Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30127
Dynamic Simulation of IC Engine Bearings for Fault Detection and Wear Prediction

Authors: M. D. Haneef, R. B. Randall, Z. Peng

Abstract:

Journal bearings used in IC engines are prone to premature failures and are likely to fail earlier than the rated life due to highly impulsive and unstable operating conditions and frequent starts/stops. Vibration signature extraction and wear debris analysis techniques are prevalent in industry for condition monitoring of rotary machinery. However, both techniques involve a great deal of technical expertise, time, and cost. Limited literature is available on the application of these techniques for fault detection in reciprocating machinery, due to the complex nature of impact forces that confounds the extraction of fault signals for vibration-based analysis and wear prediction. In present study, a simulation model was developed to investigate the bearing wear behaviour, resulting because of different operating conditions, to complement the vibration analysis. In current simulation, the dynamics of the engine was established first, based on which the hydrodynamic journal bearing forces were evaluated by numerical solution of the Reynold’s equation. In addition, the essential outputs of interest in this study, critical to determine wear rates are the tangential velocity and oil film thickness between the journals and bearing sleeve, which if not maintained appropriately, have a detrimental effect on the bearing performance. Archard’s wear prediction model was used in the simulation to calculate the wear rate of bearings with specific location information as all determinative parameters were obtained with reference to crank rotation. Oil film thickness obtained from the model was used as a criterion to determine if the lubrication is sufficient to prevent contact between the journal and bearing thus causing accelerated wear. A limiting value of 1 μm was used as the minimum oil film thickness needed to prevent contact. The increased wear rate with growing severity of operating conditions is analogous and comparable to the rise in amplitude of the squared envelope of the referenced vibration signals. Thus on one hand, the developed model demonstrated its capability to explain wear behaviour and on the other hand it also helps to establish a co-relation between wear based and vibration based analysis. Therefore, the model provides a cost effective and quick approach to predict the impending wear in IC engine bearings under various operating conditions.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, IC engine, journal bearings, vibration analysis, wear prediction.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1110740

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1634

References:


[1] Jones MH. Wear Debris Associated with Diesel Engine Operation. Wear 1983; 90: 75-88.
[2] Geng Z, Chen J. Investigation into Piston-Slap-Induced Vibration for Engine Condition Simulation and Monitoring. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2005; 282: 735-51.
[3] Taylor C. M. Automobile Engine Tribology—Design Considerations for Efficiency and Durability. Wear 1998; 221: 1-8.
[4] Dufrane K. F., Kannel J. W., McCloskey TH. Wear of Steam Turbine Journal Bearings at Low Operating Speeds. Journal of Lubrication Technology 1983; 105.
[5] Cumming ACD. Condition Monitoring Today and Tomorrow—An Airline Perspective. In: Rao RKN, Au J, Griffiths B, editors. Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management: Springer Netherlands; 1990. p. 1-7.
[6] Antoni J., Daniere J, Guillet F. Effective Vibration Analysis OF IC Engines Using Cyclostationarity. Part I-A Methodology for Condition Monitoring. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2002; 257: 815-37.
[7] Peng Z., Kessissoglou NJ, Cox M. A Study of the Effect of Contaminant Particles in Lubricants Using Wear Debris and Vibration Condition Monitoring Techniques. Wear 2005; 258: 1651-62.
[8] Jones N. B, Li Y-H. A Review of Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis for Diesel Engines. Tribotest 2000; 6: 267-91.
[9] Flores P, Ambrósio J, Claro JCP, Lankarani HM, Koshy CS. Lubricated Revolute Joints in Rigid Multibody Systems. Nonlinear Dyn 2009; 56: 277-95.
[10] Flores P., Ambrósio J., Claro J. C. P., Lankarani HM. Kinematics and Dynamics of Multibody Systems with Imperfect Joints: Models and Case Studies: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2008.
[11] Schwab A. L., Meijaard J. P., Meijers P. A Comparison of Revolute Joint Clearance Models in the Dynamic Analysis of Rigid and Elastic Mechanical Systems. Mechanism and Machine Theory 2002;37:895- 913.
[12] Erkaya S, Uzmay İ. Experimental Investigation of Joint Clearance Effects on the Dynamics of a Slider-Crank Mechanism. Multibody Syst Dyn 2010; 24: 81-102.
[13] Mukras S, Mauntler N, Kim NH, Schmitz T, Sawyer WG. Dynamic Modeling of a Slider-Crank Mechanism under Joint Wear. ASME 2008 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2008. p. 443-52.
[14] Bai ZF, Zhang HB, Sun Y. Wear Prediction for Dry Revolute Joint with Clearance in Multibody System by Integrating Dynamics Model and Wear Model. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 2014; 11: 2624-47.
[15] Nikolic N, Torovic T, Antonic Z. A Procedure for Constructing a Theoretical Wear Diagram of IC Engine Crankshaft Main Bearings. Mechanism and Machine Theory 2012; 58: 120-36.
[16] Gummer A, Sauer B. Modeling Planar Slider-Crank Mechanisms with Clearance Joints in RecurDyn. Multibody Syst Dyn 2014; 31: 127-45.
[17] Chen J, Randall R, Feng N, Peeters B, Van der Auweraer H. Modelling and Diagnosis of Big-End Bearing Knock Fault in Internal Combustion Engines. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 2014; 228: 2973-84.
[18] McFadden P. D, Smith J. D. Vibration Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings by the High-Frequency Resonance Technique—A Review. Tribology International 1984; 17: 3-10.
[19] Randall RB, Antoni J, Chobsaard S. The Relationship between Spectral Correlation and Envelope Analysis in the Diagnostics of Bearing Faults and Other Cyclostationary Machine Signals. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 2001; 15: 945-62.
[20] Rubini R, Meneghetti U. Application of the Envelope and Wavelet Transform Analyses for the Diagnosis of Incipient Faults in Ball Bearings. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 2001; 15: 287- 302.
[21] Chi JN. Non-Invasive Diagnostics of Excessive Bearing Clearance in Reciprocating Machinery: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; 1995.
[22] Chen J. Internal Combustion Diagnostics Using Vibration Simulation University of New South Wales, Australia 2013.
[23] Daniel GB, Cavalca KL. Analysis of the Dynamics of a Slider–Crank Mechanism with Hydrodynamic Lubrication in the Connecting Rod– Slider Joint Clearance. Mechanism and Machine Theory 2011; 46: 1434- 52.
[24] Kakaee AH, Shojaeefard MH, Zareei J. Sensitivity and Effect of Ignition Timing on the Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine: An Experimental and Modeling Study. Journal of Combustion 2011; 2011: 8.
[25] Zweiri YH, Whidborne JF, Seneviratne LD. Detailed Analytical Model of a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine in the Crank Angle Domain. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 2001; 215: 1197-216.
[26] Pinkus O, Sternlicht B. Theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1961.
[27] Mang T, Dresel W. Lubricants and Lubrication: Wiley; 2007.
[28] Archard JF. Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces. Journal of Applied Physics 1953; 24: 981-8.
[29] Winer WO, Peterson MB. Wear Control Handbook: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 1980.
[30] Mustafa Duyar ZD. Design Improvement Based on Wear of a Journal Bearing Using an Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Model. International Compressor Engineering Conference, 2006.