Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31442
Effects of Ice and Seawater Storing Conditions on the Sensory, Chemical and Microbiological Quality of the Mediterranean Hake (Merluccius merluccius) During Post-Catch Handling and Distribution

Authors: Danae Venieri, Christos Theodoropoulos, Maria Lagkadinou, Joan Iliopoulou-Georgudaki


Changes in the sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of the Mediterranean hake during post-catch handling and distribution were investigated. 115 fish samples were seasonally received during three stages of the transfer route from the sea to the consumer and two storage methods were recorded, seawater and ice storage. Microbiological evaluation revealed higher status for the ice stored samples regarding heterotrophic bacteria (2.68 log cfu/g and 1.92 log cfu/g at 22oC and 37°C respectively) and psychrotrophic counts (3.20 log cfu/g), with statistically significant differences among storage methods. Sensory evaluation also revealed higher status for the ice stored samples with a mean quality index of 0.17 and a spoilage time estimated at 30 hours, in contrast to seawater storage, which varied from 0.28 to 0.3, and a 14-hour estimated spoilage. Detected pathogens were identified mainly in the seawater stored samples, posing questions on the quality of the product reaching the seafood markets.

Keywords: Merluccius merluccius, Microbiological quality, Psychrotrophic bacteria, Sensory evaluation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1900


[1] G. Jeyasekaran, K. Maheswari, P. Ganesan, R. Jeya Shakila, and D. Sukumar, “Quality changes in ice-stored tropical wire-netting reef cod (Epinephelus merra),” J. Food Process. Pres., vol. 29, pp. 165–182, 2005.
[2] N. Hamada-Sato, K. Usui, T. Kobayashi, C. Imada, and E. Watanabe, “Quality assurance of raw fish based on HACCP concept,” Food Control, vol. 16, pp. 301-307, 2005.
[3] N. Erkan, “Sensory, chemical and microbiological attributes of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata): effect of washing and ice storage,” Int. J. Food Prop., vol. 10, pp. 421-434, 2007.
[4] F. Özogul, E. Kuley, and Y. Özogul, “Sensory, chemical and microbiological quality parameters in sea bream (Sparus aurata) stored in ice or wrapped in cling film or in aluminium foil at 2 ± 1 oC,” Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 42, pp. 903–909, 2007.
[5] L. Gram, and P. Dalgaard, “Fish spoilage bacteria – problems and solutions,” Cur. Opin. Biotech., vol. 13, pp. 262-266, 2002.
[6] L. Gram, and H. Huss, “Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products,” Int. J. Food Microbiol., vol. 33, pp. 121-137, 1996.
[7] Z. Tzikas, I. Amvrosiadis, N. Soultos, and S. Georgakis, “Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and microbiological condition of Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) muscle form the North Aegean Sea (Greece),” Food Control vol. 18, pp. 251-257, 2007.
[8] S. Chytiri, I. Chouliara, I.N. Savvaidis, and M.G. Kontominas, “Microbiological, chemical and sensory assessment of iced whole and filleted aquacultured rainbow trout,” Food Microbiol., vol . 21, pp. 157-165, 2004.
[9] H. Huss, A. Reilly, P. Karim Ben Embarek, “Prevention and control of hazards in seafood,” Food Control, vol. 11, pp. 149-156, 2000.
[10] L.H. Ababouch, L. Souibri, K. Rhaliby, O. Ouahdi, M. Battal, and F.F. Busta, “Quality changes in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) stored in ice and at ambient temperature,” Food Microbiol., vol. 13, pp. 123-132, 1996.
[11] European Union Council, “Directive 91/493/EEC of 22 July 1991 laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of fishery products,” Off. J. Eur. Union, vol. L268, pp15, 1991.
[12] European Commission, “Regulation 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Off. J. Eur. Union, vol. L338, 2005.
[13] S. Kose, S. Koral, B. Tufan, M. Pompe, A. Scavnicar, and D. Kocar, “Biogenic amine contents of commercially processed traditional fish products originating from European countries and Turkey,” Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 235, pp. 669-683, 2012.
[14] S. Dissaraphong, S. Benjakut, W. Visessanguan, and H. Kishimura, “The influence of storage conditions of tuna viscera before fermentation on the chemical, physical and microbiological changes in fish sauce during fermentation,” Bioresource Technol., vol. 97, pp. 2032-2040, 2006.
[15] G. Caruso, G. Maimone, M. Mancuso, A. Modica, and I. Genovese, “Microbiological controls across the productive cycle of Dicentrarchus labrax L. and Sparus aurata L.: a study from the environment to the final product,” Aquac. Res., vol. 35, pp. 184-193, 2004.
[16] S. Baixas-Nogueras, S. Bover-Cid, M.T. Veciana-Nogues, and M.C. Vidal-Carou, “Effects of previous frozen storage on chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during chilled storage of Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius) after thawing,” Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 226, pp. 287-293, 2007.
[17] S. Baixas-Nogueras, S. Bover-Cid, T. Veciana-Nogués, M.L. Nunes, and M.C. Vidal-Carou, “ Development of a quality index method to evaluate freshness in Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius),” J. Food Sci., vol. 68, pp. 1067-1071, 2003.
[18] C. Ruiz-Capillas, and A. Moral, “Correlation between biochemical and sensory quality indices in hake stored in ice,” Food Res. Int. vol. 34, pp. 441-447, 2001.
[19] Food and Agricultural Organization, “The use of ice on small fishing vessels,” FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 436, Rome.
[20] N. Antonackopoulos, and W. Vyncke, “Determination of Volatile Basic Nitrogen in Fish,” Z. Lebensm. Unters., vol. 189, pp. 309–316, 1989.
[21] AOAC Official Method 971.14, “Trimethylamine nitrogen in seafood colorimetric method,” in Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, P. Cunniff, Ed. Arlington: AOAC International. Chapter 35, pp. 7, 1998.
[22] International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, Microorganisms in foods. Sampling for microbiological analysis: principles and specific applications. London, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1986.
[23] K.L.B. Chang, J. Chang, C.Y. Shiau, and B.S. Pan, “Biochemical, microbiological, and sensory changes of sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) under partial freezing and refrigerated storage,” J. Agr. Food. Chem., vol. 46, pp. 682–686, 1998.
[24] A.H. Al-Harbi, and M.N. Uddin, “Microbiological quality changes in the intestine of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) in fresh and frozen storage condition,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 40, pp. 486-490, 2005.
[25] M.D. Hernandez, M.B. Lopez, A. Alvarez, E. Ferrandini, B. Garcia, and M.D. Garrido, “Sensory, physical, chemical and microbiological changes in aquacultured meagre (Argyrosomus regius) fillets during ice storage,” Food Chem., vol. 114, pp. 237-245, 2009.
[26] H.H. Huss, “Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood,” Food Control vol. 8, pp. 91-98, 1997.
[27] O.A. Oyelese, and M.O. Opatokun, “Exposure time on bacteria flora/count and shelf life of canned sardine (Sardinella pilchardus) under ambient and cold storage conditions,” J. Food Process. Pres., vol. 31, pp. 517–530, 2007.
[28] E. Deliere, H. Vu-Thien, V. Levy, S. Barquins, L. Schlegel, and A. Bouvet, “Epidemiological investigation of Ochrobactrum anthropi strains isolated from a haematology unit. J. Hosp. Infect., vol. 44, pp. 173-178, 2000.
[29] T.J. Cieslak, M.L. Robb, C.J. Drabick, and G.W. Fischer, “Catheterassociated sepsis caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi: report of a case and review of related nonfermentative bacteria,” Clin. Infect. Dis., vol. 14, pp. 902-907, 1992.
[30] H. Ezzedine, M. Mourad, C. Van Ossel, C. Logghe, J.P. Squifflet, F. Renault, G. Wauters, J. Gigi, L. Wilmotte, and J.J. Haxhe, “An outbreak of Ochrobactrum anthropi bacteremia in five organ transplant patients,” J. Hosp. Infect., vol. 27, pp. 35-42, 1994.
[31] W.R. Gransden, and S.J. Eykyn, “Seven cases of bacteremia due to Ochrobactrum anthropi,” Clin. Infect. Dis., vol. 15, pp. 1068-1069, 1992.
[32] M.H. Feingold, and M.L. Kumar, “Otitis media associated with Vibrio alginolyticus in a child with pressureequalizing tubes,” Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., vol. 23, pp. 475–476, 2004.
[33] I. Ito, M. Osawa, M. Arita, T. Hashimoto, T. Ishida, T. Hongo, and H. Fujii, H, “Vibrio vulnificus infection: clinical and bacteriological analysis of four cases. Kansenshogaku Zasshi vol. 73, pp. 149–155, 1999.
[34] M. Osawa, M. Tachibana, M. Arita, T. Hashimoto, T. Ishida, T. Hongo, and H. Fujii, “An autopsied case of septicemia due to Vibrio vulnificus,” Kansenshogaku Zasshi vol. 76, pp. 63–66, 2002.
[35] M. Rezaei, H. Jafari, M.A. Sahari, H. Hosseini, N. Montazeri, M. Parviz, and A. Nazarinia, “Relation of biogenic amines and bacterial changes in ice-stored southern caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum),” J. Food Biochem., vol. 31, pp. 541–550, 2007.
[36] Y.C. Chong, F.A. Bakar, R.A. Rahman, J. Bakar, and M.Z. Zaman, “Biogenic amines, amino acids and microflora changes in Indian mackerel (Rastrellinger kanagurta) stored at ambient (25–29°C) and ice temperature (0°C),” J. Food Sci. Technol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-012-0621-3.