Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Secrecy

15 The Problem of Reconciling the Principle of Confidentiality in Foreign Investment Arbitration with the Public Interest

Authors: Bárbara Magalhães Bravo, Cláudia Figueiras

Abstract:

The economical globalization through the liberalization of the markets and capitals boosted the economical development of the nations and the needs for sorting out the disputes arising from the foreign investment. The arbitration, for all the inherent advantages, such as swiftness, arbitrators’ specialise skills and impartiality sets a pacifier tool for the interest in account. Safeguarded the public interest, we face the problem of the confidentiality in the arbitration. The urgent development of impelling mechanisms concerning transparency, guaranty and protection of the interest in account, reveals itself urgent. Through a bibliography review, we will dense the state of art, by going through the several solutions concerning, and pointing out the most suitable. Through the jurisprudential analysis we will point out the solution for the conflict confidentiality/public interest. The transparency, inextricable from the public interest, imposes the arbitration process can be open to all citizens. Transparency rules have been considered at the UNCITRAL in attempting to conciliate the necessity of publicity and the public interest, however still insufficient. The arbitration of foreign investment carries consequences to the citizens of the State. Articulating mechanisms between the arbitral procedures secrecy and the public interest should be adopted. The arbitration of foreign investment, being a tertius genius between the international arbitration and the administrative arbitration would claim its own regulation in each and every States where the confidentiality rules and its exceptions could be identified. One should enquiry where the limit of the citizens’ individual rights protection and the public interest should give way to the principle of transparency

Keywords: Arbitration, foreign investment, transparency, confidentiality, international centre for settlement of investment disputes UNCITRAL.

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14 Position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the Matter of Restricting Constitutional Rights of Citizens Concerning Banking Secrecy

Authors: A. V. Shashkova

Abstract:

The aim of the present article is to analyze the position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The methodological ground of the present Article represents the dialectic scientific method of the socio-political, legal and organizational processes with the principles of development, integrity, and consistency, etc. The consistency analysis method is used while researching the object of the analysis. Some public-private research methods are also used: the formally-logical method or the comparative legal method, are used to compare the understanding of the ‘secrecy’ concept. The aim of the present article is to find the root of the problem and to give recommendations for the solution of the problem. The result of the present research is the author’s conclusion on the necessity of the political will to improve Russian legislation with the aim of compliance with the provisions of the Constitution. It is also necessary to establish a clear balance between the constitutional rights of the individual and the limit of these rights when carrying out various control activities by public authorities. Attempts by the banks to "overdo" an anti-money laundering law under threat of severe sanctions by the regulators actually led to failures in the execution of normal economic activity. Therefore, individuals face huge problems with payments on the basis of clearing, in addition to problems with cash withdrawals. The Bank of Russia sets requirements for banks to execute Federal Law No. 115-FZ too high. It is high place to attract political will here. As well, recent changes in Russian legislation, e.g. allowing banks to refuse opening of accounts unilaterally, simplified banking activities in the country. The article focuses on different theoretical approaches towards the concept of “secrecy”. The author gives an overview of the practices of Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation basing on the Constitution of the Russian Federation has its special understanding of the issue, which should be supported by further legislative development in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: Bank secrecy, banking information, constitutional court, control measures, financial control, money laundering, restriction of constitutional rights.

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13 Average Secrecy Mutual Information of the Non-Identically Independently Distributed Hoyt Fading Wireless Channels

Authors: Md. Sohidul Islam, Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a non-identically independently distributed (non-i.i.d.) Hoyt fading single-input multiple-out put (SIMO) channel, where the transmitter sends some confidential information to the legitimate receiver in presence of an eavesdropper. We formulated the probability of non-zero secrecy mutual information; secure outage probability and average secrecy mutual information (SMI) for the SIMO wireless communication system. The calculation has been carried out using small limit argument approximation (SLAA) on zeroth-order modified Bessel function of first kind. In our proposed model, an eavesdropper observes transmissions of information through another Hoyt fading channel. First, we derived the analytical expression for non-zero secrecy mutual information. Then, we find the secure outage probability to investigate the outage behavior of the proposed model. Finally, we find the average secrecy mutual information. We consider that the channel state information (CSI) is known to legitimate receiver.

Keywords: Hoyt fading, main channel, eavesdropper channel, secure outage probability, average secrecy mutual information.

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12 Security over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer

Authors: Munnujahan Ara

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: Fading parallel channels, Wire-tap channel, OFDM, Secrecy capacity, Power allocation.

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11 Distributed Self-Healing Protocol for Unattended Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: E. Golden Julie, E. Sahaya Rose Vigita, S. Tamil Selvi

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is vulnerable to a wide range of attacks. Recover secrecy after compromise, to develop technique that can detect intrusions and able to resilient networks that isolates the point(s) of intrusion while maintaining network connectivity for other legitimate users. To define new security metrics to evaluate collaborative intrusion resilience protocol, by leveraging the sensor mobility that allows compromised sensors to recover secure state after compromise. This is obtained with very low overhead and in a fully distributed fashion using extensive simulations support our findings.

Keywords: WSN security, intrusion resilience, compromised sensors, mobility.

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10 Survey of Key Management Algorithms in WiMAX

Authors: R. Chithra, B. Kalavathi, J. Christy Lavanya

Abstract:

WiMAX is a telecommunications technology and it is specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., as the IEEE 802.16 standard. The goal of this technology is to provide a wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways. IEEE 802.16 is a recent standard for mobile communication. In this paper, we provide an overview of various key management algorithms to provide security for WiMAX.

Keywords: Broadcast, Rekeying, Scalability, Secrecy, Unicast, WiMAX.

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9 Survey Based Data Security Evaluation in Pakistan Financial Institutions against Malicious Attacks

Authors: Naveed Ghani, Samreen Javed

Abstract:

In today’s heterogeneous network environment, there is a growing demand for distrust clients to jointly execute secure network to prevent from malicious attacks as the defining task of propagating malicious code is to locate new targets to attack. Residual risk is always there no matter what solutions are implemented or whet so ever security methodology or standards being adapted. Security is the first and crucial phase in the field of Computer Science. The main aim of the Computer Security is gathering of information with secure network. No one need wonder what all that malware is trying to do: It's trying to steal money through data theft, bank transfers, stolen passwords, or swiped identities. From there, with the help of our survey we learn about the importance of white listing, antimalware programs, security patches, log files, honey pots, and more used in banks for financial data protection but there’s also a need of implementing the IPV6 tunneling with Crypto data transformation according to the requirements of new technology to prevent the organization from new Malware attacks and crafting of its own messages and sending them to the target. In this paper the writer has given the idea of implementing IPV6 Tunneling Secessions on private data transmission from financial organizations whose secrecy needed to be safeguarded.

Keywords: Network worms, malware infection propagating malicious code, virus, security, VPN.

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8 The Advent of Electronic Logbook Technology - Reducing Cost and Risk to Both Marine Resources and the Fishing Industry

Authors: Amos Barkai, Guy Meredith, Fatima Felaar, Zahrah Dantie, Dave de Buys

Abstract:

Fisheries management all around the world is hampered by the lack, or poor quality, of critical data on fish resources and fishing operations. The main reasons for the chronic inability to collect good quality data during fishing operations is the culture of secrecy common among fishers and the lack of modern data gathering technology onboard most fishing vessels. In response, OLRAC-SPS, a South African company, developed fisheries datalogging software (eLog in short) and named it Olrac. The Olrac eLog solution is capable of collecting, analysing, plotting, mapping, reporting, tracing and transmitting all data related to fishing operations. Olrac can be used by skippers, fleet/company managers, offshore mariculture farmers, scientists, observers, compliance inspectors and fisheries management authorities. The authors believe that using eLog onboard fishing vessels has the potential to revolutionise the entire process of data collection and reporting during fishing operations and, if properly deployed and utilised, could transform the entire commercial fleet to a provider of good quality data and forever change the way fish resources are managed. In addition it will make it possible to trace catches back to the actual individual fishing operation, to improve fishing efficiency and to dramatically improve control of fishing operations and enforcement of fishing regulations.

Keywords: data management, electronic logbook (eLog), electronic reporting system (ERS), fisheries management

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7 The Secrecy Underlying Young Language Learners- Learning

Authors: Nima Shakouri Masouleh, Razieh Bahraminezhad Jooneghani

Abstract:

The study investigated the educational implications that can be derived from the work of a variety of celebrated figures such as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner that will be helpful in the field of language learning. However, the writer believed these views were previously expressed not full–fledged by Comenius who has been described by Howatt (1984) as a genius–the one that the history of language teaching can claim. And we owe to him more than anyone.

Keywords: restructuring, assimilation, equiliberation

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6 Compton Scattering of Annihilation Photons as a Short Range Quantum Key Distribution Mechanism

Authors: Roman Novak, Matjaz Vencelj

Abstract:

The angular distribution of Compton scattering of two quanta originating in the annihilation of a positron with an electron is investigated as a quantum key distribution (QKD) mechanism in the gamma spectral range. The geometry of coincident Compton scattering is observed on the two sides as a way to obtain partially correlated readings on the quantum channel. We derive the noise probability density function of a conceptually equivalent prepare and measure quantum channel in order to evaluate the limits of the concept in terms of the device secrecy capacity and estimate it at roughly 1.9 bits per 1 000 annihilation events. The high error rate is well above the tolerable error rates of the common reconciliation protocols; therefore, the proposed key agreement protocol by public discussion requires key reconciliation using classical error-correcting codes. We constructed a prototype device based on the readily available monolithic detectors in the least complex setup.

Keywords: Compton scattering, gamma-ray polarization, quantumcryptography, quantum key distribution

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5 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: Secrecy capacity, MIMO, wiretap channel, covariance matrix, fading.

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4 Cryptanalysis of Two-Factor Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol in Public Wireless LANs

Authors: Hyunseung Lee, Donghyun Choi, Yunho Lee, Dongho Won, Seungjoo Kim

Abstract:

In Public Wireless LANs(PWLANs), user anonymity is an essential issue. Recently, Juang et al. proposed an anonymous authentication and key exchange protocol using smart cards in PWLANs. They claimed that their proposed scheme provided identity privacy, mutual authentication, and half-forward secrecy. In this paper, we point out that Juang et al.'s protocol is vulnerable to the stolen-verifier attack and does not satisfy user anonymity.

Keywords: PWLANs, user privacy, smart card, authentication, key exchange

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3 Authentication and Data Hiding Using a Reversible ROI-based Watermarking Scheme for DICOM Images

Authors: Osamah M. Al-Qershi, Khoo Bee Ee

Abstract:

In recent years image watermarking has become an important research area in data security, confidentiality and image integrity. Many watermarking techniques were proposed for medical images. However, medical images, unlike most of images, require extreme care when embedding additional data within them because the additional information must not affect the image quality and readability. Also the medical records, electronic or not, are linked to the medical secrecy, for that reason, the records must be confidential. To fulfill those requirements, this paper presents a lossless watermarking scheme for DICOM images. The proposed a fragile scheme combines two reversible techniques based on difference expansion for patient's data hiding and protecting the region of interest (ROI) with tamper detection and recovery capability. Patient's data are embedded into ROI, while recovery data are embedded into region of non-interest (RONI). The experimental results show that the original image can be exactly extracted from the watermarked one in case of no tampering. In case of tampered ROI, tampered area can be localized and recovered with a high quality version of the original area.

Keywords: DICOM, reversible, ROI-based, watermarking.

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2 A Novel Plausible Deniability Scheme in Secure Steganography

Authors: Farshad Amin, Majid Soleimanipour, Alireza Karimi

Abstract:

The goal of steganography is to avoid drawing suspicion to the transmission of a hidden message. If suspicion is raised, steganography may fail. The success of steganography depends on the secrecy of the action. If steganography is detected, the system will fail but data security depends on the robustness of the applied algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel plausible deniability scheme in steganography by using a diversionary message and encrypt it with a DES-based algorithm. Then, we compress the secret message and encrypt it by the receiver-s public key along with the stego key and embed both messages in a carrier using an embedding algorithm. It will be demonstrated how this method can support plausible deniability and is robust against steganalysis.

Keywords: Steganography, Cryptography, Information Hiding.

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1 A method of Authentication for Quantum Networks

Authors: Stefan Rass

Abstract:

Quantum cryptography offers a way of key agreement, which is unbreakable by any external adversary. Authentication is of crucial importance, as perfect secrecy is worthless if the identity of the addressee cannot be ensured before sending important information. Message authentication has been studied thoroughly, but no approach seems to be able to explicitly counter meet-in-the-middle impersonation attacks. The goal of this paper is the development of an authentication scheme being resistant against active adversaries controlling the communication channel. The scheme is built on top of a key-establishment protocol and is unconditionally secure if built upon quantum cryptographic key exchange. In general, the security is the same as for the key-agreement protocol lying underneath.

Keywords: Meet-in-the-middle attack, quantum key distribution, quantum networks, unconditionally secure authentication.

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