are highly affected by natural processes and anthropogenic interventions. Therefore, assessing changes that take place along coastal zones is of great importance in order to enable the development of integrated coastal management plans. A characteristic case is the gulf of Mirabello in N.E Crete, where intense coastal erosion, in combination with the tectonic subsidence of the area, threatens a large part of the coastal zone, resulting in direct socio-economic impacts. The present study assesses the temporal geomorphological changes that have taken place in the coastal zone of Mirabello gulf to provide a clear frame of the coastal zone evolution over time and performs a vulnerability assessment based on the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range in the area. In light of this, an impact assessment, based on three different sea level rise scenarios, is also performed and presented.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, GIS, sea level rise

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973 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain


Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing a high volume of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties, which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: hydrogen, well bore integrity, clean energy, cementing

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972 Digging into the Multifaceted Nature of Sustainability: A Tripartite Approach

Authors: Ogechi Okoro


A consensus was not difficult to arrive at on the contribution of 21st-century business to humanity. However, it will be unhinged to ignore the consequences of business activities on people and the environment. Consequently, the agitation for climate justice has become a major source of concern for States and Corporations globally. This has drawn unprecedented attention to the concept of sustainability. Essentially, Sustainability is associated with economic prosperity, ecosystem viability, and social justice. Put differently, and it borders people, profit, and the planet. Suffice to say that the corporate world and other stakeholders have paid more attention to economic prosperity and ecosystem viability as opposed to social justice. However, the events of the last 3 months following the US election process underscores the need to pay similar attention to social justice (people). Therefore, this paper commences by evaluating the role of institutional environments on the concept of sustainability with an understanding that the social justice aspect of sustainability involves activities or actions by people that affect the overall welfare of society. Against this backdrop, this paper seeks to analyse the need to strike a balance between the three principles of sustainability for the common good by taking a critical look at the tripartite nature of sustainability. In this paper, the role of society's primary stakeholders (Business, Government, and People) in reconciling the three principles of sustainability are is illuminated. The paper also explores the role of leadership and institutional environments on the sustainability agenda. It acknowledges the positive impact of effective leadership in promoting sustainability. Analysis suggests that the ecosystem viability principle resonates more than the other two principles because of an ever-increasing environmental consciousness. Conversely, economic prosperity attracts more attention from the business circle, perhaps because of its fiduciary function. The social justice part of sustainability drew more attention from the public because of the rise in demand for equity in different societies. The paper strongly suggests an inclusive approach to balancing the three principles of sustainability. Additionally, it advocates a universal approach of one size fits all for the concept and encourages the nixing of any subjective approach to the concept.

Keywords: economic, ecosystem, leadership, social, sustainability

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971 Optimization of Gold Mining Parameters by Cyanidation

Authors: Della Saddam Housseyn


Gold, the quintessential noble metal, is one of the most popular metals today, given its ever-increasing cost in the international market. The Amesmessa gold deposit is one of the gold-producing deposits. The first step in our job is to analyze the ore (considered rich ore). Mineralogical and chemical analysis has shown that the general constitution of the ore is quartz in addition to other phases such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, dolomite. The second step consists of all the leaching tests carried out in rolling bottles. These tests were carried out on 14 samples to determine the maximum recovery rate and the optimum consumption of reagent (NaCN and CaO). Tests carried out on a pulp density at 50% solid, 500 ppm cyanide concentration and particle size less than 0.6 mm at alkaline pH gave a recovery rate of 94.37%.

Keywords: cyanide, DRX, FX, gold, leaching, rate of recovery, SAA

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970 Critical Behaviour and Filed Dependence of Magnetic Entropy Change in K Doped Manganites Pr₀.₈Na₀.₂−ₓKₓMnO₃ (X = .10 And .15)

Authors: H. Ben Khlifa, W. Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, A. Cheikhrouhou


The orthorhombic Pr₀.₈Na₀.₂−ₓKₓMnO₃ (x = 0.10 and 0.15) manganites are prepared by using the solid-state reaction at high temperatures. The critical exponents (β, γ, δ) are investigated through various techniques such as modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher method, and critical isotherm analysis based on the data of the magnetic measurements recorded around the Curie temperature. The critical exponents are derived from the magnetization data using the Kouvel-Fisher method, are found to be β = 0.32(4) and γ = 1.29(2) at TC ~ 123 K for x = 0.10 and β = 0.31(1) and γ = 1.25(2) at TC ~ 133 K for x = 0.15. The critical exponent values obtained for both samples are comparable to the values predicted by the 3D-Ising model and have also been verified by the scaling equation of state. Such results demonstrate the existence of ferromagnetic short-range order in our materials. The magnetic entropy changes of polycrystalline samples with a second-order phase transition are investigated. A large magnetic entropy change deduced from isothermal magnetization curves, is observed in our samples with a peak centered on their respective Curie temperatures (TC). The field dependence of the magnetic entropy changes are analyzed, which shows power-law dependence ΔSmax ≈ a(μ0 H)n at the transition temperature. The values of n obey the Curie Weiss law above the transition temperature. It is shown that for the investigated materials, the magnetic entropy change follows a master curve behavior. The rescaled magnetic entropy change curves for different applied fields collapse onto a single curve for both samples.

Keywords: manganites, critical exponents, magnetization, magnetocaloric, master curve

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969 Connecting the Dots: Bridging Academia and National Community Partnerships When Delivering Healthy Relationships Programming

Authors: Nicole Vlasman, Karamjeet Dhillon


Over the past four years, the Healthy Relationships Program has been delivered in community organizations and schools across Canada. More than 240 groups have been facilitated in collaboration with 33 organizations. As a result, 2157 youth have been engaged in the programming. The purpose and scope of the Healthy Relationships Program are to offer sustainable, evidence-based skills through small group implementation to prevent violence and promote positive, healthy relationships in youth. The program development has included extensive networking at regional and national levels. The Healthy Relationships Program is currently being implemented, adapted, and researched within the Resilience and Inclusion through Strengthening and Enhancing Relationships (RISE-R) project. Alongside the project’s research objectives, the RISE-R team has worked to virtually share the ongoing findings of the project through a slow ontology approach. Slow ontology is a practice integrated into project systems and structures whereby slowing the pace and volume of outputs offers creative opportunities. Creative production reveals different layers of success and complements the project, the building blocks for sustainability. As a result of integrating a slow ontology approach, the RISE-R team has developed a Geographic Information System (GIS) that documents local landscapes through a Story Map feature, and more specifically, video installations. Video installations capture the cartography of space and place within the context of singular diverse community spaces (case studies). By documenting spaces via human connections, the project captures narratives, which further enhance the voices and faces of the community within the larger project scope. This GIS project aims to create a visual and interactive flow of information that complements the project's mixed-method research approach. Conclusively, creative project development in the form of a geographic information system can provide learning and engagement opportunities at many levels (i.e., within community organizations and educational spaces or with the general public). In each of these disconnected spaces, fragmented stories are connected through a visual display of project outputs. A slow ontology practice within the context of the RISE-R project documents activities on the fringes and within internal structures; primarily through documenting project successes as further contributions to the Centre for School Mental Health framework (philosophy, recruitment techniques, allocation of resources and time, and a shared commitment to evidence-based products).

Keywords: community programming, geographic information system, project development, project management, qualitative, slow ontology

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968 Phosphate Tailings in View of a Better Waste Disposal And/or Valorization: Case of Tunisian Phosphates Mines

Authors: Mouna Ettoumi, Jouini Marouen, Carmen Mihaela Neculita, Salah Bouhlel, Lucie Coudert, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Y. Taha


In the context of sustainable development and circular economy, waste valorization is considered a promising alternative to overcome issues related to their disposal or elimination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of phosphate sludges (tailings) from the Kef Shfeir mine site (Gafsa, Tunisia) as an alternative material in the production of fired bricks. To do so, representative samples of raw phosphate treatment sludges were collected and characterized for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and environmental characteristics. Then, the raw materials were baked at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C, and 1100°C) for bricks making. Afterward, fired bricks were characterized for their physical (particle size distribution, density, and plasticity), chemical (XRF and digestion), mineralogical (XRD) and mechanical (flexural strength) properties as well as for their environmental behavior (TCLP, SPLP, and CTEU-9) to ensure whether they meet the required construction standards. Results showed that the raw materials had low density (2.47g/cm 3), were non-plastic and were mainly composed of fluoroapatite (15.6%), calcite (23.1%) and clays (22.2% - mainly as heulandite, vermiculite and palygorskite). With respect to the environmental behavior, all metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Ba, Cd) complied with the requirements set by the USEPA. In addition, fired bricks had varying porosity (9-13%), firing shrinking (5.2-7.5%), water absorption (12.5-17.2%) and flexural strength (3.86-13.4 MPa). Noteworthy, an improvement in the properties (porosity, firing shrinking, water absorption, and flexural strength) of manufactured fired bricks was observed with the increase of firing temperature from 900 to 1100°C. All the measured properties complied with the construction norms and requirements. Moreover, regardless of the firing temperature, the environmental behavior of metals obeyed the requirements of the USEPA standards. Finally, fired bricks could be produced at high temperatures (1000°C) based on 100% of phosphate sludge without any substitution or addition of either chemical agents or binders. This sustainable brick-making process could be a promising approach for the Phosphate Company to partially manage these wastes, which are considered “non-profitable” for the moment and preserve soils that are exploited presently.

Keywords: phosphate treatment sludge, mine waste, backed bricks, waste valorization

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967 Explosive Clad Metals for Geothermal Energy Recovery

Authors: Heather Mroz


Geothermal fluids can provide a nearly unlimited source of renewable energy but are often highly corrosive due to dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), Ammonia (NH3) and chloride ions. The corrosive environment drives material selection for many components, including piping, heat exchangers and pressure vessels, to higher alloys of stainless steel, nickel-based alloys and titanium. The use of these alloys is cost-prohibitive and does not offer the pressure rating of carbon steel. One solution, explosion cladding, has been proven to reduce the capital cost of the geothermal equipment while retaining the mechanical and corrosion properties of both the base metal and the cladded surface metal. Explosion cladding is a solid-state welding process that uses precision explosions to bond two dissimilar metals while retaining the mechanical, electrical and corrosion properties. The process is commonly used to clad steel with a thin layer of corrosion-resistant alloy metal, such as stainless steel, brass, nickel, silver, titanium, or zirconium. Additionally, explosion welding can join a wider array of compatible and non-compatible metals with more than 260 metal combinations possible. The explosion weld is achieved in milliseconds; therefore, no bulk heating occurs, and the metals experience no dilution. By adhering to a strict set of manufacturing requirements, both the shear strength and tensile strength of the bond will exceed the strength of the weaker metal, ensuring the reliability of the bond. For over 50 years, explosion cladding has been used in the oil and gas and chemical processing industries and has provided significant economic benefit in reduced maintenance and lower capital costs over solid construction. The focus of this paper will be on the many benefits of the use of explosion clad in process equipment instead of more expensive solid alloy construction. The method of clad-plate production with explosion welding as well as the methods employed to ensure sound bonding of the metals. It will also include the origins of explosion cladding as well as recent technological developments. Traditionally explosion clad plate was formed into vessels, tube sheets and heads but recent advances include explosion welded piping. The final portion of the paper will give examples of the use of explosion-clad metals in geothermal energy recovery. The classes of materials used for geothermal brine will be discussed, including stainless steels, nickel alloys and titanium. These examples will include heat exchangers (tube sheets), high pressure and horizontal separators, standard pressure crystallizers, piping and well casings. It is important to educate engineers and designers on material options as they develop equipment for geothermal resources. Explosion cladding is a niche technology that can be successful in many situations, like geothermal energy recovery, where high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environments are typical. Applications for explosion clad metals include vessel and heat exchanger components as well as piping.

Keywords: clad metal, explosion welding, separator material, well casing material, piping material

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966 Food Security Indicators in Deltaic and Coastal Research: A Scoping Review

Authors: Sylvia Szabo, Indrajit Pal, Seree Park


Deltaic and coastal regions are often strategically important both from global and regional perspectives. While river deltas are known to be breadbaskets of the world, delta inhabitants often face the risk of food and nutritional insecurity. These risks are highly exacerbated by the impacts of climate and environmental change. While numerous regional studies examined the prevalence and the determinants of food security in specific delta and coastal regions, there is still a lack of a systematic analysis on the most widely used by scientist food security indicators. In order to fill this gap, a systematic review was carried out using Covidence; a Cochrane adopted systematic review processing software. Papers included in the review were selected from the SCOPUS, Thomson Reuters Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases. Both scientific papers and grey literature (e.g., reports by international organizations) were considered. The results were analyzed by food security components (access, availability, quality, and strategy) and by world regions. Suggestions for further food security, nutrition, and health research as well as policy-related implication are also discussed.

Keywords: delta regions, coastal, food security, indicators, systematic review

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965 A Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) Experiment on Simplified Bottom Hole Flow Field

Authors: Heqian Zhao, Huaizhong Shi, Zhongwei Huang, Zhengliang Chen, Ziang Gu, Fei Gao


Hydraulics mechanics is significantly important in the drilling process of oil or gas exploration, especially for the drill bit. The fluid flows through the nozzles on the bit and generates a water jet to remove the cutting at the bottom hole. In this paper, a simplified bottom hole model is established. The Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) is used to capture the flow field of the single nozzle. Due to the limitation of the bottom and wellbore, the potential core is shorter than that of the free water jet. The velocity magnitude rapidly attenuates when fluid close to the bottom is lower than about 5 mm. Besides, a vortex zone appears near the middle of the bottom beside the water jet zone. A modified exponential function can be used to fit the centerline velocity well. On the one hand, the results of this paper can provide verification for the numerical simulation of the bottom hole flow field. On the other hand, it also can provide an experimental basis for the hydraulic design of the drill bit.

Keywords: oil and gas, hydraulic mechanic of drilling, PIV, bottom hole

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964 Active Displacement Areas (ADA) Tools for Satellite InSAR-Based Ground Displacement Analysis: The Granada Region

Authors: M. Cuevas-González, O. Monserrat, A. Barra, C. Reyes-Carmona, R. M. Mateos, J. P. Galves, R. Sarro, M. Cantalejo, E. Peña, M. Martínez-Corbella, J.A. Luque, J. M. Azañón, A. Millares, M. Béjar, J. A. Navarro, L. Solari


Satellite interferometry (InSAR) has become a consolidated technique for ground movement detection and monitoring in the last few years. InSAR-based techniques allow processing areas from regional/national scale up to very detailed scale such as single buildings, providing a high number of displacement measurements at low cost. However, the outputs provided by such techniques are usually not easy to understand, requiring an expert to interpret those results, which might turn out to be a time-consuming task for users who are not familiar with radar data. The availability of Sentinel-1 data at no cost since 2014 has prompted the tendency of increasingly using this technique in institutional risk management activities. The consolidation of the use of InSAR is promoted by the funding of regional, national and European programs to investigate and improve the processing performances and broaden the operational use and application of the InSAR results to monitor ground displacements. In this scenario, the development of methodologies and tools to automatize the retrieval of information and to ease the interpretation of the results is a need to improve its operational use. In this work, a series of tools developed in the framework of the projects MOMIT, SAFETY and U-Geohaz is presented and an example of use in the framework of the project RiskCoast is shown. Riskcoast focuses on the development of tools, methodologies and innovative solutions focused on the prevention and management of geological risks on the coast linked to climate change. The presented work is an example of multi-scale (medium to large) application of InSAR for geohazard applications exploiting the ADA (Active Displacement Areas) tools developed with the aim of facilitating the management, use and interpretation of InSAR-based results. The velocity of the deformation map and the displacement time series have been estimated over the test area of Granada (Spain) by processing 210 Sentinel-1 (A and B) SAR images. From these initial InSAR outputs, a semi-automatic extraction of the most significant Active Displacement Areas (ADAs) is carried out using the ADAFinder tool. The next step consists of an automatic preliminary assessment of the phenomena that are behind the detected movement using the ADAClassifier tool. The application of the ADA tools to the Riskcoast project test site encompassing the coast of Granada is shown. All these tools go in the same direction as the European Ground Motion Service (EU-GMS) project, which will provide consistent, regular and reliable information regarding natural and anthropogenic ground motion phenomena all over Europe.

Keywords: ground displacements, InSAR, natural hazards, satellite imagery

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963 An Intelligent Prediction Method for Annular Pressure Driven by Mechanism and Data

Authors: Zhaopeng Zhu, Xianzhi Song, Gensheng Li, Shuo Zhu, Shiming Duan, Xuezhe Yao


Accurate calculation of wellbore pressure is of great significance to prevent wellbore risk during drilling. The traditional mechanism model needs a lot of iterative solving procedures in the calculation process, which reduces the calculation efficiency and is difficult to meet the demand of dynamic control of wellbore pressure. In recent years, many scholars have introduced artificial intelligence algorithms into wellbore pressure calculation, which significantly improves the calculation efficiency and accuracy of wellbore pressure. However, due to the ‘black box’ property of intelligent algorithm, the existing intelligent calculation model of wellbore pressure is difficult to play a role outside the scope of training data and overreacts to data noise, often resulting in abnormal calculation results. In this study, the multi-phase flow mechanism is embedded into the objective function of the neural network model as a constraint condition, and an intelligent prediction model of wellbore pressure under the constraint condition is established based on more than 400,000 sets of pressure measurement while drilling (MPD) data. The constraint of the multi-phase flow mechanism makes the prediction results of the neural network model more consistent with the distribution law of wellbore pressure, which overcomes the black-box attribute of the neural network model to some extent. The main performance is that the accuracy of the independent test data set is further improved, and the abnormal calculation values basically disappear. This method is a prediction method driven by MPD data and multi-phase flow mechanism, and it is the main way to predict wellbore pressure accurately and efficiently in the future.

Keywords: multiphase flow mechanism, pressure while drilling data, wellbore pressure, mechanism constraints, combined drive

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962 A Unified Model for Predicting Particle Settling Velocity in Pipe, Annulus and Fracture

Authors: Zhaopeng Zhu, Xianzhi Song, Gensheng Li


Transports of solid particles through the drill pipe, drill string-hole annulus and hydraulically generated fractures are important dynamic processes encountered in oil and gas well drilling and completion operations. Different from particle transport in infinite space, the transports of cuttings, proppants and formation sand are hindered by a finite boundary. Therefore, an accurate description of the particle transport behavior under the bounded wall conditions encountered in drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations is needed to improve drilling safety and efficiency. In this study, the particle settling experiments were carried out to investigate the particle settling behavior in the pipe, annulus and between the parallel plates filled with power-law fluids. Experimental conditions simulated the particle Reynolds number ranges of 0.01-123.87, the dimensionless diameter ranges of 0.20-0.80 and the fluid flow behavior index ranges of 0.48-0.69. Firstly, the wall effect of the annulus is revealed by analyzing the settling process of the particles in the annular geometry with variable inner pipe diameter. Then, the geometric continuity among the pipe, annulus and parallel plates was determined by introducing the ratio of inner diameter to an outer diameter of the annulus. Further, a unified dimensionless diameter was defined to confirm the relationship between the three different geometry in terms of the wall effect. In addition, a dimensionless term independent from the settling velocity was introduced to establish a unified explicit settling velocity model applicable to pipes, annulus and fractures with a mean relative error of 8.71%. An example case study was provided to demonstrate the application of the unified model for predicting particle settling velocity. This paper is the first study of annulus wall effects based on the geometric continuity concept and the unified model presented here will provide theoretical guidance for improved hydraulic design of cuttings transport, proppant placement and sand management operations.

Keywords: wall effect, particle settling velocity, cuttings transport, proppant transport in fracture

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961 A Comparative Asessment of Some Algorithms for Modeling and Forecasting Horizontal Displacement of Ialy Dam, Vietnam

Authors: Kien-Trinh Thi Bui, Cuong Manh Nguyen


In order to simulate and reproduce the operational characteristics of a dam visually, it is necessary to capture the displacement at different measurement points and analyze the observed movement data promptly to forecast the dam safety. The accuracy of forecasts is further improved by applying machine learning methods to data analysis progress. In this study, the horizontal displacement monitoring data of the Ialy hydroelectric dam was applied to machine learning algorithms: Gaussian processes, multi-layer perceptron neural networks, and the M5-rules algorithm for modelling and forecasting of horizontal displacement of the Ialy hydropower dam (Vietnam), respectively, for analysing. The database which used in this research was built by collecting time series of data from 2006 to 2021 and divided into two parts: training dataset and validating dataset. The final results show all three algorithms have high performance for both training and model validation, but the MLPs is the best model. The usability of them are further investigated by comparison with a benchmark models created by multi-linear regression. The result show the performance which obtained from all the GP model, the MLPs model and the M5-Rules model are much better, therefore these three models should be used to analyze and predict the horizontal displacement of the dam.

Keywords: Gaussian processes, horizontal displacement, hydropower dam, Ialy dam, M5-Rules, multi-layer perception neural networks

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960 Unconventional Dating of Old Peepal Tree of Chandigarh (India) Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

Authors: Rita Rani, Ramesh Kumar


The intend of the current study is to date an old grand Peepal tree that is still alive. The tree is situated in Kalibard village, Sector 9, Chandigarh (India). Due to its huge structure, it has got the status of ‘Heritage tree.’ Optically Stimulated Luminescence of sediments beneath the roots is used to determine the age of the tree. Optical dating is preferred over conventional dating methods due to more precession. The methodology includes OSL of quartz grain using SAR protocol for accumulated dose measurement. The age determination of an alive tree using sedimentary quartz is in close agreement with the approximated age provided by the related agency. This is the first attempt at using optically stimulated luminescence in the age determination of alive trees in this region. The study concludes that the Luminescence dating of alive trees is the nondestructive and more precise method.

Keywords: luminescence, dose rate, optical dating, sediments

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959 Assessment of the Tectonic Effects on Soil Radon Activity along the Margin of the Arabian Plate Boundary in Northwestern Syria

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hilal


The main purpose of the present study is to assess the role of active tectonics in influencing the emanation level of soil radon across two tectonically active structures of the Northern Dead Sea Fault (NDSF) in northwestern Syria: namely, the Qastoon and Al-Harif fault segments. The radon measurements were basically directed by the results drawn from earlier studies of archaeoseismic and paleoseismic investigation in Al-Harif, besides integrated geophysical and morphotectonic survey at the Qastoon site. In view of that, a total of 80 soil gas radon points were measured in this work with a sampling depth of 75 cm, using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000Pro radon detector. The background range of normal radon emission from local soil was determined in area located away from the influence of the tectonic disturbances. The obtained radon data were statistically analyzed, and the mean values have been standardized in terms of probability of magnitude, which enhances the comparison process and so facilitating the separation of normal radon variations from other anomalous or geotectonic related values. The overall results revealed remarkable occurrences of fault-associated radon anomalies with maximum peak values of ~6 to 7 times above the background, trending in accordance with the predicted traces of the fault ruptures at the Qastoon and Al-Harif, respectively.

Keywords: soil gas radon, active tectonic structure, northern dead sea fault, western Syria

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958 Microseismics: Application in Hydrocarbon Reservoir Management

Authors: Rahul Kumar Singh, Apurva Sharma, Dilip Kumar Srivastava


Tilting of our interest towards unconventional exploitation of hydrocarbons has raised a serious concern to environmentalists. Emerging technologies like horizontal/multi-lateral drilling with subsequent hydraulic fracturing or fracking etc., for exploitation of different conventional/unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs, are related to creating micro-level seismic events below the surface of the earth. Monitoring of these micro-level seismic events is not possible by the conventional methodology of the seismic method. So, to tackle this issue, a new technology that is microseismic is very much in discussions around the globe. Multiple researches are being carried out these days around the globe in order to prove microseismic as a new essential in the E & P industry, especially for unconventional reservoir management. Microseismic monitoring is now used for reservoir surveillance, and the best application is checking the integrity of the caprock and containment of fluid in it. In general, in whatever terms we want to use micro-seismic related events monitoring and understanding the effectiveness of stimulation, this technology offers a lot of value in terms of insight into the subsurface characteristics and processes, and this makes it really a good geophysical method to be used in future.

Keywords: microseismic, monitoring, hydraulic fracturing or fracking, reservoir surveillance, seismic hazards

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