Advancement of Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Technologies through Integrated Applications and Alternative Systems
Wave energy converter technologies continue to show good progress in worldwide research. One of the most researched technologies, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), is arguably one of the most popular categories within the converter technologies due to its robustness, simplicity and versatility. However, the versatility of the OWC is still largely untapped with most deployments following similar trends with respect to applications and operating systems. As the competitiveness of the energy market continues to increase, the demand for wave energy technologies to be innovative also increases. For existing wave energy technologies, this requires identifying areas to diversify for lower costs of energy with respect to applications and synergies or integrated systems. This paper provides a review of all OWCs systems integrated into alternative applications in the past and present. The aspects and variation in their design, deployment and system operation are discussed. Particular focus is given to the Multi-OWCs (M-OWCs) and their great potential to increase capture on a larger scale, especially in synergy applications. It is made clear that these steps need to be taken in order to make wave energy a competitive and viable option in the renewable energy mix as progression to date shows that stand alone single function devices are not economical. Findings reveal that the trend of development is moving toward these integrated applications in order to reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) and will ultimately continue in this direction in efforts to make wave energy a competitive option in the renewable energy mix.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 774
 Melikoglu, M. Current status and future of ocean energy sources: A global review. Ocean Engineering. 2018;148:563-73.
 Lopez.I, Andreu, J, Salvador, C, Martínez de Alegría, I, Kortabarria, I. Review of Wave Energy Technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews and The Necessary Power-equipment. 2013;27:413-34.
 Falcao, A F O. Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2010;14:899-918.
 Khan.N, Kalair, A, Abas, N, Haider, A. Review of Ocean Tidal, Wave and Thermal Energy Technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2017;72:590-604.
 Magagna, D, Uihlein, A. Ocean energy development in Europe: Current status and future perspectives. International Journal of Marine Energy. 2015;11:81-104.
 Heath, T V. A review of oscillating water columns. Phil Trans R Soc A. 2012;235-245:370.
 Titah-Benbouzid, H, Benbouzid, M. An Up-to-Date Technologies Review and Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters. International Review of Electrical Engineerings - IREE. 2015;10:52-61.
 Background Papers on Seafloor Engineering, Volume 2: Assembly of Engineering National Research Council; 1975.
 Masuda, Y, McCormick, M E. Experiences in Pneumatic Wave Energy Conversion in Japan. In: McCormick ME, Kim ME, Ameri YC, editors. Utilization of Ocean Waves—Wave to Energy Conversion1987.
 Brooke, J. Wave Energy Conversion. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Ltd; 2003.
 Falcao, A F O. The Development of Wave Energy Utilization. Global Status and Critical Developments on Ocean Energy. 2008:15-22.
 Falcao, A F O, Gato, L M C, Sarmento, A J N A, Brtio-Melo, A. The Pico OWC wave power plant: Its life from conception to closure 1986–2018. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energies Offshore (RENEW-2018). Lisbon, Portugal2018.
 Falcao, A F O, Henriques, J C C. Oscillating-water-column wave energy converters and air turbines: A Review. Renewable Energy. 2016;85:1391-424.
 Whittaker, T J T, Beattie, W, Folley, M, Boake, C, Wright, A, Osterried, M, et al. The LIMPET Wave Power Project - The first years of operation. Renewable Energy. 2004.
 Nihous, G C. Wave power extraction by arbitrary arrays of non-diffracting oscillating water columns. Ocean Engineering. 2012;51:94-105.
 Nader, J, Zhu, S, Cooper, P, Stappenbelt, B. A finite-element study of the efficiency of arrays of oscillating water column wave energy converters. Ocean Engineering. 2012;43:72-81.
 Konispoloatis, D N, Mavrakos, S A. Hydrodynamic analysis of an array of interacting free-floating oscillating water column (OWC's) devices. Ocean Engineering. 2016;111:179-97.
 Falcao, A F O. Wave-power absorption by a periodic linear array of oscillating water columns. Ocean Engineering. 2002;29:1163-86.
 O'Boyle, L, Elsaber, B, Whittaker, T. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays. Sustainability. 2017;9.
 Thiruvenkatasamy, K, Neelamani, S. On the efficiency of wave energy caissons in array Applied Ocean Research. 1997;19:61-72.
 Babarit, A. A database of capture width ratio of wave energy converters. Renewable Energy. 2015;80:610-28.
 Delmonte, N, Barater, D, Giuliani, F, Cova, P, Buticchi, G. Oscillating Water Column Power Conversion: a Technology Review. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications. 2014:1852-9.
 Doyle, S, Aggidis, G A. Investigation into Multi-Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy and a Novel Concept. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energies Offshore (RENEW-2018). Lisbon, Portugal2018.
 Doyle, S, Aggidis, G A. Development of multi-oscillating water columns as wave energy converters. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2019;107:(75-86).
 Shalby, M, Dorrel, D G, Walker, P. Multi–chamber oscillating water column wave energy converters and air turbines: A review. International Journal of Energy Research. 2018:1-16.
 Lindroth, S, Leijon, M. Offshore wave power measurements - A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2011;15:4274-85.
 Hotta, H, Washio, Y, Yokozawa, H, Miyazaki, T. R&D on Waver Power Deivce "Mighty Whale". Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. 1996.
 Washio, Y, Osawa, H, Nagata, Y, Fujii, F, Furuyama, H, Fujita, T. The Offshore Floating Type Wave Power Device "Mighty Whale": Open Sea Tests. Proceedings of the Tenth (2000) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Seattle, USA2000.
 Washio, Y, Osawa, H, Ogata, T. The Open Sea Tests of The Offshore Floating Type Wave Power Device “Mighty Whale” - Characteristics of Wave Energy Absorption and Power Generation. An Ocean Odyssey Conference Proceedings (IEEE Cat No01CH37295). Honolulu: Japan Marine Science and Technology Center; 2001.
 Torre-Enciso, Y, Ortubia, I, Lopez de Aguileta, L I, Marques, J. Mutriku Wave Power Plant: from the thinking out to the reality. Proceedings of the 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Uppsala, Sweden 2009.
 Medina-Lopez, E, Allsop, W, Dimakopoulos, A, Bruce, T. Conjectures on the Failure of the OWC Breakwater at Mutriku. Conference: Coastal Structures. Boston, USA2015.
 Medina-Lopez, E, Allsop, W, Dimakopoulos, A, Bruce, T. Damage to the Mutriku OWC breakwater – some lessons from further analysis. Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters2017.
 Shalby, M, Elhanafi, A, Walker, P, Dorrel, D G. CFD Modelling of a small-scale fixed multi-chamber OWC device. Applied Ocean Research. 2019;88:37-47.
 Shalby, M, Walker, P, Dorrel, D G. The Investigation of a Segment Multi-Chamber Osciallting Water Column in Physical Scale Model. 5th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications. Birmingham, UK2016.
 Shalby, M, Walker, P, Dorrel, D G. The Characteristics of the Small Segment Multi-Chamber Oscillating Water Column. 3rd AWTEC (Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference Series). Singapore2016.
 Delmonte, N, Ruol, P, Martinelli, L, Giuliani, F, Cova, P. Multi-chamber oscillating water column device for harvesting Ocean Renewable Energy 2014.
 Joubert, J R, Van Niekerk, J L. Recent developments in wave energy along the coast of southern Africa. 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Upsala, Sweden2009.
 Nielsen.K. MARINET experiment KNSWING testing an I-Beam OWC attenuator. International Journal of Marine Energy. 2015;12:21-34.
 Kofoed, J P, Frigaard, P B. Hydraulic evaluation of the Leancon wave energy converter 2008.
 Wave Mill. Wave Mill, http://wavepowerengineering.com/ (Accessed: 2 April 2020).
 Martinelli, L, Ruol, P, Fassina, E, Giuliani, F, Delmonte, N. A Wave-2-Wire Experimental Investigation of the New “Seabreath” Wave Energy Converter: The Hydraulic Response. Coastal Engineering. 2014.
 Tetu, A. Power Take-Off Systems for WECs. In: Pecher A, editor. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy2017.
 de Andreas, A, MacGillivray, A, Roberts, O, Guanche, R, Jeffrey, H. Beyond LCOE: A study of ocean energy technology development and deployment attractiveness. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 2017;19:1-16.
 Astariz, S, Iglesias, G. The economics of wave energy: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015;45:397- 408.
 Baudry, V, Babarit, A, Clement, A. An overview of analytical, numerical and experimental methods for modelling oscillating water columns. Proceedings of the 10th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Aalbord, Denmark2013.
 Wan, C, Yang, C, Fang, Q, You, Z, Geng, J, Wang, Y. Hydrodynamic Investigation of a Dual-Cylindrical OWC Wave Energy Converter Integrated into a Fixed Caisson Breakwater. Energies. 2020;13.
 Zheng, S, Antonini, A, Zhang, Y, Greaves, D, Miles, J, Iglesias, G. Wave power extraction from multiple oscillating water columns along a straight coast. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2019;878:445-80.
 Takahashi, S, Nakada, H, Ohneda, H, Shikamori, M. Wave Power Conversion by a Prototype Wave Power Extracting Caisson in Sakata Port. Costal Engineering 1992. p. 3440-53.
 Legaz, M J, Mayorga, P, Fernandez, J. Study of multipurpose platform. In: Soares G, editor. International Conference on Renewable Energies Offshore. Lisbon, Portugal2019.
 Mazarakos, T P, Mavrakos, S A. Second order wave drift damping of a TLP floating structure concept for combined wind and wave energy. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energies Offshore (RENEW-2018). Lisbon, Portugal2018.
 Cappietti, L, Simonetti, I, Penchev, V, Penchev, P. Laboratory tests on an original wave energy converter combining oscillating water column and overtopping devices. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energies Offshore (RENEW-2018 ). Lisbon, Portugal2018.
 Sinha, A, Mendonca, P, Belga, F, Castro, H, Morais, T, Clement, D, et al. Preliminary design of a hybrid wave energy converter integrated into a rubble mound breakwater. 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Naples, Italy2019.
 He, F, Huang, Z, Law, A W. An experimental study of a floating breakwater with asymmetric pneumatic chambers for wave energy extraction. Applied Energy. 2013;106:222-31.
 Howe, D, Nader, J, MacFarlane, G. Integration of Wave Energy Converters within Floating Offshore Structures. Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference. Hobart2019.
 Mustapa, M A, Yaakob, O B, Ahmed, Y M, Rheem, C, Koh, K K, Adnan, A A. Wave energy device and breakwater integration: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2017;77:43-58.
 Cascajo, R, Garcia, E, Quiles, E, Correcher, A, Morant, F. Integration of Marine Wave Energy Converters into Seaports: A Cast Study in the Port of Valencia. Energies. 2019;12.
 Neumann, F, Sarmento, A J N A. An assessment of technical and economical viability of OWC integration in breakwaters.
 Vicinanza, D, Di Lauro, E, Contestabile, P, Gisonni, C, Lara, J L, Losada, I J. Review of Innovative Harbor Breakwaters for Wave-Energy Conversion. Journal of Waterway, Port, Costal, Ocean Engineering. 2019;145.
 Zhao, X L, Ning, D Z, Zou, Q P, Qiao, D S, Cai, S Q. Hybrid floating breakwater-WEC system: A review. Ocean Engineering. 2019;186.
 das Neves, L, Samadov, Z, Di Lauro, E, Delecluyse, K, Haerens, P. The integration of a hybrid Wave Energy Converter in port breakwaters. The integration of a hybrid wave energy converter in port breakwaters. Naples, Italy2019.
 Ning, D Z, Zhao, X L, Chen, L F, Zhao, M. Hydrodynamic Performance of an Array of Wave Energy Converters Integrated with a Pontoon-Type Breakwater. Energies. 2018;11.
 An innovative Wave Energy Converter (WEC), the "Rho-Cee". An innovative Wave Energy Converter (WEC), the "Rho-Cee", http://www.floatinc.com/ (Accessed: 2 April 2020).
 Hassanabad, M G, Shegeft, M. Numerical simulation study on the offshore oscillating water column OWC integrated into a floating breakwater using CFD. 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Naples, Italy2019.
 Zheng, S, Antonini, A, Zhang, Y, Miles, J, Iglesias, G. Wave power exrraction from a multi-owc platform. 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Naples, Italy2019.
 Arena, F, Romolo, A, Malara, G, Laface, V, Valentino, E, Messineo, F. Overview on the installation of a U-Oscillating Water Column breakwater in the Port of Salerno. 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference Naples, Italy2019.
 Cappietti, L, Simonetti, I, Crema, I. Laboratory experiments on the performance of an OWC-WEC: fixed condition versus floating platform-embodied condition. 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference Naples, Italy2019.
 Aggidis, G A, Rahmati, M T, Chaplin, R V, McCabe, A P, Bhinder, M A, Mingham, C G, et al. Optimum Power Capture of a New Wave Energy Converter in Irregular Waves. Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA2009.
 McCabe, A P, Aggidis, G A. Optimum mean power output of a point-absorber wave energy converter in irregular waves. Proc IMechE Part A: J Power and Energy. 2009;223:773-81.
 McCabe, A P, Aggidis, G A, Stallard, T J. A time-varying parameter model of a body oscillating in pitch. Applied Ocean Research. 2006;28:359-70.
 McCabe, A P, Aggidis, G A, Widden, M B. Optimizing the shape of a surge-and-pitch wave energy collector using a genetic algorithm. Renewable Energy. 2010;35:2767-75.
 McCabe, A P, Bradshaw, A, Meadowcroft, J A C, Aggidis, G A. Developments in the design of the PS Frog Mk 5 wave energy converter. Renewable Energy. 2006;31:141-51.
 Yavuz, H, Stallard, T J, McCabe, A P, Aggidis, G A. Time series analysis-based adaptive tuning techniques for a heaving wave energy converter in irregular seas. Proc IMechE Part A: J Power and Energy. 2007;221.
 Aggidis, G A, Taylor, C J. Overview of wave energy converter devices and the development of a new multi-axis laboratory prototype. IFAC PapersOnLine. 2017;50:15651-6.
 Bhinder, M A, Mingham, C G, Causon, D M, Rahmati, M T, Aggidis, G A, Chaplin, R V. A joint numerical and experimental study of a surging point absorbing wave energy converter (WRASPA). Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA2009.
 Bhinder, M A, Rahmati, M T, Mingham, C G, Aggidis, G A. Numerical hydrodynamic modelling of a pitching wave energy converter. European Journal of Computational Mechanics. 2015;24:129-43.
 Chaplin, R V, Aggidis, G A. WRASPA: Wave Interactions and Control for Pitching-Surge Point-Absorber Wave Energy Converters. 7th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Porto, Portugal2007.
 Rahmati, M T, Aggidis, G A. Numerical and experimental analysis of the power output of a point absorber wave energy converter in irregular waves. Ocean Engineering. 2016;111:483-92.
 Zhang, D, Aggidis, G A, Wang, Y, Gu, X, Li, W, Chen, Y. Wave tank experiments on the power capture of a multi-axis wave energy converter. Journal of Marine Science and Technology. 2015;20:520-9.
 Ahmed, R, McKee, K, Howard, I. Advancements of wave energy converters based on power take off (PTO) systems: A review. Ocean Engineering. 2020;204.
 Falcao, A F O, Henriques, J C C, Gato, L M C. Self-rectifying air turbines for wave energy conversion: A comparative analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018;91:1231-41.
 Benreguig, P. Performance and power smoothing of innovative closed-circuit oscillating water column wave energy converter (PhD Thesis): University College Cork; 2019.
 Setoguchi, T, Takao, M. Current status of self-rectifying air turbines for wave energy conversion. Energy Conversion and Management. 2006;47:2382-96.
 Takao, M, Setoguchi, T. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion. International Journal of Rotataing Machinery. 2012:10.
 Cui, Y, Liu, Z, Zhang, X, Xu, C. Review of CFD studies on axial-flow self-rectifying turbines for OWC wave energy conversion. Ocean Engineering. 2019;175:80-102.
 Carolus, T H, Moisel, C. Bidirectional air turbines for oscillating water column systems:Fast selection applying turbomachinery scaling laws. International Journal of Marine Energy. 2017;18:65-77.
 Das, T K, Halder, P, Samad, A. Optimal design of air turbines for oscillating water column wave energy systems: A review. International Journal of Ocean and Climate Systems. 2017`;8:37-49.
 Wells, A A. Fluid Driven Rotary Transducer Publisher; 1976.
 Raghunathan, S. The Wells Air Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion. Aerospace Science. 1995;31:335-86.
 Falcao, A F O, Gato, L M C. Air Turbines. In: Sayigh A, editor. Comprehensive Renewable Energy2012. p. 111-49.
 Curran, R, Gato, L M C. The energy covnersion performance of several types of Wells turbines designs. Insitute of Mechanical Engineers. 1997;211.
 Suzuki, M, Arakawa, C, Takahashi, S. Performance of Wave Power Generating System Installed in Breakwater at Sakata Port in Japan. International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Toulon, France2004.
 Drew, B, Plummer, A R, Sahinkaya, M. A Review of Wave Energy Converter Technology. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A Journal of Power and Energy. December, 2009.
 Takao, M, Sasaki, R, Ashraful Alam, M M, Okuhara, S, Kinoue, Y. Development of a counter-rotating imuplse trubine for bi-directional airflow. In: Soares G, editor. Renewable Energies Offshore. Lisbon, Portugal2018.
 Setoguchi, T, Santhakumar, S, Maeda, H, Takao, M, Kaneko, K. A review of impulse turbines for wave energy conversion. Renewable Energy. 2001;23:261-92.
 Alcorn, R. Wave Energy: Modern Devices. In: Letcher TM, editor. Future Energy: Improved, Sustainable and Clean Options for our Planet. 2nd ed2014. p. 374.
 Alcorn, R, Blavette, A, Healy, M, Lewis, A. FP7 EU funded CORES wave energy project: a coordinators’ perspective on the Galway Bay sea trials. Underwater Technology. 2014.
 Mala, K, Badrinath, S N, Chidanand, S, Kailash, G, Jayashankar, V. Analysis of power modules in the Indian wave energy plant. Annual IEEE India Conference. Ganhinagar, India2009.
 Carrelhas, A A D, Gato, L M C, Henriques, J C C, Falcao, A F O, Varanda, J. Test results of a 30 kW self-rectifying biradial air turbine-generator prototype. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2019;109:187-98.
 Oceanlinx sinks into liquidation. Oceanlinx sinks into liquidation, http://tidalenergytoday.com/2014/12/23/oceanlinx-goes-into-liquidation//; 2014 (Accessed: 2 April 2020).
 Finnigan, T. Development of a 300kW ocean wave energy demonstration plant. Pacific 2004 International Maritime Conference. Sydney, Australia2004.
 Finnigan, T, Auld, D. Model Testing of a Variable-Pitch Aerodynamic Turbine. 13th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA2003.
 Prasad, D D, Ahmed, M R, Lee, Y-H. Studies on the performance of Savonius rotors in a numerical wave tank. Ocean Engineering. 2018;158:29-37.
 Dorrell, D G, Hsieh, M, Lin, C. A Multichamber Oscillating Water Column Using Cascaded Savonius Turbines. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 2010;46:2372-80.
 Jayashankar, V, Anand, S, Geetha, T, Santhakumar, S, Jagadeesh Kumer, V, Ravindran, M, et al. A twin unidirectional impulse turbine topology for OWC based wave energy plants. Renewable Energy. 2009;34:692-8.
 Mala, K, Jayaraj, J, Jayashankar, V, Muruganandam, T M, Santhakumar, S, Ravindran, M, et al. A twin unidirectional impulse turbine topology for OWC based wave energy plants e Experimental validation and scaling. Renewable Energy. 2011;36:307-14.
 Pereiras, B, Valdez, P, Castro, F. Numerical analysis of a unidirectional axial turbine for twin turbine configuration. Applied Ocean Research. 2014;47:1-8.
 Jayashankar, V, Mala, K, Jayaraj, J, Setoguchi, T, Takao, M. A twin unidirectional turbine topology for wave energy. 3rd International Conference on Ovean Energy. Bilbao, Spain2010.
 Takao, M, Takami, A, Okuhara, S, Setoguchi, T. A Twin Unidirectional Impulse Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion. Journal of Thermal Science. 2011;20:394-7.
 Okuhara, S, Takao, M, Takami, A, Setoguchi, T. A Twin Unidirectional Impulse Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion — Effect of Guide Vane Solidity on the Performance. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics. 2012;2:343-7.
 Cui, Y, Liu, Z, Beom-Soo, H. Pneumatic Performance of Staggered Impulse Turbine for OWC Wave Energy Converter. Journal of Thermal Science. 2015;24:403-9.
 Okuhara, S, Takao, M, Sato, H, Takami, A, Setoguchi, T. A Twin Unidirectional Impulse Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion—Effect of Fluidic Diode on the Performance. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics. 2014;4:433-9.
 Dudhgaonkar, P V, Jayashankar, V, Jalihal, P, Kedarnath, S, Setoguchi, T, Takao, M, et al. Fluidic Components for Oscillating Water Column Based Wave Energy Plants. ASME-JSME-KSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference. Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, JAPAN2011.
 Takao, M, Fukuma, S, Alam, M M A, Okuhara, S, Kinoue, Y, Nagata, S. A Dual-turbine System for Wave Energy Conversion. 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference Cork, Ireland2017.
 Ansarifard, N, Fleming, A, Henderson, A, Kianejad, S S, Chai, S, Orphin, J. Comparison of inflow and outflow radial air turbines in vented and bidirectional OWC wave energy converters. Energy. 2019;182:159-76.
 Martinelli, L, Ruol, P, Cortellazzo, G. On Mooring Design of Wave Energy Converters: The Seabreath Application. Coastal Engineering. 2012.
 Fairhurst, J, Van Niekerk, J L. Modelling, simulation and testing of a submerged oscillating water column. International Journal of Marine Energy. 2016;16:181-95.
 Fairhurst, J, Van Niekerk, J L. Development and application of a wave energy conversion simulation model. Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Cork, Ireland2017.
 Ackerman, P H. Air Turbine Design Study for a Wave Energy Conversion System (Thesis) 2009.
 Retief, G d F, Muller, F, Prestedge, G, Geustyn, L, Swart, D. Detailed Design of a Wave Energy Conversion Plant. Costal Engineering. 1984:2546-62.
 Nielsen K, B O, Jacobsen F P MARINET - Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network, Attenuator development phase Ib. 2015.
 Nielsen K, B O. MARINET - Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network, Attenuator development phase I c 2015.
 Nielsen K, J F P, Simonson M, Scheijgrond P. MARINET - Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network, Attenuator development phase I 2013.
 Frigaard, P B, Kofoed, J P, Beserra, E R. Wave induced loads on the LEANCON wave energy converter 2008.
 Kelly, T, Dooley, T, Campbell, J, Ringwood, J V. Comparison of the Experimental and Numerical Results of Modelling a 32-OscillatingWater Column (OWC), V-Shaped Floating Wave Energy Converter. Energies. 2013;6:4045-77.
 Rasmussen, K D. Wave Energy Converter Comprising Pressure and Suction Pipes Publisher; 2007, WO 2007057013 A1.
 McCormick, M E. Ocean Wave Energy Conversion. New York2007.
 Benreguig, P, Murphy, J, Vicente, M, Crowley, S. Wave-to-wire model of the Tupperwave device and performance comparison with conventional OWC. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energies Offshore (RENEW-2018). Lisbon, Portugal2018.
 Benreguig, P, Murphy, J, Sheng, W. Model Scale Testing of the Tupperwave Device with Comparison to a Conventional OWC. Proceedings of the ASME 2018 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. Madrid, Spain2018.
 Fleming, A, MacFarlane, G, Hunter, S, Denniss, T. Power Performance Prediciton for a Vented Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter with a Unidirectional Air Turbine Power Take-Off. Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Cork, Ireland2017.
 El Marjani, A, Castro Ruiz, F, Rodriguez, M A, Parra Santos, M T. Numerical modelling in wave energy conversion systems. Energy. 2008;33:1246– 53.
 Voropaev, I. Nautilis Patent Publisher; 2009, US20090102199A1.
 New Technologies Open New Horizons. New Technologies Open New Horizons, http://www.ivec.com.au/; 2011 (Accessed: 2 April 2020).