Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: concrete pavements

6 Stress Analysis of Hexagonal Element for Precast Concrete Pavements

Authors: J. Novak, A. Kohoutkova, V. Kristek, J. Vodicka, M. Sramek

Abstract:

While the use of cast-in-place concrete for an airfield and highway pavement overlay is very common, the application of precast concrete elements is very limited today. The main reasons consist of high production costs and complex structural behavior. Despite that, several precast concrete systems have been developed and tested with the aim to provide a system with rapid construction. The contribution deals with the reinforcement design of a hexagonal element developed for a proposed airfield pavement system. The sub-base course of the system is composed of compacted recycled concrete aggregates and fiber reinforced concrete with recycled aggregates place on top of it. The selected element belongs to a group of precast concrete elements which are being considered for the construction of a surface course. Both high costs of full-scale experiments and the need to investigate various elements force to simulate their behavior in a numerical analysis software by using finite element method instead of performing expensive experiments. The simulation of the selected element was conducted on a nonlinear model in order to obtain such results which could fully compensate results from experiments. The main objective was to design reinforcement of the precast concrete element subject to quasi-static loading from airplanes with respect to geometrical imperfections, manufacturing imperfections, tensile stress in reinforcement, compressive stress in concrete and crack width. The obtained findings demonstrate that the position and the presence of imperfection in a pavement highly affect the stress distribution in the precast concrete element. The precast concrete element should be heavily reinforced to fulfill all the demands. Using under-reinforced concrete elements would lead to the formation of wide cracks and cracks permanently open.

Keywords: Imperfection, numerical simulation, pavement, precast concrete element, reinforcement design, stress analysis.

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5 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji

Abstract:

Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: Nondestructive testing, Pavement moduli backcalculation, Finite Element Method, FEM, concrete pavements.

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4 Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

Authors: R. Pernicova, D. Dobias

Abstract:

The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.

Keywords: Concrete, Czech Republic, pavements, recycled concrete aggregate, RCA, standards.

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3 Effect of Rubber Tyre and Plastic Wastes Use in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: F. Onyango, Salim R. Wanjala, M. Ndege, L. Masu

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements have a short life cycle, failing mainly due to temperature changes, traffic loading and ageing. Modified asphalt mixtures provide the technology to produce a bituminous binder with improved viscoelastic properties, which remain in balance over a wider temperature range and loading conditions. In this research, 60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder was modified by adding 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 percent by weight of asphalt binder following the wet process and the mineral aggregate was modified by adding 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 percent crumb rubber by volume of the mineral aggregate following the dry process. The LDPE modified asphalt binder rheological properties were evaluated. The laboratory results showed an increase in viscosity, softening point and stiffness of the binder. The modified asphalt was then used in preparing asphalt mixtures by Marshall Mix design procedure. The Marshall Stability values for mixes containing 2% crumb rubber and 4% LDPE were found to be 30% higher than the conventional asphalt concrete mix.

Keywords: Crumb rubber, dry process, low-density polyethylene, hot mix asphalt, wet process.

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2 Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing intervals that reflect different stages of the pavement life. The test could still be considered lengthy and to some extent labor-intensive. Therefore, there is a need to come up with another method that can assist in investigating the bituminous pavement surface characteristics in a practical and time-efficient test procedure.

The purpose of this paper is to utilize a well-developed image analysis technique to characterize asphalt pavement surfaces without the need to use conventional friction and texture measuring devices in an attempt to shorten and simplify the polishing procedure in the lab.

Promising findings showed the possibility of using image analysis in lieu of the labor-sensitive-variable-in-nature friction and texture measurements. It was found that the exposed aggregate surface area of asphalt specimens made from limestone and gravel aggregates produced solid evidence of the validity of this method in describing asphalt pavement surfaces. Image analysis results correlated well with the British Pendulum Numbers (BPN), Polish Values (PV) and Mean Texture Depth (MTD) values.

Keywords: Friction, Image Analysis, Polishing, Statistical Analysis, Texture.

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1 LCA and Multi-Criteria Analysis of Fly Ash Concrete Pavements

Authors: M. Ondova, A. Estokova

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization results in increased use of natural resources bring along serious ecological and environmental imbalance due to the dumping of industrial wastes. Principles of sustainable construction have to be accepted with regard to the consumption of natural resources and the production of harmful emissions. Cement is a great importance raw material in the building industry and today is its large amount used in the construction of concrete pavements. Concerning raw materials cost and producing CO2 emission the replacing of cement in concrete mixtures with more sustainable materials is necessary. To reduce this environmental impact people all over the world are looking for a solution. Over a period of last ten years, the image of fly ash has completely been changed from a polluting waste to resource material and it can solve the major problems of cement use. Fly ash concretes are proposed as a potential approach for achieving substantial reductions in cement. It is known that it improves the workability of concrete, extends the life cycle of concrete roads, and reduces energy use and greenhouse gas as well as amount of coal combustion products that must be disposed in landfills.

Life cycle assessment also proved that a concrete pavement with fly ash cement replacement is considerably more environmentally friendly compared to standard concrete roads. In addition, fly ash is cheap raw material, and the costs saving are guaranteed. The strength properties, resistance to a frost or de-icing salts, which are important characteristics in the construction of concrete pavements, have reached the required standards as well. In terms of human health it can´t be stated that a concrete cover with fly ash could be dangerous compared with a cover without fly ash. Final Multi-criteria analysis also pointed that a concrete with fly ash is a clearly proper solution.

Keywords: Life cycle assessment, fly ash, waste, concrete pavements

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