Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30663
LCA and Multi-Criteria Analysis of Fly Ash Concrete Pavements

Authors: A. Eštoková, M. Ondová


Rapid industrialization results in increased use of natural resources bring along serious ecological and environmental imbalance due to the dumping of industrial wastes. Principles of sustainable construction have to be accepted with regard to the consumption of natural resources and the production of harmful emissions. Cement is a great importance raw material in the building industry and today is its large amount used in the construction of concrete pavements. Concerning raw materials cost and producing CO2 emission the replacing of cement in concrete mixtures with more sustainable materials is necessary. To reduce this environmental impact people all over the world are looking for a solution. Over a period of last ten years, the image of fly ash has completely been changed from a polluting waste to resource material and it can solve the major problems of cement use. Fly ash concretes are proposed as a potential approach for achieving substantial reductions in cement. It is known that it improves the workability of concrete, extends the life cycle of concrete roads, and reduces energy use and greenhouse gas as well as amount of coal combustion products that must be disposed in landfills.

Life cycle assessment also proved that a concrete pavement with fly ash cement replacement is considerably more environmentally friendly compared to standard concrete roads. In addition, fly ash is cheap raw material, and the costs saving are guaranteed. The strength properties, resistance to a frost or de-icing salts, which are important characteristics in the construction of concrete pavements, have reached the required standards as well. In terms of human health it can´t be stated that a concrete cover with fly ash could be dangerous compared with a cover without fly ash. Final Multi-criteria analysis also pointed that a concrete with fly ash is a clearly proper solution.

Keywords: Waste, fly ash, Life Cycle Assessment, Concrete Pavements

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2917


[1] A.Sicakova, J. Sliwinski, I. Hager, T. Tracz, T. Zdeb, T. Zych, R. Hela, L. Bodnarova, New generation cement concretes: ideas, design, technology and applications. Slovakia, Kosice: Technical University, 2008.
[2] B., Cazacliu, A. Ventura, "Technical and environmental effects of concrete production: dry batch versus central mixed plant,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 18, pp. 1320–1327, 2010.
[3] A. Polettini, R. Pomi, E. Fortuna, "Chemical activation in view of MSWI bottom ash recycling in cement-based systems,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 162, pp. 1292–1299, 2009.
[4] T. Bashar, G. Nounu, "Properties of concrete contains mixed colour waste recycled glass as sand and cement replacement," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 22, pp. 713–720, 2008.
[5] A. Josa, A. Aguado, A. Cardim, E. Byars, "Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, pp. 781–788, 2007.
[6] C. Pade, M. Guimaraes, "The CO2 uptake of concrete in a 100 year perspective,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, pp. 1348–1356, 2007.
[7] D. N. Huntzinger, T. Eatmon, "A life-cycle assessment of Portland cement manufacturing: comparing the traditional process with alternative technologies,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 17, pp 668–675, 2009.
[8] J. K. Tiwari, A. M. Rawani, "Environmental impact analysis: a case study of acc cement plant,” Journal of Environmental Research And Development, vol. 7 (no. 2), pp. 802–808, 2012.
[9] J.A. Fava, "Will the next 10 years be asproductive inadvancing lifecycle approaches as the last 15 years?” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 11, pp. 6–8, 2006.
[10] M. Culakova, E. B. Kridlova, S. Vilcekova, J. Katunska, "Reduction of carbon footprint of building.” Chemical engineering transactions, vol. 29 (no. 1), pp. 199–204, 2012.
[11] M. Hauschild, H. Wenzel, Environmental Assessment of Products. London: Chapman & Hall, 1998.
[12] C. Benoit et al., Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products: a social and socio-economic LCA code of practice complementing environmental LCA and Life Cycle Costing, contributing to the full assessment of goods and services within the context of sustainable development. Paris: United Nations Environment Program, 2009.
[13] European Commission. Supporting Environmentally Sound Decisions for Waste Management – A technical guide to Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for waste experts and LCA practitioners. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011.
[14] G. Finnveden, "Life cycle assessment (online)”. (cited 12 March 2014). Available:
[15] M. Houska, "Multi-critarial analysis” (online). Education materials of ZIP project. (cited 12 March 2014). Available from Internet: (in Czech).
[16] P. Korviny, "Theoretical basis of multi-criteria decision (online)”. (cited 12 March 2014). Available from Internet: soubory/teorie_mca.pdf (in Czech).
[17] M. Ondova, N. Stevulova, "Benefits of coal fly ash utilization in the area of a pavement building,” in Proc. of the 8th International Conference Environmental Engineering, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2011, pp. 1156–1159.
[18] M. Ondova, N. Stevulova, A. Estokova, "The Study of the Properties of Fly Ash Based Concrete Composites with Various Chemical Admixtures,” in Procedia Engineering, vol. 42, 2012, pp. 2044-2054.
[19] J. Sjunnesson, Life Cycle Assessment of Concrete. Lund: Lunds Tekniska Högskola, 2005.
[20] J. Hodkova et al., "Catalog of Materials - Cement Portland 42,5 (online)”. (cited 12 March 2014). Available from
[21] B. Berge, The Ecology of Building Materials. UK: Elsevier Ltd., 2009.
[22] Information on building components (online). (cited 12 March 2014). Available from Internet:
[23] H. K., Stranddorf, L. Hoffmann, A. Schmidt, Update on impact categories, normalization and weighting in LCA, Danish EPA, 2005.
[24] A. Estokova, M. Porhincak, R. Ruzbacky, "Minimization of CO2 emisions and primal energy by building materials´ environmental evaluation and optimalization,” Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 25, pp. 1–6, 2011.
[25] A. Estokova, M. Porhincak, "Reduction of Primary Energy and CO2 Emissions Through Selection and Environmental Evaluation of Building Materials," Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering, vol. 46 (no. 6), pp. 704–712, 2012.
[26] A. Azapagic, A. Emsley, I. Hamerton, Polymers, the environment and sustainable development. UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2003.
[27] L. Meciarova, Findings of environmental impact of concretes prepared with a share of fly ash in terms of assessing basic factors of their life cycle. Slovakia, Kosice: Technical University, 2013 (in Slovak).
[28] M. Ondova, N. Stevulova, Slovak fly ash as cement substitution in the concrete road pavements. Saarbrücken: Verlag, 2013.