Influence of Compactive Efforts on Cement- Bagasse Ash Treatment of Expansive Black Cotton Soil
A laboratory study on the influence of compactive effort on expansive black cotton specimens treated with up to 8% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) admixed with up to 8% bagasse ash (BA) by dry weight of soil and compacted using the energies of the standard Proctor (SP), West African Standard (WAS) or “intermediate” and modified Proctor (MP) were undertaken. The expansive black cotton soil was classified as A-7-6 (16) or CL using the American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), respectively. The 7day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values of the natural soil for SP, WAS and MP compactive efforts are 286, 401 and 515kN/m2 respectively, while peak values of 1019, 1328 and 1420kN/m2 recorded at 8% OPC/ 6% BA, 8% OPC/ 2% BA and 6% OPC/ 4% BA treatments, respectively were less than the UCS value of 1710kN/m2 conventionally used as criterion for adequate cement stabilization. The soaked California bearing ratio (CBR) values of the OPC/BA stabilized soil increased with higher energy level from 2, 4 and 10% for the natural soil to Peak values of 55, 18 and 8% were recorded at 8% OPC/4% BA 8% OPC/2% BA and 8% OPC/4% BA, treatments when SP, WAS and MP compactive effort were used, respectively. The durability of specimens was determined by immersion in water. Soils treatment at 8% OPC/ 4% BA blend gave a value of 50% resistance to loss in strength value which is acceptable because of the harsh test condition of 7 days soaking period specimens were subjected instead of the 4 days soaking period that specified a minimum resistance to loss in strength of 80%. Finally An optimal blend of is 8% OPC/ 4% BA is recommended for treatment of expansive black cotton soil for use as a sub-base material.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1087434Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Chen, F. H. (1988). Foundations on Expansive Soils. Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co. Amsterdam, Netherlands.
 Warren, K.W. And Kirby, T.M. (2004): “Expansive Clay Soil A Wide Spread And Costly Geohazard”, Geostra, Geoinstitute of The American Society Of Civil Engineers.
 Osinubi, K.J., Ijimdiya, T. S. and Nmadu, I. (2008b). “Lime stabilization of black cotton soil using bagasse ash as admixture.” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 62-64, pp3-.10. In Advance Materials Systems Technologies 11. Online http://www.scientific net Trans Tech. Publications, Switzerland.
 Osinubi, K. J. (2000). “Influence of compaction energy levels and delays on cement treatedSoil.” Nigerian Society of Engineers Technical Transactions, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp 1 – 13.
 Ola, S. A. (1974): Need for estimated cement requirement for stabilization of laterite soils. J. Transp. Engrg. Div., ASCE, Vol. 100, No. 2, pp. 379 – 388
 So, El – Kon (1992): “Research on the optimum secondary additives to granulated clay – stabilized soils,” In: T. Mise et al., (eds.) Soil Improvement, Current Japenese Materials Research, Vol. 9. Elsevier Science Publishers, London and New York.
 Adeniji F. A. (1991). “Recharge function of vertisolic vadose zone in sub-sahelian Chad Basin”. Proc. Ist Inter. Conf. on Arid Zone Hydrogeology Hydrology and Water Resources, Maduguri, pp. 331 – 348.
 Maclean, D. J. (1953) “Investigation of some problems in soil stabilization”. Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. On soil Mech. and found, Engineering, Switzerland, 263 – 267.
 Ola, S. A. (1983). “The geotechnical properties of black cotton soils of North Eastern Nigeria.” In: S. A. Ola (Editor). Tropical Soils of Nigeria in Engineering Practice, A. A. Balkema, the Netherlands, Rotterdam, pp155 – 171. soil.” The Nigeria Engineer, Vol. 26 No., pp. 15 – 24.
 Balogun, L. A. (1991). “Effect of sand and salt additives on some geotechnical properties of lime stabilized black cotton soil.” The Nigeria Engineer, Vol. 26 No., pp. 15 – 24
 Osinubi, K.J., (1995). “Lime modification of black cotton soil” Spectrum Journal, Kaduna, Vol.2, Nos. 1 and 2, pp, 112 – 122.
 Osinubi K. J. (1999). “Evaluation of admixture stabilization of Nigerian black cotton soil.” Nigeria Society of Engineers Technical Transactions, Vol 34, No. 3, pp 88 – 96.
 Misari S. M., Busari L.O. and Agboire S. (1998). “Current status of sugarcane research and development in Nigeria.” Proceedings of the Inaugural Meeting and Planning Workshop for Collaborators of National Coordinated Research program on Sugarcane (NCRP – SC).pp 2 – 12.
 Osinubi K.J. and Medubi A.B. (1997). “Evaluation of cement and phosphatic waste admixture on tropical black clay road foundation.” Proceedings of the 4th Conference in Structural Engineering Analysis and Modelling (SEAM), Vol. 2. pp. 297 – 307.
 Umar S.Y. “The Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil with Ordinary Portland Cement and Blast Furnace Slag”. Unpublished MSc. Thesis Dept.of Civil Engineering Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.
 Osinubi,K.J. and Stephen, T.A. (2007). ‘Influence of compactive efforts on bagasse ashtreated black cotton soil.’ Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environmental Research, Vol. 7, pp. 92-101
 Osinubi, K.J., Eberemu, A.O. (2006a). Hydraulic conductivity of lateritic soils treated with blast furnace slag. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. EJGE, Vol 11, Bundle D Paper 0693.
 Medjo Eko and Riskowiski, G. (2004). “A procedure for processing mixtures of soil, cement, and sugar cane bagasse”. Agricultural Engineering International. The Journal of Scientific Research and Development. Manuscript BC 990. Vol. III. pp 1-5.
 Osinubi, K. J and Eberemu. A. O. (2006b) “Effect of bagasse ash on the strength of stabiized lateritic soil” Book of Abstracts 5th Nigerian Material Congress (NIMACON), Nov 15th – 18th 2006. Abuja, Nigeria. pp. 24 – 25.
 Osinubi, K. J., Eberemu, A.O. and Aliu, O.S (2007). “Stabilization of laterite with cement and bagasse ash admixture.” Proc of the First Inter. Conf. on Environ. Res., echn. and Policy “ERTEP 2007” under the auspices of International Society of Environmental Geotechology, Accra, Ghana, 16 – 19 July, Category B: Mining and Environment, pp. 1-14
 Yoder, E. J.; and Witczak, M. W. (1975): Principles of Pavement Design. John Wiley and Sons. Inc, New York, pp 300–321.
 Gillot J.E. (1987). Clay in Engineering Geology. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company Amsterdam, Netherlands.
 Nicholas, J.G. and Lester, A.H.(1999): Traffic and Highway Engineering, 2nd edition. Books/Cole Publishing Company.
 Mohammedbhai, G.T.G. And Baguant, B.K. (1985). “Possibility of using bagassae ash and other furnace residue as partial substitute for cement in Maurice”. Vol. 64, .No. 3 Sept-Dec.
 BS 1377 (1990). “Methods of testing soils for civil engineering purposes”. British Standard Institute, London, Great Britain.
 BS 1924 (1990). “Methods of tests for stabilized soils.” British Standard Institute, London, Great Britain.
 Nigerian General Specification (1997): Bridges and Road Works. Federal Ministry of Works, Abuja, Nigeria.
 Singh, G. (1991). Highway Engineering, 3rd Edition, Standard Publishers Distributors. pp 599 – 619.
 TRRL (1977). A Guide to the Structural Design of Bitumen Surfaced Roads in Tropical and Sub – tropical Countries. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Road Note 31, Her Majesty Statemey 0ffice, London. geohazard”, Geostrate, Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers
 Ingles, O.G. and Metcalf, J. B. (1972). Soil Stabilization Principles and Practice, Butterworths, Sydney, Australia.
 Moses, G. (2012). Hydraulic and contaminant transport performance of compacted bagasse ash treated foundry sand for use in waste containment facilities. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.