Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30750
Extending BDI Multiagent Systems with Agent Norms
Abstract:Open Multiagent Systems (MASs) are societies in which heterogeneous and independently designed entities (agents) work towards similar, or different ends. Software agents are autonomous and the diversity of interests among different members living in the same society is a fact. In order to deal with this autonomy, these open systems use mechanisms of social control (norms) to ensure a desirable social order. This paper considers the following types of norms: (i) obligation — agents must accomplish a specific outcome; (ii) permission — agents may act in a particular way, and (iii) prohibition — agents must not act in a specific way. All of these characteristics mean to encourage the fulfillment of norms through rewards and to discourage norm violation by pointing out the punishments. Once the software agent decides that its priority is the satisfaction of its own desires and goals, each agent must evaluate the effects associated to the fulfillment of one or more norms before choosing which one should be fulfilled. The same applies when agents decide to violate a norm. This paper also introduces a framework for the development of MASs that provide support mechanisms to the agent’s decision-making, using norm-based reasoning. The applicability and validation of this approach is demonstrated applying a traffic intersection scenario.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316712Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 383
 F. L. y López, “Social power and norms: Impact on agent behavior,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southampton, 6 2003.
 N. Oren, M. Luck, and T. J. Norman, “Argumentation for normative reasoning,” in Proc. Symp. Behaviour Regulation in Multi-Agent Systems, 2008, pp. 55–60.
 V. T. da Silva, “From the specification to the implementation of norms: an automatic approach to generate rules from norms to govern the behavior of agents,” Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 113–155, 2008.
 I. Nunes, C. Lucena, and M. Luck, “Bdi4jade: a bdi layer on top of jade,” ProMAS 2011, pp. 88–103, 2011.
 B. F. d. S. Neto, V. T. da Silva, and C. J. P. de Lucena, “Nbdi: An architecture for goal-oriented normative agents.” in ICAART (1), 2011, pp. 116–125.
 A. S. Rao, M. P. Georgeff et al., “Bdi agents: From theory to practice.” in ICMAS, vol. 95, 1995, pp. 312–319.
 A. Ahmad, “An agent-based framework incorporting rules, norms and emotions (oprnd-e),” Ph.D. dissertation, PhD Thesis, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 2012.
 M. Alberti, A. Gomes, R. Gonçalves, J. Leite, and M. Slota, “Normative systems represented as hybrid knowledge bases,” Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 330–346, 2011.
 B. F. dos Santos Neto, V. T. Da Silva, and C. J. P. de Lucena, “Using jason to develop normative agents,” in Brazilian Symposium on Artificial Intelligence. Springer, 2010, pp. 143–152.
 M. Luck, M. d’Inverno et al., “Constraining autonomy through norms,” in Proceedings of the first international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems: part 2. ACM, 2002, pp. 674–681.
 M. A. Mahmoud, M. S. Ahmad, M. Z. Mohd Yusoff, and A. Mustapha, “A review of norms and normative multiagent systems,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, 2014.
 P. Caire, “A normative multi-agent systems approach to the use of conviviality for digital cities,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4870, pp. 245–260, 2008.
 G. Boella and L. W. van der Torre, “Regulative and constitutive norms in normative multiagent systems.” KR, vol. 4, pp. 255–265, 2004.
 R. Rubino, A. Omicini, and E. Denti, “Computational institutions for modelling norm-regulated mas: An approach based on coordination artifacts,” in AAMAS Workshops. Springer, 2005, pp. 127–141.
 G. Boella and L. van der Torre, “An architecture of a normative system: counts-as conditionals, obligations and permissions,” in Proceedings of the fifth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems. ACM, 2006, pp. 229–231.
 G. Boella and L. van Der Torre, “Substantive and procedural norms in normative multiagent systems,” Journal of Applied Logic, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 152–171, 2008.
 T. Balke, C. da Costa Pereira, F. Dignum, E. Lorini, A. Rotolo, W. Vasconcelos, and S. Villata, “Norms in mas: definitions and related concepts,” in Dagstuhl Follow-Ups, vol. 4. Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2013.
 T. Ågotnes, W. van der Hoek, and M. Wooldridge, “Robust normative systems,” in Proceedings of the 7th international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems-Volume 2. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2008, pp. 747–754.
 O. Kafalı, N. Ajmeri, and M. P. Singh, “Kont: Computing tradeoffs in normative multiagent systems,” in Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), To Appear, 2017.
 F. L. Bellifemine, G. Caire, and D. Greenwood, Developing multi-agent systems with JADE. John Wiley & Sons, 2007, vol. 7.
 R. H. Bordini, J. F. Hübner, and M. Wooldridge, Programming multi-agent systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. John Wiley & Sons, 2007, vol. 8.
 N. Howden, R. Rönnquist, A. Hodgson, and A. Lucas, “Jack intelligent agents-summary of an agent infrastructure,” in 5th International conference on autonomous agents, 2001.
 L. Braubach, W. Lamersdorf, and A. Pokahr, “Jadex: Implementing a bdi-infrastructure for jade agents,” 2003.
 3APL - An Abstract Agent Programming Language, 2017 (accessed November 16, 2017), http://www.cs.uu.nl/3apl/.
 A. S. Rao, “Agentspeak (l): Bdi agents speak out in a logical computable language,” in European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World. Springer, 1996, pp. 42–55.
 M. Winikoff, “JackTM intelligent agents: an industrial strength platform,” Multi-Agent Programming, pp. 175–193, 2005.
 M. Dastani, M. B. van Riemsdijk, F. Dignum, and J.-J. C. Meyer, “A programming language for cognitive agents goal directed 3apl,” in International Workshop on Programming Multi-Agent Systems. Springer, 2003, pp. 111–130.
 J. Broersen, M. Dastani, and L. Van Der Torre, “Resolving conflicts between beliefs, obligations, intentions, and desires,” in ECSQARU, vol. 1. Springer, 2001, pp. 568–579.
 G. Governatori and A. Rotolo, “Bio logical agents: Norms, beliefs, intentions in defeasible logic,” Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 36–69, 2008.
 A. Ahmad, M. Ahmed, M. Z. M. Yusof, M. S. Ahmad, and A. Mustapha, “Resolving conflicts between personal and normative goals in normative agent systems,” Journal of IT in Asia, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2016.
 M. Alberti, M. Gavanelli, E. Lamma, P. Mello, P. Torroni, and G. Sartor, “Mapping deontic operators to abductive expectations,” Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory, vol. 12, no. 2-3, pp. 205–225, 2006.
 M. E. Fayad, D. C. Schmidt, and R. E. Johnson, Building application frameworks: object-oriented foundations of framework design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
 M. E. Markiewicz and C. J. de Lucena, “Object oriented framework development,” Crossroads, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 3–9, 2001.