Search results for: nanogel.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: nanogel.

2 Synthesis of Temperature Sensitive Nano/Microgels by Soap-Free Emulsion Polymerization and Their Application in Hydrate Sediments Drilling Operations

Authors: Xuan Li, Weian Huang, Jinsheng Sun, Fuhao Zhao, Zhiyuan Wang, Jintang Wang

Abstract:

Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) as promising alternative energy sources have gained increasing attention. Hydrate-bearing formation in marine areas is highly unconsolidated formation and is fragile, which is composed of weakly cemented sand-clay and silty sediments. During the drilling process, the invasion of drilling fluid can easily lead to excessive water content in the formation. It will change the soil liquid plastic limit index, which significantly affects the formation quality, leading to wellbore instability due to the metastable character of hydrate-bearing sediments. Therefore, controlling the filtrate loss into the formation in the drilling process has to be highly regarded for protecting the stability of the wellbore. In this study, the temperature-sensitive nanogel of P(NIPAM-co-AMPS-co-tBA) was prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization, and the temperature-sensitive behavior was employed to achieve self-adaptive plugging in hydrate sediments. First, the effects of additional amounts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), and methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) on the microgel synthesis process and temperature-sensitive behaviors were investigated. Results showed that, as a reactive emulsifier, AMPS can not only participate in the polymerization reaction but also act as an emulsifier to stabilize micelles and enhance the stability of nanoparticles. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of nanogels gradually decreased with the increase of the contents of hydrophobic monomer tBA. An increase in the content of the cross-linking agent MBA can lead to a rise in the coagulum content and instability of the emulsion. The plugging performance of nanogel was evaluated in a core sample with a pore size distribution range of 100-1000 nm. The temperature-sensitive nanogel can effectively improve the microfiltration performance of drilling fluid. Since a combination of a series of nanogels could have a wide particle size distribution at any temperature, around 200 nm to 800 nm, the self-adaptive plugging capacity of nanogels for the hydrate sediments was revealed. Thermosensitive nanogel is a potential intelligent plugging material for drilling operations in NGH-bearing sediments.

Keywords: Temperature-sensitive nanogel, NIPAM, self-adaptive plugging performance, drilling operations, hydrate-bearing sediments.

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1 Encapsulation of Satureja khuzestanica Essential Oil in Chitosan Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antifungal Activity

Authors: Amir Amiri, Naghmeh Morakabati

Abstract:

During the recent years the six-fold growth of cancer in Iran has led the production of healthy products to become a challenge in the food industry. Due to the young population in the country, the consumption of fast foods is growing. The chemical cancer-causing preservatives are used to produce these products more than the standard; so using an appropriate alternative seems to be important. On the one hand, the plant essential oils show the high antimicrobial potential against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and on the other hand they are highly volatile and decomposed under the processing conditions. The study aims to produce the loaded chitosan nanoparticles with different concentrations of savory essential oil to improve the anti-microbial property and increase the resistance of essential oil to oxygen and heat. The encapsulation efficiency was obtained in the range of 32.07% to 39.93% and the particle size distribution of the samples was observed in the range of 159 to 210 nm. The range of Zeta potential was obtained between -11.9 to -23.1 mV. The essential oil loaded in chitosan showed stronger antifungal activity against Rhizopus stolonifer. The results showed that the antioxidant property is directly related to the concentration of loaded essential oil so that the antioxidant property increases by increasing the concentration of essential oil. In general, it seems that the savory essential oil loaded in chitosan particles can be used as a food processor.

Keywords: Chitosan, encapsulation, essential oil, nanogel.

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