Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Moahmed Zakzouk

4 Earth Observations and Hydrodynamic Modeling to Monitor and Simulate the Oil Pollution in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt

Authors: Islam Abou El-Magd, Elham Ali, Moahmed Zakzouk, Nesreen Khairy, Naglaa Zanaty

Abstract:

Maine environment and coastal zone are wealthy with natural resources that contribute to the local economy of Egypt. The Gulf of Suez and Red Sea area accommodates diverse human activities that contribute to the local economy, including oil exploration and production, touristic activities, export and import harbors, etc, however, it is always under the threat of pollution due to human interaction and activities. This research aimed at integrating in-situ measurements and remotely sensed data with hydrodynamic model to map and simulate the oil pollution. High-resolution satellite sensors including Sentinel 2 and Plantlab were functioned to trace the oil pollution. Spectral band ratio of band 4 (infrared) over band 3 (red) underpinned the mapping of the point source pollution from the oil industrial estates. This ratio is supporting the absorption windows detected in the hyperspectral profiles. ASD in-situ hyperspectral device was used to measure experimentally the oil pollution in the marine environment. The experiment used to measure water behavior in three cases a) clear water without oil, b) water covered with raw oil, and c) water after a while from throwing the raw oil. The spectral curve is clearly identified absorption windows for oil pollution, particularly at 600-700nm. MIKE 21 model was applied to simulate the dispersion of the oil contamination and create scenarios for crises management. The model requires precise data preparation of the bathymetry, tides, waves, atmospheric parameters, which partially obtained from online modeled data and other from historical in-situ stations. The simulation enabled to project the movement of the oil spill and could create a warning system for mitigation. Details of the research results will be described in the paper.

Keywords: oil pollution, remote sensing, modelling, Red Sea, Egypt

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3 Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Reducing Fungal Adhesion on Dentin

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Noriko Hiraishi, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Koichi Makimura, Junji Tagami

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is used to prevent and arrest dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of SDF on reducing Candida albicans adhesion on dentin. Materials and Methods: Bovine dentin disks (6×6 mm) were cut by Isomet and polished using grit silicon carbide papers down to 2000 in order to obtain flat dentin surfaces. Samples were divided into two groups. The first group (SDF group) was treated with 38% SDF for 3 min, while the other group (control group) did not undergo SDF treatment. All samples were exposed to C. albicans suspension, washed after 6 hours incubation at 30 °C before to be tested using XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) and real time PCR approaches. Statistical analyses of the results were performed at the significance level α = 0.05. Results: SDF inhibited C. albicans adhesion onto dentin. A significant difference was found between the SDF and control groups in both XTT and real time PCR tests. Conclusion: Using SDF to arrest the caries, could inhibit the Candida growth on dentin.

Keywords: silver diamine fluoride, dentin, real time PCR, XTT

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2 Comparing the Gap Formation around Composite Restorations in Three Regions of Tooth Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Yasushi Shimada, Yuan Zhou, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric imaging technique that has been recently used in cariology. In spite of progress made in adhesive dentistry, the composite restoration has been failing due to secondary caries which occur due to environmental factors in oral cavities. Therefore, a precise assessment to effective marginal sealing of restoration is highly required. The aim of this study was evaluating gap formation at composite/cavity walls interface with or without phosphoric acid etching using SS-OCT. Materials and Methods: Round tapered cavities (2×2 mm) were prepared in three locations, mid-coronal, cervical, and root of bovine incisors teeth in two groups (SE and PA Groups). While self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) was applied for the both groups, Group PA had been already pretreated with phosphoric acid etching (K-Etchant gel). Subsequently, both groups were restored by Estelite Flow Quick Flowable Composite Resin. Following 5000 thermal cycles, three cross-sectionals were obtained from each cavity using OCT at 1310-nm wavelength at 0°, 60°, 120° degrees. Scanning was repeated after two months to monitor the gap progress. Then the average percentage of gap length was calculated using image analysis software, and the difference of mean between both groups was statistically analyzed by t-test. Subsequently, the results were confirmed by sectioning and observing representative specimens under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Results: The results showed that pretreatment with phosphoric acid etching, Group PA, led to significantly bigger gaps in mid-coronal and cervical compared to SE group, while in the root cavity no significant difference was observed between both groups. On the other hand, the gaps formed in root’s cavities were significantly bigger than those in mid-coronal and cervical within the same group. This study investigated the effect of phosphoric acid on gap length progress on the composite restorations. In conclusions, phosphoric acid etching treatment did not reduce the gap formation even in different regions of the tooth. Significance: The cervical region of tooth was more exposing to gap formation than mid-coronal region, especially when we added pre-etching treatment.

Keywords: image analysis, optical coherence tomography, phosphoric acid etching, self-etch adhesives

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1 Optical Assessment of Marginal Sealing Performance around Restorations Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Yasushi Shimada, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami

Abstract:

Background and purpose: The resin composite has become the main material for the restorations of caries in recent years due to aesthetic characteristics, especially with the development of the adhesive techniques. The quality of adhesion to tooth structures is depending on an exchange process between inorganic tooth material and synthetic resin and a micromechanical retention promoted by resin infiltration in partially demineralized dentin. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for obtaining cross-sectional images that produce high-resolution of the biological tissue at the micron scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gap formation at adhesive/tooth interface of two-step self-etch adhesives that are preceded with or without phosphoric acid pre-etching in different regions of teeth using SS-OCT. Materials and methods: Round tapered cavities (2×2 mm) were prepared in cervical part of bovine incisors teeth and divided into 2 groups (n=10): first group self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) was applied for SE group and second group treated with acid etching before applying the self-etch adhesive for PA group. Subsequently, both groups were restored with Estelite Flow Quick Flowable Composite Resin and observed under OCT. Following 5000 thermal cycles, the same section was obtained again for each cavity using OCT at 1310-nm wavelength. Scanning was repeated after two months to monitor the gap progress. Then the gap length was measured using image analysis software, and the statistics analysis were done between both groups using SPSS software. After that, the cavities were sectioned and observed under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) to confirm the result of OCT. Results: Gaps formed at the bottom of the cavity was longer than the gap formed at the margin and dento-enamel junction in both groups. On the other hand, pre-etching treatment led to damage the DEJ regions creating longer gap. After 2 months the results showed almost progress in the gap length significantly at the bottom regions in both groups. In conclusions, phosphoric acid etching treatment did not reduce the gap lrngth in most regions of the cavity. Significance: The bottom region of tooth was more exposed to gap formation than margin and DEJ regions, The DEJ damaged with phosphoric acid treatment.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, self-etch adhesives, bottom, dento enamel junction

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