Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3170

Search results for: wave energy

3170 Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting

Authors: P. Valdez, M. Pelissero, A. Haim, F. Muiño, F. Galia, R. Tula

Abstract:

As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB’s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.

Keywords: Electromechanical device, modeling, renewable energy, sea wave energy, simulation.

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3169 Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide

Authors: M. Yusefzad

Abstract:

Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.

Keywords: Power, law of energy conservation, electromagnetic wave, interference, Maxwell’s equations.

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3168 Ocean Wave Kinetic Energy Harvesting System for Automated Sub Sea Sensors

Authors: Amir Anvar, Dong Yang Li

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the Ocean wave kinetic energy harvesting system. Energy harvesting is a concept by which energy is captured, stored, and utilized using various sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Ocean wave energy harvesting in which the kinetic and potential energy contained in the natural oscillations of Ocean waves are converted into electric power. The kinetic energy harvesting system could be used for a number of areas. The main applications that we have discussed in this paper are to how generate the energy from Ocean wave energy (kinetic energy) to electric energy that is to eliminate the requirement for continual battery replacement.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, power system, oceanic, sensors, autonomous.

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3167 Simulation of Irregular Waves by CFD

Authors: Muniyandy Elangovan

Abstract:

Wave generation methodology has been developed and validated by simulating wave in CFD. In this analysis, Flap type wave maker has been modeled numerically with wave basin to generate waves for marine experimental analysis. Irregular waves are arrived from the wave spectrum, and this wave has been simulated in CFD. Generated irregular wave has been compared with an analytical wave. Simulated wave has been processed for FFT analysis, and the wave spectrum is validated with original wave spectrum.

Keywords: Numerical wave tank, irregular wave, FFT, wavespectrum

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3166 Techno-Economic Analysis Framework for Wave Energy Conversion Schemes under South African Conditions: Modeling and Simulations

Authors: Siyanda S. Biyela, Willie A. Cronje

Abstract:

This paper presents a desktop study of comparing two different wave energy to electricity technologies (WECs) using a techno-economic approach. This techno-economic approach forms basis of a framework for rapid comparison of current and future technologies. The approach also seeks to assist in investment and strategic decision making expediting future deployment of wave energy harvesting in South Africa.

Keywords: Cost of energy, tool, wave energy converter, WEC-Sim.

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3165 Power Production Performance of Different Wave Energy Converters in the Southwestern Black Sea

Authors: Ajab G. Majidi, Bilal Bingölbali, Adem Akpınar

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the amount of energy (economic wave energy potential) that can be obtained from the existing wave energy converters in the high wave energy potential region of the Black Sea in terms of wave energy potential and their performance at different depths in the region. The data needed for this purpose were obtained using the calibrated nested layered SWAN wave modeling program version 41.01AB, which was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds from 1979 to 2009. The wave dataset at a time interval of 2 hours was accumulated for a sub-grid domain for around Karaburun beach in Arnavutkoy, a district of Istanbul city. The annual sea state characteristic matrices for the five different depths along with a vertical line to the coastline were calculated for 31 years. According to the power matrices of different wave energy converter systems and characteristic matrices for each possible installation depth, the probability distribution tables of the specified mean wave period or wave energy period and significant wave height were calculated. Then, by using the relationship between these distribution tables, according to the present wave climate, the energy that the wave energy converter systems at each depth can produce was determined. Thus, the economically feasible potential of the relevant coastal zone was revealed, and the effect of different depths on energy converter systems is presented. The Oceantic at 50, 75 and 100 m depths and Oyster at 5 and 25 m depths presents the best performance. In the 31-year long period 1998 the most and 1989 is the least dynamic year.

Keywords: Annual power production, Black Sea, efficiency, power production performance, wave energy converter.

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3164 Near Shore Wave Manipulation for Electricity Generation

Authors: K. D. R. Jagath-Kumara, D. D. Dias

Abstract:

The sea waves carry thousands of GWs of power globally. Although there are a number of different approaches to harness offshore energy, they are likely to be expensive, practically challenging, and vulnerable to storms. Therefore, this paper considers using the near shore waves for generating mechanical and electrical power. It introduces two new approaches, the wave manipulation and using a variable duct turbine, for intercepting very wide wave fronts and coping with the fluctuations of the wave height and the sea level, respectively. The first approach effectively allows capturing much more energy yet with a much narrower turbine rotor. The second approach allows using a rotor with a smaller radius but captures energy of higher wave fronts at higher sea levels yet preventing it from totally submerging. To illustrate the effectiveness of the first approach, the paper contains a description and the simulation results of a scale model of a wave manipulator. Then, it includes the results of testing a physical model of the manipulator and a single duct, axial flow turbine in a wave flume in the laboratory. The paper also includes comparisons of theoretical predictions, simulation results, and wave flume tests with respect to the incident energy, loss in wave manipulation, minimal loss, brake torque, and the angular velocity.

Keywords: Near-shore sea waves, Renewable energy, Wave energy conversion, Wave manipulation.

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3163 Energy Recovery from Swell with a Height Inferior to 1.5 m

Authors: A. Errasti, F. Doffagne, O. Foucrier, S. Kao, A. Meigne, H. Pellae, T. Rouland

Abstract:

Renewable energy recovery is an important domain of research in past few years in view of protection of our ecosystem. Several industrial companies are setting up widespread recovery systems to exploit wave energy. Most of them have a large size, are implanted near the shores and exploit current flows. However, as oceans represent 70% of Earth surface, a huge space is still unexploited to produce energy. Present analysis focuses on surface small scale wave energy recovery. The principle is exactly the opposite of wheel damper for a car on a road. Instead of maintaining the car body as non-oscillatory as possible by adapted control, a system is designed so that its oscillation amplitude under wave action will be maximized with respect to a boat carrying it in view of differential potential energy recuperation. From parametric analysis of system equations, interesting domains have been selected and expected energy output has been evaluated.

Keywords: Small scale wave, potential energy, optimized energy recovery, auto-adaptive system.

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3162 Numerical Analysis of Wave and Hydrodynamic Models for Energy Balance and Primitive Equations

Authors: Worachat Wannawong, Usa W. Humphries, Prungchan Wongwises, Suphat Vongvisessomjai, Wiriya Lueangaram

Abstract:

A numerical analysis of wave and hydrodynamic models is used to investigate the influence of WAve and Storm Surge (WASS) in the regional and coastal zones. The numerical analyzed system consists of the WAve Model Cycle 4 (WAMC4) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) which used to solve the energy balance and primitive equations respectively. The results of both models presented the incorporated surface wave in the regional zone affected the coastal storm surge zone. Specifically, the results indicated that the WASS generally under the approximation is not only the peak surge but also the coastal water level drop which can also cause substantial impact on the coastal environment. The wave–induced surface stress affected the storm surge can significantly improve storm surge prediction. Finally, the calibration of wave module according to the minimum error of the significant wave height (Hs) is not necessarily result in the optimum wave module in the WASS analyzed system for the WASS prediction.

Keywords: energy balance equation, numerical analysis, primitiveequation, storm surge, wave.

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3161 Advancement of Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Technologies through Integrated Applications and Alternative Systems

Authors: S. Doyle, G. A. Aggidis

Abstract:

Wave energy converter technologies continue to show good progress in worldwide research. One of the most researched technologies, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), is arguably one of the most popular categories within the converter technologies due to its robustness, simplicity and versatility. However, the versatility of the OWC is still largely untapped with most deployments following similar trends with respect to applications and operating systems. As the competitiveness of the energy market continues to increase, the demand for wave energy technologies to be innovative also increases. For existing wave energy technologies, this requires identifying areas to diversify for lower costs of energy with respect to applications and synergies or integrated systems. This paper provides a review of all OWCs systems integrated into alternative applications in the past and present. The aspects and variation in their design, deployment and system operation are discussed. Particular focus is given to the Multi-OWCs (M-OWCs) and their great potential to increase capture on a larger scale, especially in synergy applications. It is made clear that these steps need to be taken in order to make wave energy a competitive and viable option in the renewable energy mix as progression to date shows that stand alone single function devices are not economical. Findings reveal that the trend of development is moving toward these integrated applications in order to reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) and will ultimately continue in this direction in efforts to make wave energy a competitive option in the renewable energy mix.

Keywords: Ocean energy, wave energy, oscillating water column, renewable energy, review.

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3160 A Study of the Relation of Wave Height and Erosion at Bangkhuntien Shoreline, Thailand

Authors: Prasertsak Ekphisutsuntorn, Prungchan Wongwises, Chaiyuth Chinnarasri, Usa Humphries, Suphat Vongvisessomjai

Abstract:

In this paper, the significant wave height at the Upper Gulf of Thailand and the changing of wave height at Bangkhuntien shoreline were simulated by using the Simulating WAves Nearshore Model (SWAN) version 40.51. The simulated results indicated that the significant wave height by SWAN model corresponded with the observed data. The results showed that the maximum significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 1.06-2.05 m. and the average significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 0.30-0.47 m. The significant wave height can be used to calculate the erosion through the Bangkhuntien shoreline. The erosion rates at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were prepared by using the aerial photo and they were about 1.80 m/yr. from 1980- 1986, 4.75 m/yr from 1987-1993, 15.28 m/yr from 1994-1996 and 10.03 m/yr from 1997-2002. The relation between the wave energy and the erosion were in good agreement. Therefore, the significant wave height was one of the major factors of the erosion at the Bangkhuntien shoreline.

Keywords: significant wave height, erosion, SWAN, relation, Bangkhuntien shoreline

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3159 A Novel, Cost-effective Design to Harness Ocean Energy in the Developing Countries

Authors: S. Ayub, S.N. Danish, S.R. Qureshi

Abstract:

The world's population continues to grow at a quarter of a million people per day, increasing the consumption of energy. This has made the world to face the problem of energy crisis now days. In response to the energy crisis, the principles of renewable energy gained popularity. There are much advancement made in developing the wind and solar energy farms across the world. These energy farms are not enough to meet the energy requirement of world. This has attracted investors to procure new sources of energy to be substituted. Among these sources, extraction of energy from the waves is considered as best option. The world oceans contain enough energy to meet the requirement of world. Significant advancements in design and technology are being made to make waves as a continuous source of energy. One major hurdle in launching wave energy devices in a developing country like Pakistan is the initial cost. A simple, reliable and cost effective wave energy converter (WEC) is required to meet the nation-s energy need. This paper will present a novel design proposed by team SAS for harnessing wave energy. This paper has three major sections. The first section will give a brief and concise view of ocean wave creation, propagation and the energy carried by them. The second section will explain the designing of SAS-2. A gear chain mechanism is used for transferring the energy from the buoy to a rotary generator. The third section will explain the manufacturing of scaled down model for SAS-2 .Many modifications are made in the trouble shooting stage. The design of SAS-2 is simple and very less maintenance is required. SAS-2 is producing electricity at Clifton. The initial cost of SAS-2 is very low. This has proved SAS- 2 as one of the cost effective and reliable source of harnessing wave energy for developing countries.

Keywords: Clean Energy, Wave energy

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3158 A New Method for Extracting Ocean Wave Energy Utilizing the Wave Shoaling Phenomenon

Authors: Shafiq R. Qureshi, Syed Noman Danish, Muhammad Saeed Khalid

Abstract:

Fossil fuels are the major source to meet the world energy requirements but its rapidly diminishing rate and adverse effects on our ecological system are of major concern. Renewable energy utilization is the need of time to meet the future challenges. Ocean energy is the one of these promising energy resources. Threefourths of the earth-s surface is covered by the oceans. This enormous energy resource is contained in the oceans- waters, the air above the oceans, and the land beneath them. The renewable energy source of ocean mainly is contained in waves, ocean current and offshore solar energy. Very fewer efforts have been made to harness this reliable and predictable resource. Harnessing of ocean energy needs detail knowledge of underlying mathematical governing equation and their analysis. With the advent of extra ordinary computational resources it is now possible to predict the wave climatology in lab simulation. Several techniques have been developed mostly stem from numerical analysis of Navier Stokes equations. This paper presents a brief over view of such mathematical model and tools to understand and analyze the wave climatology. Models of 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations have been developed to estimate the wave characteristics to assess the power potential. A brief overview of available wave energy technologies is also given. A novel concept of on-shore wave energy extraction method is also presented at the end. The concept is based upon total energy conservation, where energy of wave is transferred to the flexible converter to increase its kinetic energy. Squeezing action by the external pressure on the converter body results in increase velocities at discharge section. High velocity head then can be used for energy storage or for direct utility of power generation. This converter utilizes the both potential and kinetic energy of the waves and designed for on-shore or near-shore application. Increased wave height at the shore due to shoaling effects increases the potential energy of the waves which is converted to renewable energy. This approach will result in economic wave energy converter due to near shore installation and more dense waves due to shoaling. Method will be more efficient because of tapping both potential and kinetic energy of the waves.

Keywords: Energy Utilizing, Wave Shoaling Phenomenon

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3157 Influence Analysis of Pelamis Wave Energy Converter Structure Parameters

Authors: Liu Shengnan, Sun Liping, Zhu Jianxun

Abstract:

Based on three dimensional potential flow theory and hinged rigid body motion equations, structure RAOs of Pelamis wave energy converter is analyzed. Analysis of numerical simulation is carried out on Pelamis in the irregular wave conditions, and the motion response of structures and total generated power is obtained. The paper analyzes influencing factors on the average power including diameter of floating body, section form of floating body, draft, hinged stiffness and damping. The optimum parameters are achieved in Zhejiang Province. Compared with the results of the pelamis experiment made by Glasgow University, the method applied in this paper is feasible.

Keywords: Pelamis, Hinge, Floating multibody, Wave energy

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3156 The Self-Propelled Model of a Boat, Based on the Wave Thrust

Authors: V. Arabadzhi

Abstract:

We attempted investigate a boat model, based on the conversion of energy of surface wave into a sequence of unidirectional pulses of jet spurts, in other words - model of the boat, which is thrusting by the waves field on water surface. These pulses are forming some average reactive stream from the output nozzle on the stern of boat. The suggested model provides the conversion of its oscillatory motions (both pitching and rolling) into a jet flow. This becomes possible due to special construction of the boat and due to several details, sensitive to the local wave field. The boat model presents the uniflow jet engine without slow conversions of mechanical energy into intermediate forms and without any external sources of energy (besides surface waves). Motion of boat is characterized by fast jerks and average onward velocity, which exceeds the velocities of liquid particles in the wave.

Keywords: Flat-bottomed boat, Underwater wing, Input and output nozzles, Wave thrust, Conversion of wave into a jet stream, Oscillatory motion and onward motion, Squid-like pump, Hatch-like pump, The thrust due to lifting float, The thrust due to radiation reaction.

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3155 Experimental Characterization of a Thermoacoustic Travelling-Wave Refrigerator

Authors: M. Pierens, J.-P. Thermeau, T. Le Pollès, P. Duthil

Abstract:

The performances of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator are presented. Developed in the frame of the European project called THATEA, it is designed for providing 600 W at a temperature of 233 K with an efficiency of 40 % relative to the Carnot efficiency. This paper presents the device and the results of the first measurements. For a cooling power of 210 W, a coefficient of performance relative to Carnot of 30 % is achieved when the refrigerator is coupled with an existing standing-wave engine.

Keywords: Refrigeration, sustainable energy, thermoacoustics, travelling-wave type heat pump

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3154 Time-Domain Simulations of the Coupled Dynamics of Surface Riding Wave Energy Converter

Authors: Chungkuk Jin, Moo-Hyun Kim, HeonYong Kang

Abstract:

A surface riding (SR) wave energy converter (WEC) is designed and its feasibility and performance are numerically simulated by the author-developed floater-mooring-magnet-electromagnetics fully-coupled dynamic analysis computer program. The biggest advantage of the SR-WEC is that the performance is equally effective even in low sea states and its structural robustness is greatly improved by simply riding along the wave surface compared to other existing WECs. By the numerical simulations and actuator testing, it is clearly demonstrated that the concept works and through the optimization process, its efficiency can be improved.

Keywords: Computer simulation, electromagnetics fully-coupled dynamics, floater-mooring-magnet, optimization, performance evaluation, surface riding, wave energy converter.

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3153 An Analysis of the Performances of Various Buoys as the Floats of Wave Energy Converters

Authors: İlkay Özer Erselcan, Abdi Kükner, Gökhan Ceylan

Abstract:

The power generated by eight point absorber type wave energy converters each having a different buoy are calculated in order to investigate the performances of buoys in this study. The calculations are carried out by modeling three different sea states observed in two different locations in the Black Sea. The floats analyzed in this study have two basic geometries and four different draft/radius (d/r) ratios. The buoys possess the shapes of a semi-ellipsoid and a semi-elliptic paraboloid. Additionally, the draft/radius ratios range from 0.25 to 1 by an increment of 0.25. The radiation forces acting on the buoys due to the oscillatory motions of these bodies are evaluated by employing a 3D panel method along with a distribution of 3D pulsating sources in frequency domain. On the other hand, the wave forces acting on the buoys which are taken as the sum of Froude-Krylov forces and diffraction forces are calculated by using linear wave theory. Furthermore, the wave energy converters are assumed to be taut-moored to the seabed so that the secondary body which houses a power take-off system oscillates with much smaller amplitudes compared to the buoy. As a result, it is assumed that there is not any significant contribution to the power generation from the motions of the housing body and the only contribution to power generation comes from the buoy. The power take-off systems of the wave energy converters are high pressure oil hydraulic systems which are identical in terms of their characteristic parameters. The results show that the power generated by wave energy converters which have semi-ellipsoid floats is higher than that of those which have semi elliptic paraboloid floats in both locations and in all sea states. It is also determined that the power generated by the wave energy converters follow an unsteady pattern such that they do not decrease or increase with changing draft/radius ratios of the floats. Although the highest power level is obtained with a semi-ellipsoid float which has a draft/radius ratio equal to 1, other floats of which the draft/radius ratio is 0.25 delivered higher power that the floats with a draft/radius ratio equal to 1 in some cases.

Keywords: Black Sea, Buoys, Hydraulic Power Take-Off System, Wave Energy Converters.

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3152 Wave Vortex Parameters as an Indicator of Breaking Intensity

Authors: B. Robertson, K. Hall

Abstract:

The study of the geometric shape of the plunging wave enclosed vortices as a possible indicator for the breaking intensity of ocean waves has been ongoing for almost 50 years with limited success. This paper investigates the validity of using the vortex ratio and vortex angle as methods of predicting breaking intensity. Previously published works on vortex parameters, based on regular wave flume results or solitary wave theory, present contradictory results and conclusions. Through the first complete analysis of field collected irregular wave breaking vortex parameters it is illustrated that the vortex ratio and vortex angle cannot be accurately predicted using standard breaking wave characteristics and hence are not suggested as a possible indicator for breaking intensity.

Keywords: Breaking Wave Measurement, Wave Vortex Parameters, Analytical Techniques, Ocean Remote Sensing.

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3151 Non-Stationary Stochastic Optimization of an Oscillating Water Column

Authors: María L. Jalón, Feargal Brennan

Abstract:

A non-stationary stochastic optimization methodology is applied to an OWC (oscillating water column) to find the design that maximizes the wave energy extraction. Different temporal cycles are considered to represent the long-term variability of the wave climate at the site in the optimization problem. The results of the non-stationary stochastic optimization problem are compared against those obtained by a stationary stochastic optimization problem. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed non-stationary optimization provides designs with a better fit to reality. However, the stationarity assumption can be adequate when looking at averaged system response.

Keywords: Non-stationary stochastic optimization, oscillating water column, temporal variability, wave energy.

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3150 Analytical Investigation of the Effects of a Standing Ocean Wave in a Wave-Power Device OWC

Authors: E.G. Bautista, F. Méndez, O. Bautista, J.C. Arcos

Abstract:

In this work we study analytically and numerically the performance of the mean heave motion of an OWC coupled with the governing equation of the spreading ocean waves due to the wide variation in an open parabolic channel with constant depth. This paper considers that the ocean wave propagation is under the assumption of a shallow flow condition. In order to verify the effect of the waves in the OWC firstly we establish the analytical model in a non-dimensional form based on the energy equation. The proposed wave-power system has to aims: one is to perturb the ocean waves as a consequence of the channel shape in order to concentrate the maximum ocean wave amplitude in the neighborhood of the OWC and the second is to determine the pressure and volume oscillation of air inside the compression chamber.

Keywords: Oscillating water column, Shallow flow, Waveenergy.

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3149 Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method

Authors: Anjali Verma, Ram Jiwari, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.

Keywords: Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.

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3148 Computational Modeling of Combustion Wave in Nanoscale Thermite Reaction

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim

Abstract:

Nanoscale thermites such as the composite mixture of nano-sized aluminum and molybdenum trioxide powders possess several technical advantages such as much higher reaction rate and shorter ignition delay, when compared to the conventional energetic formulations made of micron-sized metal and oxidizer particles. In this study, the self-propagation of combustion wave in compacted pellets of nanoscale thermite composites is modeled and computationally investigated by utilizing the activation energy reduction of aluminum particles due to nanoscale particle sizes. The present computational model predicts the speed of combustion wave propagation which is good agreement with the corresponding experiments of thermite reaction. Also, several characteristics of thermite reaction in nanoscale composites are discussed including the ignition delay and combustion wave structures.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Thermite reaction, Combustion wave, Numerical modeling.

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3147 CFD Simulation and Validation of Flap Type Wave-Maker

Authors: Anant Lal, M. Elangovan

Abstract:

A general purpose viscous flow solver Ansys CFX was used to solve the unsteady three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equation (RANSE) for simulating a 3D numerical viscous wave tank. A flap-type wave generator was incorporated in the computational domain to generate the desired incident waves. Authors have made effort to study the physical behaviors of Flap type wave maker with governing parameters. Dependency of the water fill depth, Time period of oscillations and amplitude of oscillations of flap were studied. Effort has been made to establish relations between parameters. A validation study was also carried out against CFD methodology with wave maker theory. It has been observed that CFD results are in good agreement with theoretical results. Beaches of different slopes were introduced to damp the wave, so that it should not cause any reflection from boundary. As a conclusion this methodology can simulate the experimental wave-maker for regular wave generation for different wave length and amplitudes.

Keywords: CFD, RANSE, Flap type, wave-maker, VOF, seakeeping, numerical method.

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3146 Energy-Level Structure of a Confined Electron-Positron Pair in Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako, Paul-Antoine Hervieux

Abstract:

The energy-level structure of a pair of electron and positron confined in a quasi-one-dimensional nano-scale potential well has been investigated focusing on its trend in the small limit of confinement strength ω, namely, the Wigner molecular regime. An anisotropic Gaussian-type basis functions supplemented by high angular momentum functions as large as l = 19 has been used to obtain reliable full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions. The resultant energy spectrum shows a band structure characterized by ω for the large ω regime whereas for the small ω regime it shows an energy-level pattern dominated by excitation into the in-phase motion of the two particles. The observed trend has been rationalized on the basis of the nodal patterns of the FCI wave functions. 

Keywords: Confined systems, positron, wave function, Wigner molecule, quantum dots.

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3145 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: Characteristic equation, interface waves, dispersion curves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structures.

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3144 Real-time Interactive Ocean Wave Simulation using Multithread

Authors: K. Prachumrak, T. Kanchanapornchai

Abstract:

This research simulates one of the natural phenomena, the ocean wave. Our goal is to be able to simulate the ocean wave at real-time rate with the water surface interacting with objects. The wave in this research is calm and smooth caused by the force of the wind above the ocean surface. In order to make the simulation of the wave real-time, the implementation of the GPU and the multithreading techniques are used here. Based on the fact that the new generation CPUs, for personal computers, have multi cores, they are useful for the multithread. This technique utilizes more than one core at a time. This simulation is programmed by C language with OpenGL. To make the simulation of the wave look more realistic, we applied an OpenGL technique called cube mapping (environmental mapping) to make water surface reflective and more realistic.

Keywords: Interactive wave, ocean wave, wind effect, multithread

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3143 The Radial Pulse Wave and Blood Viscosity

Authors: Hyunhee Ryu, Young Ju Jeon, Jaeuk U. Kim, Hae Jung Lee, Yu Jung Lee, Jong Yeol Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood viscosity on the radial pulse wave. For this, we obtained the radial pulse wave of 15 males with abnormal high hematocrit level and 47 males with normal hematocrit level at the age of thirties and forties. Various variables of the radial pulse wave between two groups were analyzed and compared by Student's T test. There are significant differences in several variables about height, time and area of the pulse wave. The first peak of the radial pulse wave was higher in abnormal high hematocrit group, but the third peak was higher and longer in normal hematocrit group. Our results suggest that the radial pulse wave can be used for diagnosis of high blood viscosity and more clinical application.

Keywords: Radial pulse wave, Blood viscosity, Hematocrit.

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3142 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos

Abstract:

A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: Layered Structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element.

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3141 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

The effect of a 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in this study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and stall characteristics. The aim of use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from the mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from the hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e., the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: Fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, Wells turbine.

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