Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: explainability of aI

9 Explainable Graph Attention Networks

Authors: David Pham, Yongfeng Zhang

Abstract:

Graphs are an important structure for data storage and computation. Recent years have seen the success of deep learning on graphs such as Graph Neural Networks (GNN) on various data mining and machine learning tasks. However, most of the deep learning models on graphs cannot easily explain their predictions and are thus often labelled as “black boxes.” For example, Graph Attention Network (GAT) is a frequently used GNN architecture, which adopts an attention mechanism to carefully select the neighborhood nodes for message passing and aggregation. However, it is difficult to explain why certain neighbors are selected while others are not and how the selected neighbors contribute to the final classification result. In this paper, we present a graph learning model called Explainable Graph Attention Network (XGAT), which integrates graph attention modeling and explainability. We use a single model to target both the accuracy and explainability of problem spaces and show that in the context of graph attention modeling, we can design a unified neighborhood selection strategy that selects appropriate neighbor nodes for both better accuracy and enhanced explainability. To justify this, we conduct extensive experiments to better understand the behavior of our model under different conditions and show an increase in both accuracy and explainability.

Keywords: explainable AI, graph attention network, graph neural network, node classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
8 Distangling Biological Noise in Cellular Images with a Focus on Explainability

Authors: Manik Sharma, Ganapathy Krishnamurthi

Abstract:

The cost of some drugs and medical treatments has risen in recent years, that many patients are having to go without. A classification project could make researchers more efficient. One of the more surprising reasons behind the cost is how long it takes to bring new treatments to market. Despite improvements in technology and science, research and development continues to lag. In fact, finding new treatment takes, on average, more than 10 years and costs hundreds of millions of dollars. If successful, we could dramatically improve the industry's ability to model cellular images according to their relevant biology. In turn, greatly decreasing the cost of treatments and ensure these treatments get to patients faster. This work aims at solving a part of this problem by creating a cellular image classification model which can decipher the genetic perturbations in cell (occurring naturally or artificially). Another interesting question addressed is what makes the deep-learning model decide in a particular fashion, which can further help in demystifying the mechanism of action of certain perturbations and paves a way towards the explainability of the deep-learning model.

Keywords: cellular images, genetic perturbations, deep-learning, explainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
7 A Framework for Auditing Multilevel Models Using Explainability Methods

Authors: Debarati Bhaumik, Diptish Dey

Abstract:

Multilevel models, increasingly deployed in industries such as insurance, food production, and entertainment within functions such as marketing and supply chain management, need to be transparent and ethical. Applications usually result in binary classification within groups or hierarchies based on a set of input features. Using open-source datasets, we demonstrate that popular explainability methods, such as SHAP and LIME, consistently underperform inaccuracy when interpreting these models. They fail to predict the order of feature importance, the magnitudes, and occasionally even the nature of the feature contribution (negative versus positive contribution to the outcome). Besides accuracy, the computational intractability of SHAP for binomial classification is a cause of concern. For transparent and ethical applications of these hierarchical statistical models, sound audit frameworks need to be developed. In this paper, we propose an audit framework for technical assessment of multilevel regression models focusing on three aspects: (i) model assumptions & statistical properties, (ii) model transparency using different explainability methods, and (iii) discrimination assessment. To this end, we undertake a quantitative approach and compare intrinsic model methods with SHAP and LIME. The framework comprises a shortlist of KPIs, such as PoCE (Percentage of Correct Explanations) and MDG (Mean Discriminatory Gap) per feature, for each of these three aspects. A traffic light risk assessment method is furthermore coupled to these KPIs. The audit framework will assist regulatory bodies in performing conformity assessments of AI systems using multilevel binomial classification models at businesses. It will also benefit businesses deploying multilevel models to be future-proof and aligned with the European Commission’s proposed Regulation on Artificial Intelligence.

Keywords: audit, multilevel model, model transparency, model explainability, discrimination, ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
6 A Tool to Measure Efficiency and Trust Towards eXplainable Artificial Intelligence in Conflict Detection Tasks

Authors: Raphael Tuor, Denis Lalanne

Abstract:

The ATM research community is missing suitable tools to design, test, and validate new UI prototypes. Important stakes underline the implementation of both DSS and XAI methods into current systems. ML-based DSS are gaining in relevance as ATFM becomes increasingly complex. However, these systems only prove useful if a human can understand them, and thus new XAI methods are needed. The human-machine dyad should work as a team and should understand each other. We present xSky, a configurable benchmark tool that allows us to compare different versions of an ATC interface in conflict detection tasks. Our main contributions to the ATC research community are (1) a conflict detection task simulator (xSky) that allows to test the applicability of visual prototypes on scenarios of varying difficulty and outputting relevant operational metrics (2) a theoretical approach to the explanations of AI-driven trajectory predictions. xSky addresses several issues that were identified within available research tools. Researchers can configure the dimensions affecting scenario difficulty with a simple CSV file. Both the content and appearance of the XAI elements can be customized in a few steps. As a proof-of-concept, we implemented an XAI prototype inspired by the maritime field.

Keywords: air traffic control, air traffic simulation, conflict detection, explainable artificial intelligence, explainability, human-automation collaboration, human factors, information visualization, interpretability, trajectory prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
5 A Multi-Output Network with U-Net Enhanced Class Activation Map and Robust Classification Performance for Medical Imaging Analysis

Authors: Yiqiao Yin, Jaiden Xuan Schraut, Leon Liu

Abstract:

Computer vision in medical diagnosis has achieved a high level of success in diagnosing diseases with high accuracy. However, conventional classifiers that produce an image-to label the result provides insufficient information for medical professionals to judge and raise concerns over the trust and reliability of a model with results that cannot be explained. In order to gain local insight into cancerous regions, separate tasks such as imaging segmentation needs to be implemented to aid the doctors in treating patients, which doubles the training time and costs, which renders the diagnosis system inefficient and difficult to be accepted by the public. To tackle this issue and drive the AI-first medical solutions further, this paper proposes a multi-output network that follows a UNet architecture for image segmentation output and features an additional CNN module for auxiliary classification output. Class activation maps are a method of providing insight into a convolutional neural network’s feature maps that lead to its classification but in the case of lung diseases, the region of interest is enhanced by U-net-assisted CAM visualization. Therefore, our proposed model combines image segmentation models and classifiers to crop out only the lung region of a chest X-ray’s class activation map to provide a visualization that improves the explainability and is able to generate classification results simultaneously which build trust for AI-led diagnosis system. The proposed U-Net model achieves 97.61% accuracy and a dice coefficient of 0.97 on a testing data from the COVID-QU-Ex Dataset, which includes both diseased and healthy lungs.

Keywords: deep learning, computer vision, image segmentation, medical imaging analysis, chest x-ray imaging, image classification, multi-output network

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
4 Phenotype Prediction of DNA Sequence Data: A Machine and Statistical Learning Approach

Authors: Mpho Mokoatle, Darlington Mapiye, James Mashiyane, Stephanie Muller, Gciniwe Dlamini

Abstract:

Great advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have resulted in availability of huge amounts of sequencing data in public and private repositories, enabling a holistic understanding of complex biological phenomena. Sequence data are used for a wide range of applications such as gene annotations, expression studies, personalized treatment and precision medicine. However, this rapid growth in sequence data poses a great challenge which calls for novel data processing and analytic methods, as well as huge computing resources. In this work, a machine and statistical learning approach for DNA sequence classification based on $k$-mer representation of sequence data is proposed. The approach is tested using whole genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates to (i) reduce the size of genomic sequence data, (ii) identify an optimum size of k-mers and utilize it to build classification models, (iii) predict the phenotype from whole genome sequence data of a given bacterial isolate, and (iv) demonstrate computing challenges associated with the analysis of whole genome sequence data in producing interpretable and explainable insights. The classification models were trained on 104 whole genome sequences of MTB isoloates. Cluster analysis showed that k-mers maybe used to discriminate phenotypes and the discrimination becomes more concise as the size of k-mers increase. The best performing classification model had a k-mer size of 10 (longest k-mer) an accuracy, recall, precision, specificity, and Matthews Correlation coeffient of 72.0%, 80.5%, 80.5%, 63.6%, and 0.4 respectively. This study provides a comprehensive approach for resampling whole genome sequencing data, objectively selecting a k-mer size, and performing classification for phenotype prediction. The analysis also highlights the importance of increasing the k-mer size to produce more biological explainable results, which brings to the fore the interplay that exists amongst accuracy, computing resources and explainability of classification results. However, the analysis provides a new way to elucidate genetic information from genomic data, and identify phenotype relationships which are important especially in explaining complex biological mechanisms.

Keywords: AWD-LSTM, bootstrapping, k-mers, next generation sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
3 Phenotype Prediction of DNA Sequence Data: A Machine and Statistical Learning Approach

Authors: Darlington Mapiye, Mpho Mokoatle, James Mashiyane, Stephanie Muller, Gciniwe Dlamini

Abstract:

Great advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have resulted in availability of huge amounts of sequencing data in public and private repositories, enabling a holistic understanding of complex biological phenomena. Sequence data are used for a wide range of applications such as gene annotations, expression studies, personalized treatment and precision medicine. However, this rapid growth in sequence data poses a great challenge which calls for novel data processing and analytic methods, as well as huge computing resources. In this work, a machine and statistical learning approach for DNA sequence classification based on k-mer representation of sequence data is proposed. The approach is tested using whole genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates to (i) reduce the size of genomic sequence data, (ii) identify an optimum size of k-mers and utilize it to build classification models, (iii) predict the phenotype from whole genome sequence data of a given bacterial isolate, and (iv) demonstrate computing challenges associated with the analysis of whole genome sequence data in producing interpretable and explainable insights. The classification models were trained on 104 whole genome sequences of MTB isoloates. Cluster analysis showed that k-mers maybe used to discriminate phenotypes and the discrimination becomes more concise as the size of k-mers increase. The best performing classification model had a k-mer size of 10 (longest k-mer) an accuracy, recall, precision, specificity, and Matthews Correlation coeffient of 72.0 %, 80.5 %, 80.5 %, 63.6 %, and 0.4 respectively. This study provides a comprehensive approach for resampling whole genome sequencing data, objectively selecting a k-mer size, and performing classification for phenotype prediction. The analysis also highlights the importance of increasing the k-mer size to produce more biological explainable results, which brings to the fore the interplay that exists amongst accuracy, computing resources and explainability of classification results. However, the analysis provides a new way to elucidate genetic information from genomic data, and identify phenotype relationships which are important especially in explaining complex biological mechanisms

Keywords: AWD-LSTM, bootstrapping, k-mers, next generation sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2 Transparency Obligations under the AI Act Proposal: A Critical Legal Analysis

Authors: Michael Lognoul

Abstract:

In April 2021, the European Commission released its AI Act Proposal, which is the first policy proposal at the European Union level to target AI systems comprehensively, in a horizontal manner. This Proposal notably aims to achieve an ecosystem of trust in the European Union, based on the respect of fundamental rights, regarding AI. Among many other requirements, the AI Act Proposal aims to impose several generic transparency obligationson all AI systems to the benefit of natural persons facing those systems (e.g. information on the AI nature of systems, in case of an interaction with a human). The Proposal also provides for more stringent transparency obligations, specific to AI systems that qualify as high-risk, to the benefit of their users, notably on the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of the AI systems they use. Against that background, this research firstly presents all such transparency requirements in turn, as well as related obligations, such asthe proposed obligations on record keeping. Secondly, it focuses on a legal analysis of their scope of application, of the content of the obligations, and on their practical implications. On the scope of transparency obligations tailored for high-risk AI systems, the research notably notes that it seems relatively narrow, given the proposed legal definition of the notion of users of AI systems. Hence, where end-users do not qualify as users, they may only receive very limited information. This element might potentially raise concern regarding the objective of the Proposal. On the content of the transparency obligations, the research highlights that the information that should benefit users of high-risk AI systems is both very broad and specific, from a technical perspective. Therefore, the information required under those obligations seems to create, prima facie, an adequate framework to ensure trust for users of high-risk AI systems. However, on the practical implications of these transparency obligations, the research notes that concern arises due to potential illiteracy of high-risk AI systems users. They might not benefit from sufficient technical expertise to fully understand the information provided to them, despite the wording of the Proposal, which requires that information should be comprehensible to its recipients (i.e. users).On this matter, the research points that there could be, more broadly, an important divergence between the level of detail of the information required by the Proposal and the level of expertise of users of high-risk AI systems. As a conclusion, the research provides policy recommendations to tackle (part of) the issues highlighted. It notably recommends to broaden the scope of transparency requirements for high-risk AI systems to encompass end-users. It also suggests that principles of explanation, as they were put forward in the Guidelines for Trustworthy AI of the High Level Expert Group, should be included in the Proposal in addition to transparency obligations.

Keywords: aI act proposal, explainability of aI, high-risk aI systems, transparency requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1 “laws Drifting Off While Artificial Intelligence Thriving” – A Comparative Study with Special Reference to Computer Science and Information Technology

Authors: Amarendar Reddy Addula

Abstract:

Definition of Artificial Intelligence: Artificial intelligence is the simulation of mortal intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Explicit operations of AI comprise expert systems, natural language processing, and speech recognition, and machine vision. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an original medium for digital business, according to a new report by Gartner. The last 10 times represent an advance period in AI’s development, prodded by the confluence of factors, including the rise of big data, advancements in cipher structure, new machine literacy ways, the materialization of pall computing, and the vibrant open- source ecosystem. Influence of AI to a broader set of use cases and druggies and its gaining fashionability because it improves AI’s versatility, effectiveness, and rigidity. Edge AI will enable digital moments by employing AI for real- time analytics closer to data sources. Gartner predicts that by 2025, further than 50 of all data analysis by deep neural networks will do at the edge, over from lower than 10 in 2021. Responsible AI is a marquee term for making suitable business and ethical choices when espousing AI. It requires considering business and societal value, threat, trust, translucency, fairness, bias mitigation, explainability, responsibility, safety, sequestration, and nonsupervisory compliance. Responsible AI is ever more significant amidst growing nonsupervisory oversight, consumer prospects, and rising sustainability pretensions. Generative AI is the use of AI to induce new vestiges and produce innovative products. To date, generative AI sweats have concentrated on creating media content similar as photorealistic images of people and effects, but it can also be used for law generation, creating synthetic irregular data, and designing medicinals and accoutrements with specific parcels. AI is the subject of a wide- ranging debate in which there's a growing concern about its ethical and legal aspects. Constantly, the two are varied and nonplussed despite being different issues and areas of knowledge. The ethical debate raises two main problems the first, abstract, relates to the idea and content of ethics; the alternate, functional, and concerns its relationship with the law. Both set up models of social geste, but they're different in compass and nature. The juridical analysis is grounded on anon-formalistic scientific methodology. This means that it's essential to consider the nature and characteristics of the AI as a primary step to the description of its legal paradigm. In this regard, there are two main issues the relationship between artificial and mortal intelligence and the question of the unitary or different nature of the AI. From that theoretical and practical base, the study of the legal system is carried out by examining its foundations, the governance model, and the nonsupervisory bases. According to this analysis, throughout the work and in the conclusions, International Law is linked as the top legal frame for the regulation of AI.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ethics & human rights issues, laws, international laws

Procedia PDF Downloads 1