Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Maqasid Shariah

58 Shariah Guideline on Value-Based Intermediation Implementation in the Light of Maqasid Shariah Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Izzam Bin Mohd Khazar, Ruqayyah Binti Mohamad Ali, Nurul Atiqah Binti Yusri

Abstract:

Value-based intermediation (VBI) has been introduced by Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) as the next strategic direction and growth driver for Islamic banking institutions. The aim of VBI is to deliver the intended outcome of Shariah through practices, conducts, and offerings that generate positive and sustainable impact to the economy, community and environment which is aligned to Maqasid Shariah in preserving the common interest of society by preventing harm and maximizing benefit. Hence, upon its implementation, VBI will experiment the current Shariah compliance treatment and revolutionise new policies and systems that can meritoriously entrench and convey the objectives of Shariah. However, discussion revolving VBI in the light of Maqasid analysis is still scarce hence further research needs to be undertaken. The idea of implementation of VBI vision into quantifiable Maqasid Shariah measurement is yet to be explored due to the nature of Maqasid that is variable. The contemporary scholars also have different views on the implementation of VBI. This paper aims to discuss on the importance of Maqasid Shariah in the current Islamic finance transactions by providing Shariah index measurement in the application of VBI. This study also intends to explore basic Shariah guidelines and parameters based on the objectives of Shariah; preservation of the five pillars (religion, life, progeny, intellect and wealth) with further elaboration on preservation of wealth under five headings: rawaj (circulation and marketability); wuduh (transparency); hifz (preservation); thabat (durability and tranquillity); and ‘adl (equity and justice). In alignment with these headings, Islamic finance can be innovated for VBI implementation, particularly in Maybank Islamic being a significant leader in the IFI market.

Keywords: Islamic Financial Institutions, Maqasid Index, Maqasid Shariah, sustainability, value-based intermediation

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57 The Effect of Corporate Governance to Islamic Banking Performance Using Maqasid Index Approach in Indonesia

Authors: Audia Syafa'atur Rahman, Rozali Haron

Abstract:

The practices of Islamic banking are more attuned to the goals of profit maximization rather than obtaining ethical profit. Ethical profit is obtained from interest-free earnings and to give an impact which benefits to the growth of society and economy. Good corporate governance practices are needed to assure the sustainability of Islamic banks in order to achieve Maqasid Shariah with the main purpose of boosting the well-being of people. The Maqasid Shariah performance measurement is used to measure the duties and responsibilities expected to be performed by Islamic banks. It covers not only unification dimension like financial measurement, but also many dimensions covered to reflect the main purpose of Islamic banks. The implementation of good corporate governance is essential because it covers the interests of the stakeholders and facilitates effective monitoring to encourage Islamic banks to utilize resources more efficiently in order to achieve the Maqasid Shariah. This study aims to provide the empirical evidence on the Maqasid performance of Islamic banks in relation to the Maqasid performance evaluation model, to examine the influence of SSB characteristics and board structures to Islamic Banks performance as measured by Maqasid performance evaluation model. By employing the simple additive weighting method, Maqasid index for all the Islamic Banks in Indonesia within 2012 to 2016 ranged from above 11% to 28%. The Maqasid Syariah performance index where results reached above 20% are obtained by Islamic Banks such as Bank Muamalat Indonesia, Bank Panin Syariah, and Bank BRI Syariah. The consistent achievement above 23% is achieved by BMI. Other Islamic Banks such as Bank Victoria Syariah, Bank Jabar Banten Syariah, Bank BNI Syariah, Bank Mega Syariah, BCA Syariah, and Maybank Syariah Indonesia shows a fluctuating value of the Maqasid performance index every year. The impact of SSB characteristics and board structures are tested using random-effects generalized least square. The findings indicate that SSB characteristics (Shariah Supervisory Board size, Shariah Supervisory Board cross membership, Shariah Supervisory Board Education, and Shariah Supervisory Board reputation) and board structures (Board size and Board independence) have an essential role in improving the performance of Islamic Banks. The findings denote Shariah Supervisory Board with smaller size, higher portion of Shariah Supervisory Board cross membership; lesser Shariah Supervisory Board holds doctorate degree, lesser reputable scholar, more members on board of directors, and less independence non-executive directors will enhance the performance of Islamic Banks.

Keywords: Maqasid Shariah, corporate governance, Islamic banks, Shariah supervisory board

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56 Sustainable Investing and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Shariah Compliant Companies in Southeast Asia

Authors: Norashikin Ismail, Nadia Anridho

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Sustainable investing is a responsible investment that focuses on Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) elements. ESG integration is essential in the investment process as it provides a positive contribution to the corporate performance for stakeholders, specifically investors. Sustainable investing is in line with the objectives of Shariah (Maqasid of Shariah), such as social inclusion as well as environmental preservation. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of ESG elements to the corporate financial performance among Shariah compliant stocks listed in two countries, namely Malaysia and Indonesia. The motivation of this study is to provide a further understanding in corporate sustainability for two different Islamic capital markets. The existence of the FTSE4Good Asean Index has played a vital role for ESG practices and eventually encouraged specific index for ESG and Shariah Compliant stocks. Our sample consists of 60 companies over the period 2010-2020 from two Southeast countries. We employ System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to reduce bias and more specific parameter estimation. Shariah Compliant companies tend to have higher ESG scores and are positively correlated to corporate financial performance. ESG integration with Shariah based investing would provide higher returns and lower risks for Muslim investors. Essentially, integrating ESG and Shariah, compliant companies lead to better financial performance.

Keywords: shariah compliant, southeast asia, corporate performance, sustainable investing

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55 An Empirical Study of Shariah Legitimacy of Islamic Banking Operations in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Khaleequzzaman, Muhammad Mansoori, Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

The legitimacy of Islamic banking refers to the compliance with the precepts of Shariah (Islamic law) of the pronouncements and their implementation, requisites of various contracts, as well as, observance of the welfare objectives. Therefore, the Islamic banks are supposed to follow the Islamic values focused to bring benefit to the society alongside the commercial motive. These distinguishing features establish identity of the Islamic banks separate from their conventional counterparts and require pursuing normative values of Islamic injunctions instead of profit maximization merely through commercial motive. Given this, the efficiency of the Islamic banks should be evaluated against the value judgements prescribed by the Islamic economic philosophy and their role in establishing the just economy. Nevertheless, the empirical evidence on such value-oriented role of Islamic banking is limited that is filled by this research. The primary focus of the research is two folds; developing a theoretical framework that affords a holistic approach of Shariah legitimacy of Islamic banking practices, including welfare pursuits in addition to the usual compliance mechanism, to help evaluating legitimacy of Islamic banking practices in Pakistan. Therefore, the research has been commissioned by developing the constructs of Shariah legitimacy through extensive review of the relevant literature. At the same time, the empirical analysis based on the opinion of 836 customers of Islamic and conventional banks in all the four provinces and the capital city of Pakistan has produced important conclusions regarding their perception about legitimacy of the Islamic banking practices. The results have helped to know as to how the legitimacy through Shariah perspective is viewed by them. The data analysis using various statistical techniques has yielded results consistent with the objectives of the study. The key findings of the theoretical framework conclude that the value judgements have been grossly ignored by the Islamic banks. The empirical research achieves that about half of the customers perceived Islamic banking as Shariah legitimate. On overall basis, the other half viewed contrary to this or preferred to remain indifferent. There is a need that Islamic banks should look into the desired goals of Shariah legitimacy in both contexts; the value judgement and the perception of the customers.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shariah legitimacy, Maqasid al Shariah (higher purposes of the lawgiver), value judgment, distributive justice

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54 Testing the Capital Structure Behavior of Malaysian Firms: Shariah vs. Non-Shariah Compliant

Authors: Asyraf Abdul Halim, Mohd Edil Abd Sukor, Obiyathulla Ismath Bacha

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This paper attempts to investigate the capital structure behavior of Shariah compliant firms of various levels as well those firms who are consistently Shariah non-compliant in Malaysia. The paper utilizes a unique dataset of firms of the heterogeneous level of Shariah-compliancy status over a 20 year period from the year 1997 to 2016. The paper focuses on the effects of dynamic forces behind capital structure variation such as the optimal capital structure behavior based on the trade-off, pecking order, market timing and firmly fixed effect models of capital structure. This study documents significant evidence in support of the trade-off theory with a high speed of adjustment (SOA) as well as for the time-invariant firm fixed effects across all Shariah compliance group.

Keywords: capital structure, market timing, trade-off theory, equity risk premium, Shariah-compliant firms

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53 Informational Efficiency and Integration: Evidence from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Shariah Equity Market

Authors: Sania Ashraf

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The paper focuses on the prevalence of informational efficiency and integration of GCC Shariah Equity market for the period of 01st January 2010 to 31st June 2015 with daily equity returns of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The study employs traditional as well as the modern approach of tracing out the efficiency and integration in the return series. From the results of efficiency it was observed that the market lacked efficiency in terms of its past information. The results of integration test clearly indicates that there was a long memory in the returns of GCC Shariah during the study period. Hence it was concluded and proved that the returns of all GCC Equity Shariah were not informationally efficient but fractionally integrated during the study period.

Keywords: efficiency, Fama, GCC shariah, hurst exponent, integration, serial correlation

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52 Beneficial Ownership in Islamic Finance: The Need for Shari'ah Parameters

Authors: Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani, Mat Noor Mat Zain, Ahmad Dahlan Salleh

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Ownership of asset is an important aspect in ensuring the validity of sale contract. Nevertheless, in Islamic finance, the issue of beneficial ownership as practiced in the current system is seriously debated among Shariah scholars. It has been argued as violating the real concept of ownership (milkiyyah) in Shariah law. This article aims at studying the status of beneficial ownership from the Shariah perspective. This study begins with examining the meaning of ownership and its attributes from the Islamic point of view and followed by the discussion on the origin of beneficial ownership from the legal perspective. The approach that is applied to clarify the concept of beneficial ownership is content analysis. Subsequently, this study explains some current applications of beneficial ownership in Islamic finance to be analyzed further from the Shariah aspect. The research finding suggests that beneficial ownership should be recognized as a real ownership due to the fact that Shariah allows the transfer of ownership after the execution of offer (ijab) and acceptance (qabul).

Keywords: beneficial ownership, ownership, Islamic finance, parameter

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51 Implementation of Maqasid Syari'ah in the Concept of Reforming the Indonesian Marriage Law Based on Gender Equality: Study of the Counter Legal Draft Compilation of Islamic Law

Authors: Nirmalasanti Pramesi

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In 2004 the CLD KHI Team offered several new ideas in the field of Islamic family law, such as marriage, inheritance (waris), and waqf. The new idea is based on six main principles; pluralism, nationality, human rights, democracy, maslahah, and gender equality. However, the existence of this has actually caused various criticisms, appreciations, and controversies. For this reason, CLD-KHI, as the idea of reforming family law, especially in the field of marriage, really needs to be studied academically with a comprehensive method as an unfinished problem. The main issues examined in this study are what are the ideas for reforming the law of marriage that have been formulated by the CLD KHI team, as well as how to implement Maqasid Sharia in legal reform. The methodology used in this research is a qualitative method with a normative-empirical-sociological approach. The results of this research show every substance of the idea considers aspects of locality, nationality, and global ethics. The Maqasid approach used in most of the legal provisions is moderate (wasati). Meanwhile, in matters of wali niqah and inheritance, it is adjusted to the context of Indonesian society.

Keywords: Maqasid syari'ah, CLD KHI, marriage law reform, moderate

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50 Need for Shariah Screening of Companies in Nigeria: Lessons from Other Jurisdictions

Authors: Aishat Abdul-Qadir Zubair

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Background: The absence of Shari’ah screening methodology for companies in Nigeria has further engineered the uncertainty surrounding the acceptability of investing in certain companies by people professing the religion of Islam due to the nature of the activities carried out by these companies. There are some existing shariah screening indices in other jurisdictions whose criteria can be used to check if a company or business is shariah-compliant or not. Examples such as FTSE, DJIM, Standard and Poor to mention just a few. What these indices have tried to do is to ensure that there are benchmarks to check with before investing in companies that carry out mixed activities in their business, wherein some are halal and others may be haram. Purpose: There have been numerous studies on the need to adopt certain screening methodologies as well as call for new methods in screening companies for shariah compliance in order to suit the investments needs of Muslims in other jurisdictions. It is, however, unclear how suitable these methodologies will be to Nigeria. This paper, therefore, seeks to address this gap to consider an appropriate screening methodology to be employed in Nigeria, drawing from the experience of other jurisdictions. Methods: This study employs a triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria. The qualitative method is used by way of ijtihad, and this study tries to apply some Islamic Principles of Maqasid al-shari’ah as well as Qawaid al-Fiqiyyah to analyze activities of companies in order to ensure that they are indeed Shari’ah compliant. In addition, using the quantitative data gathered from the interview survey, the perspective of the investors with regards to the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria is further analyzed. Results: The result of the study shows that there is a lack of awareness from the teeming Muslim population in Nigeria on the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria. The result further shows that there is the need to take into cognizance the peculiar nature of company activities in Nigeria before any particular Shari’ah screening methodology is adopted and setting the necessary benchmarks. Conclusion and Implications: The study concludes that there is the need to ensure that the conscious Muslims in Nigeria screen companies for Shari’ah compliance so that they can easily identify the companies to invest in. The paper, therefore, recommends that the Nigerian government need to come up with a screening methodology that will suit the peculiar nature of companies in Nigeria. The study thus has a direct implication on the Investment regulatory bodies in Nigeria such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) as well as the investor Muslims.

Keywords: Shari'ah screening, Muslims, investors, companies

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49 A Study of Islamic Stock Indices and Macroeconomic Variables

Authors: Mohammad Irfan

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among the key macroeconomic variables and Islamic stock market in India. This study is based on the time series data of financial years 2009-2015 to explore the consistency of relationship between macroeconomic variables and Shariah Indices. The ADF (Augmented Dickey–Fuller Test Statistic) and PP (Phillips–Perron Test Statistic) tests are employed to check stationarity of the data. The study depicts the long run relationship between Shariah indices and macroeconomic variables by using the Johansen Co-integration test. BSE Shariah and Nifty Shariah have uni-direct Granger causality. The outcome of VECM is significantly confirming the applicability of best fitted model. Thus, Islamic stock indices are proficiently working for the development of Indian economy. It suggests that by keeping eyes on Islamic stock market which will be more interactive in the future with other macroeconomic variables.

Keywords: Indian Shariah Indices, macroeconomic variables, co-integration, Granger causality, vector error correction model (VECM)

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48 Implementation of Maqasid Sharia in Islamic Financial Institution in Indonesia

Authors: Deden Misbahudin Muayyad, Lavlimatria Esya

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Up to the month of June 2015, Indonesia has 12 Islamic Commercial Banks, 22 Islamic Business Unit, 327 offices in 33 provinces. The initial purpose of the establishment of Islamic financial institutions is to achieve and the welfare of the people in this world and in the hereafter. To realize these goals, the Islamic financial institutions in every kind of aspect of product development and in terms of operations should be based on maqashid sharia, namely keeping the faith, keep the soul, keep the sense, maintain the property, keeping the offspring. To see whether Islamic banking grounded in maqasid sharia, the Islamic banking performance measurements based on the principles of maqasid sharia. Banking performance measurement is not only focusing on profit and other financial measures, but put other values of banks reflects the size of the benefit of non-profit in accordance with the bank's objectives. The measurement using the measurement of financial performance called maqasid sharia index. Maqasid syariah index is a model of Islamic banking performance measurement in accordance with the objectives and characteristics of Islamic banking. Maqasid syariah index was developed based on three main factors, namely the education of individuals, the creation of justice, the achievement of well-being, where the three factors were in accordance with the common goal of maqasid sharia is achieving prosperity and avoid evil. Maqasid syariah index shows that maqasid sharia approach can be a strategic alternative approach to describe how good the performance of the banking system and it can be implemented in the comprehensive policy strategy. This study uses a model of performance measurement framework based on maqasid syariah, in addition to financial performance measures that already exist. Methods to develop the idea of a performance measurement framework of Islamic banking by maqasid sharia is the Sekaran method. Operationally, the methods have now able to describe the elements that will be measured by this study. This is done by observing the behavior of the dimensions illustrated through a concept that has been set. These dimensions translate into derivative elements that can be observed and more scalable, so it can establish measurement indices. This research is descriptive quantitative. Techniques are being made to collect data in this paper is by using purposive sampling method, with 12 Islamic Commercial Banks that qualify as research samples. The financial data taken at 12 banks was sourced from the annual financial statements the period 2008 to 2012 with consideration of the database and ease of access to data. The ratio measured in this study only 7 ratio used in determining the performance of Islamic banking, namely: four ratio refers to the sharia objectives related to education. three ratio while again referring to sharia objectives related to the achievement of welfare. While other ratios associated with justice can not be used in this study because of the limited data used. Total overall calculation of performance indicators and performance ratios on each goal for each bank describes the maqasid syariah index.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Maslahah, maqashid syariah, maqashid syariah index

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47 Challenging Shariah-Compliant Contract: A Latest Insight into the Malaysian Court Cases

Authors: Noor Suhaida Kasri

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In the last three decades, Malaysia has developed fundamental legal and regulatory structures that aim to accommodate and facilitate the growth of Islamic banking and finance industry. Important building blocks have been put in place, to cite a few, the elevation of the position of the Malaysian Central Bank Shariah Advisory Council (SAC) as the apex advisory body and the empowerment of their Shariah resolutions through the Central Bank Act 1958; the promulgation of the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 that regulate and govern Islamic finance market with a robust statutory requirement of Shariah governance and Shariah compliance. Notwithstanding these achievements, enforceability of Shariah-compliant contract remains a contentious subject. The validity of Al Bai Bithaman Ajil concept that was commonly used by the Islamic financial institutions in their financing facilities structures and documentation has been unabatedly challenged by the customers in courts. The challenge was due to the manner in which the Al Bai Bithaman Ajil transactions were carried out. Due to this legal challenge, Al Bai Bithaman Ajil financing structure seems to no longer be the practitioners’ favourite in Malaysia, though its substitute tawarruq and commodity murabahah financing structure may potentially face similar legal challenges. This paper examines the legal challenges affecting the enforceability of these underlying Shariah contracts. The examination of these cases highlights the manner in which these contracts were being implemented and applied by the Malaysian Islamic financial institutions that triggered Shariah and legal concern. The analysis also highlights the approach adopted by the Malaysian courts in determining the Shariah issues as well as the SAC in ascertaining the rulings on the Shariah issues referred to it by the courts. The paper adopts a qualitative research methodology by using textual and documentary analysis approach. The outcome of this study underlines factors that require consideration by industry stakeholder in order to ameliorate the efficacy of the existing building blocks that would eventually strengthens the validity and enforceability of Shariah-compliant contracts. This, in the long run, will further reinforce financial stability and trust into the Islamic banking and finance industry in Malaysia.

Keywords: enforceability of Shariah compliant contract, legal challenge, legal and regulatory framework, Shariah Advisory Council

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46 Islamic Banking Recovery Process and Its Parameters: A Practitioner’s Viewpoints in the Light of Humanising Financial Services

Authors: Muhammad Izzam Bin Mohd Khazar, Nur Adibah Binti Zainudin

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Islamic banking as one of the financial institutions is highly required to maintain a prudent approach to ensure that any financing given is able to generate income to their respective shareholders. As the default payment of customers is probably occurred in the financing, having a prudent approach in the recovery process is a must to ensure that financing losses are within acceptable limits. The objective of this research is to provide the best practice of recovery which is anticipated to benefit both bank and customers. This study will address arising issue on the current practice of recovery process and followed by providing humanising recovery solutions in the light of the Maqasid Shariah. The study identified main issues pertaining to Islamic recovery process which can be categorized into knowledge crisis, process issues, specific treatment cases and system issues. Knowledge crisis is related to direct parties including judges, solicitors and salesperson, while the recovery process issues include the process of issuance of reminder, foreclosure and repossession of asset. Furthermore, special treatment for particular cases also should be observed since different contracts in Islamic banking products will need different treatment. Finally, issues in the system used in the recovery process are still unresolved since the existing technology is still young in this area to embraced Islamic finance requirements and nature of calculation. In order to humanize the financial services in Islamic banking recovery process, we have highlighted four main recommendation to be implemented by Islamic Financial Institutions namely; 1) early deterrent by improving the awareness, 2) improvement of the internal process, 3) reward mechanism, and 4) creative penalty to provide awareness to all stakeholders.

Keywords: humanizing financial services, Islamic Finance, Maqasid Syariah, recovery process

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45 Sukuk Issuance and Its Regulatory Framework in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali Alshamrani

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This article aims to give a comprehensive and critical review of sukuk issuance in Saudi Arabia, and the extent to which the issuance of sukuk in Saudi Arabia is consistent with Shariah requirements. The article is divided into two sections. Accordingly, the first section of this article begins with an examination of sukuk in general, and includes the concept of sukuk, the basic principles of sukuk, common types of sukuk, and a critical analysis of the most important differences between sukuk and conventional bonds. The second section gives a critical analysis of how sukuk work in Saudi Arabia, offering the regulatory framework of the issuance of sukuk in the KSA, and the legal challenges from Shariah point of view, and provide recommendations to overcome these challenges.

Keywords: sukuk issuance, Shariah, Saudi Arabia, capital market authority

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44 Identifying the Determinants of the Shariah Non-Compliance Risk via Principal Axis Factoring

Authors: Muhammad Arzim Naim, Saiful Azhar Rosly, Mohamad Sahari Nordin

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The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the rise of Shariah non-compliance risk that can bring Islamic banks to succumb to monetary loss. Prior literatures have never analyzed such risk in details despite lots of it arguing on the validity of some Shariah compliance products. The Shariah non-compliance risk in this context is looking to the potentially failure of the facility to stand from the court test say that if the banks bring it to the court for compensation from the defaulted clients. The risk may also arise if the customers refuse to make the financing payments on the grounds of the validity of the contracts, for example, when relinquishing critical requirement of Islamic contract such as ownership, the risk that may lead the banks to suffer loss when the customer invalidate the contract through the court. The impact of Shariah non-compliance risk to Islamic banks is similar to that of legal risks faced by the conventional banks. Both resulted into monetary losses to the banks respectively. In conventional banking environment, losses can be in the forms of summons paid to the customers if they won the case. In banking environment, this normally can be in very huge amount. However, it is right to mention that for Islamic banks, the subsequent impact to them can be rigorously big because it will affect their reputation. If the customers do not perceive them to be Shariah compliant, they will take their money and bank it in other places. This paper provides new insights of risks faced by credit intensive Islamic banks by providing a new extension of knowledge with regards to the Shariah non-compliance risk by identifying its individual components that directly affecting the risk together with empirical evidences. Not limited to the Islamic banking fraternities, the regulators and policy makers should be able to use findings in this paper to evaluate the components of the Shariah non-compliance risk and make the necessary actions. The paper is written based on Malaysia’s Islamic banking practices which may not directly related to other jurisdictions. Even though the focuses of this study is directly towards to the Bay Bithaman Ajil or popularly known as BBA (i.e. sale with deferred payments) financing modality, the result from this study may be applicable to other Islamic financing vehicles.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Shariah Non-compliance risk, Bay Bithaman Ajil (BBA), principal axis factoring

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43 Musharakah Mutanaqisah Partnership as a Tool for House Financing, Its Sustainability and Issues

Authors: Imran Mehboob Shaikh, Kamaruzaman Noordin

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Musharakah Mutanaqisah or Diminishing Partnership is a derivative of Musharakah contract, which is used by Islamic banks for housing finance facility. Most of the banks offer housing finance based on the concept of Musharakah Mutanaqisah, apart from few which still offer housing finance using BBA, Tawarruq (commodity Murabahah) and Istisna. This research attempts to compare the practice of DP housing finance offered in Malaysia. This paper will further look into challenges in Musharakah Mutanaqisah practice and its sustainability as a mortgage product. In practice there are certain issues related to Musharakah Mutanaqisah also known as Musharakah al Muntaiah bi tamlik, widely accepted and mostly used for housing finance by the Islamic banks. In Malaysia, it is in transforming stage from Bay bithamman Ajil, which is mostly used for housing finance in ASEAN region i.e., Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. In order to conduct this study, a discussion was carried out with few researchers who had worked on the topic previously and some Islamic bank officers attached to a full-fledged Islamic bank in Malaysia. Apart from that previous literature on Musharakah Mutanaqisah was also reviewed and various books, as well as online data, was considered for this study, and websites of different Islamic banks with information for Diminishing partnership, home financing were retrieved. This paper will highlight issues surrounding Diminishing Partnership contract and its conformity to Maqasid al Shariah (objectives of Shariah). Diminishing Partnership is widely accepted in different parts of the world and is mostly used for housing finance. The future prospect of DP is believed to be affirmative. As the product is a better substitute for BBA and most of the Islamic banks around the world have utilized their housing portfolio using the contract but at the same time, there are certain issues that need to be overcome. Even though Islamic banks are striving to sustain and compete the conventional banks but securing the customers from Gharar and other issues should be the primary objective of Islamic financial institutions.

Keywords: BBA, home financing, musharakah mutanaqisah, tawarruq

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42 Decomposition of Funds Transfer Pricing Components in Islamic Bank: The Exposure Effect of Shariah Non-Compliant Event Rectification Process

Authors: Azrul Azlan Iskandar Mirza

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The purpose of Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) for Islamic Bank is to promote prudent liquidity risk-taking behavior of business units. The acquirer of stable deposits will be rewarded whilst a business unit that generates long-term assets will be charged for added liquidity funding risks. In the end, it promotes risk-adjusted pricing by incorporating profit rate risk and liquidity risk component in the product pricing. However, in the event of Shariah non-compliant (SNCE), FTP components will be examined in the rectification plan especially when Islamic banks need to purify the non-compliance income. The finding shows that the determination between actual and provision cost will defer the decision among Shariah committee in Islamic banks. This paper will review each of FTP components to ensure the classification of actual and provision costs reflect the decision on rectification process on SNCE. This will benefit future decision and its consistency of Islamic banks.

Keywords: fund transfer pricing, Islamic banking, Islamic finance, shariah non-compliant event

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41 Shariah Compliance Space Planning for Hotel Room Design

Authors: Syaza Bt. Saifuddin, Rashidi Bin Othman, Muhammad Hafizuddin Akmal Bin Md Hashim, Ismail Bin Jasmani, Noor Hanita Bt. Abdul Majid

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This paper illustrates the background of various concepts, approaches, terminologies used to describe the basic framework of an Islamic Hotel Room design. This paper reviews the theoretical views in establishing a suitable and optimum environment for Muslim as well as non-Muslim guests in hotel rooms while according to shariah. It involves a few research methodologies that requires the researcher to study on a few characteristics needed to create more efficient rooms in terms of social interaction, economic growth and other tolerable elements. This paper intends on revealing the elements that are vital and may contribute for hotels in achieving a more conclusive research on space planning for hotel rooms focusing on the shariah and Muslim guests. Malaysia is an Islamic country and has billion of tourists coming over for business and recreational purposes. Therefore, having a righteous environment that best suit this target user is important in terms of generating the economy as well as providing a better understanding to the community on the benefits of applying these qualities in a conventional resort design.

Keywords: design, Islam, room, shariah compliant hotel

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40 Human Rights in Islam: A Critique on Critiques

Authors: Miftahuddin Khilji

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The concept of human right is not alien to Islam. The Shari‘ah requires all its followers the sense of responsibility to perform their duties first and then claim their rights. This eventually guarantees the protection of human rights and ensures a peaceful society. The ultimate goal of Shari‘ah is to preserve five basic necessities which are also known as Maqasid ul Shari‘ah or Objectives of Islamic Law. This goal ensures for the members of society their rights without harming public welfare. Despite of the fact that human rights have been fully guaranteed by Islam and their compliance is required by Allah Almighty; not by any legislative body or other sovereign such as kings etc. However, many western writers, organizations and so called liberal thinkers try to create concerns, doubts and misconceptions in minds of the society members. A number of issues are pointed out and people are misguided about the concept of human rights in Islam. This paper aims to discuss main the concept of human rights in the light of perfect and balanced system of laws and principles of Shari‘ah and address those misconceptions and doubts by analyzing them and answering to questions raised about the subject. It would be an effort to prove that human rights are much more significant to Shari‘ah more than any other national or international legislative body.

Keywords: human rights, Islamic law, law, Shariah

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39 The Position of Islamic Jurisprudence in UAE Private Law: Analytical Study

Authors: Iyad Jadalhaq, Mohammed El Hadi El Maknouzi

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The place of Islamic law in the legal system of the UAE is best understood by introducing a differentiation between its role as a formal source of law and its influence as a material source of law. What this differentiation helps clarify is that the corpus of Islamic law constitutes a much deeper influence on adjudication, law-making and the legal profession in the UAE, than it might appear at first sight, by considering its formal position in the division of labor between courts, or legislative lists of sources of law. This paper aims to examine the role of Shariah in the UAE private law system by determining the comprehensiveness of Sharia in the legal system as a whole, and not in a limited way related to it as a source of law according to Article 1 of the Civil Transactions Law. Turning to the role of the Shariah as a formal source of law, it is useful to start from Article 1 of the UAE Civil Code. This provision lays out the formal hierarchy of sources of UAE private law, these being legislation, Islamic law, and custom. Hence, when deciding a civil dispute, a judge should first refer to positive legislation in force in the UAE. Lacking the rule to cover the case before him/her, the judge ought then to refer directly to Islamic law. If the matter lacks regulation in Islamic law, only then may the judge appeal to custom. Accordingly, in connection to civil transactions, Shariah is presented here, formally, as the second source of law. Still, Shariah law addresses many other issues beyond civil transactions, including matters of morals, worship, and belief. However, in Article 1 of the UAE Civil Code, the reference to Islamic law ought to be understood as limited to the rules it lays out for civil transactions. There are four main sets of courts in the judicial systems of the UAE, whose competence is based on whether a dispute touches upon civil and commercial transactions, criminal offenses, personal statuses, or labor relations. This sectorial and multi-tiered organization of courts as a whole constitutes an institutional development compatible with the long-standing affirmation in the Shariah of the legitimacy of the judiciary. Indeed, Islamic law authorizes the governing authorities to organize the judiciary, including by allocating specific types of cases to particular kinds of judges depending on the value of the case, or by assigning judges to a specific place in which they are to exercise their jurisdictional function. In view of this, the contemporary organization of courts in the UAE can be regarded as an organic adaptation, aligned with Shariah rules on the assignment of jurisdictional authority, to the growing complexity of modern society. Therefore, we can conclude to the comprehensive role of Shariah in the entire legal system of the United Arab Emirates, including legislation, a judicial system, institutional, and administrative work.

Keywords: Islamic jurisprudence, Shariah, UAE civil code, UAE private law

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38 A Multi-Agent Smart E-Market Design at Work for Shariah Compliant Islamic Banking

Authors: Wafa Ghonaim

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Though quite fast on growth, Islamic financing at large, and its diverse instruments, is a controversial matter among scholars. This is evident from the ongoing debates on its Shariah compliance. Arguments, however, are inciting doubts and concerns among clients about its credibility, which is harming this lucrative sector. The work here investigates, particularly, some issues related to the Tawarruq instrument. The work examines the issues of linking Murabaha and Wakala contracts, the reselling of commodities to same traders, and the transfer of ownerships. The work affirms that a multi-agent smart electronic market design would facilitate Shariah compliance. The smart market exploits the rational decision-making capabilities of autonomous proxy agents that enable the clients, traders, brokers, and the bank buy and sell commodities, and manage transactions and cash flow. The smart electronic market design delivers desirable qualities that terminate the need for Wakala contracts and the reselling of commodities to the same traders. It also resolves the ownership transfer issues by allowing stakeholders to trade independently. The bank administers the smart electronic market and assures reliability of trades, transactions and cash flow. A multi-agent simulation is presented to validate the concept and processes. We anticipate that the multi-agent smart electronic market design would deliver Shariah compliance of personal financing to the aspiration of scholars, banks, traders and potential clients.

Keywords: Islamic finance, share'ah compliance, smart electronic markets design, multiagent systems

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37 Contemporary Visual Art and Shariah: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Ishak Ramli, Mohamad Noorman Masrek, Muhamad Abdul Aziz Ab Gani

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Islam places restrictions and limitation to the creation and ownership of visual art. Not all forms of visual arts are permissible in Islam. However, guidance on the creation and ownership of visual arts is not made plain and clear not only to the Islamic followers but also to the art community. Given this gap, this study attempts to develop a conceptual framework that will guide artist and art collectors on what constitute to valid and acceptable through the Islamic perspective. Based on this framework, several research checklist are proposed. It is highly useful especially for the researchers who are interested to study the topic. Qualitative research is the best choice to test run the paper work to attempt all the checklist which are formed.

Keywords: contemporary visual art, Shariah, conceptual framework, Islam

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36 The Development of Shariah-Based Cooperative and Its Governance System: Cases in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia

Authors: Zurina Shafii, Mohamed Obaidullah, Rochania Ayu Yunanda, Nor Farha Zubair

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Cooperative members (also known as user-owners) are responsible in running the cooperative businesses in order to improve their socio economic well-being. Cooperatives have always been recognized as a vehicle to elevate the standard of living of the poor and low-income earners by improving their ability to mobilize resources among the people within the urban and rural sectors of the population. To improve its performance and role, the cooperative should ensure the existence of its specific governance. Using narrative analysis and quasi-statistics, this paper describes the state of operation, growth and nature of products and services offered in Sakofah Savings Co-op (the largest Islamic cooperative in Krabi), Koperasi Muslimin Malaysia Berhad (KMMB) in Malaysia and KOSPIN Jasa Keuangan in Indonesia. Furthermore, it identifies and evaluates the current governance system in each cooperatives and proposes governance framework which may enhance the performance of the cooperatives. The paper, in turn discusses the challenges to cooperative growth and investment from the aspects of governance and monitoring, transparency and human capital. The paper will be useful for regulators and governance organs of cooperatives, namely Board of Members, Management and Shariah Committee in order for these parties to strengthen the governance within cooperatives to further grow this economic sector.

Keywords: Islamic cooperatives, governance, Shariah governance, case study

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35 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

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Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: financial inclusion, intellectual capital, Qard-al-Hassanah, Islamic banking

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34 Incorporation of Hibah as a Catalyst for Channelling Profits and Compensations in Islamic Transactions

Authors: Ameen Alshugaa, Farrukh Habib

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Shariah (the Islamic law) sanctions a plethora of profit-sharing arrangements for financial transactions. However, when it comes to the practice of Islamic banking, it is felt by the scholars and practitioners that many of these arrangements often fail to compensate different parties of a financial transaction compared to conventional banking, due to the Riba (interest / usury) element. This issue is caused by the parties inability to codify these compensations in any contract so as to avoid Riba. Here, hibah (gift) may be regarded as one of the solutions. In essence, hibah is a unilateral charity contract where a party voluntarily gives away something to another party without any counter value. This paper attempts to analyse theoretical and practical aspects of hibah from the perspective of Islamic law, enunciating its legality and detailing its allowance in Islamic banking. It also discusses several practices evaluating the role of hibah in resolving issues related to Riba. In particular, these practices demonstrate the validity of hibah as a way to distribute revenues and compensate parties in Islamic financial transactions, while achieving competitive advantage over conventional banking, and avoiding the element of Riba.

Keywords: hibah (gift), Islamic Finance, Islamic Law of Contract, profit distribution, Shariah

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33 Dilution Effect in Islamic Finance: The Case of Convertible Sukuk

Authors: Mahfoud Djebbar

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Stock dilution is a financial phenomenon resulting from the issue of additional shares by a company, or when holders convert their convertibles into new shares (capital increase). This issue and/or conversion enlarge the company’s share base that will result in marginal dilution (loss) for existing shareholders, and a benefit to new ones. Dilution issues have already been addressed in mainstream finance, particularly as far as information disclosure is concerned. However, in Islamic finance, stock dilution problems have not been deeply studied and the subject has not received sufficient attention from shariah-compatible firms, investors, and scholars. In this regard, this paper emphasises the forms, the effects of capital dilution on current shareholders as well as the ways and techniques of compensating them. And since the research in this field, in its Islamic perspective, is still in its infancy, the paper tries to analyse the phenomenon theoretically in detail using numerical examples, and expose some case studies of Shariah-compliant issuers of convertible Sukuk and how they compensate their existing shareholders. Finally, this study shows that the Sukuk issuers compensate old shareholders using the right of shuf’ah as a well known and practiced pre-emptive right in Islamic transactions centuries ago, as well as the ways conventional bond issuers use.

Keywords: compensating shareholders, convertible Sukuk, Islamic financial innovation, Shuf’ah

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32 Comparing the Theory to the Practice of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Zareen Khan

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Islamic Banking has experienced high growth in Pakistan in recent years and has successfully survived the economic downturn of 2009-2011. Despite the increase in branch network and expansion of services, it is unclear if Islamic banks are truly following the theory and practical application of Shariah Law. This paper explores the theological basis of Islamic finance and examines the discrepancies between the theory and practice of Islamic banking using Pakistan as a case study. It discusses areas where Islamic banks lack proper Shariah compliance and analyzes the financial weaknesses of Islamic banks in terms of the services offered. Furthermore, the paper offers plausible explanations for the clientele of Islamic banks. The case study has three major findings. Firstly, most of the employees of Islamic banks come from conventional banking backgrounds and the banks have to invest in additional trainings to specialize employees in Islamic Banking. Secondly despite the efforts of State Bank of Pakistan, there is a lack of accounting and auditing standards tailored for Islamic Banking. Thirdly, majority of the clients of Islamic banks in Pakistan are accustomed to conventional banking causing the bankers to “speak the conventional banking language.” Combined, these three factors can create gaps in the practical application of Islamic finance in Islamic banks in Pakistan.

Keywords: islamic finance, comparing theory with practice, islamic banking, Pakistan

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31 Risk Management in Islamic Micro Finance Credit System for Poverty Alleviation from Qualitative Perspective

Authors: Liyu Adhi Kasari Sulung

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Poverty has been a major problem in Indonesia. Islamic micro finance (IMF) named Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil (Bmt) plays a prominent role to eradicate this. Indonesia as the biggest muslim country has many successful applied products such as worldwide adopt group-based lending approach, flexible financing for farmers, and gold pawning. The Problems related to these models are operation risk management and internal control system (ICS). A proper ICS will help an organization in preventing the occurrence of bad financing through detecting error and irregularities in its operation. This study aims to seek a proper risk management scheme of credit system in Bmt and internal control system’s rank for every stage. Risk management variables are obtained at the first In-Depth Interview (IDI) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with Shariah supervisory boards, boards of directors, and operational managers. Survey was conducted covering nationwide data; West Java, South Sulawesi, and West Nusa Tenggara. Moreover, Content analysis is employed to build the relationship among these variables. Research Findings shows that risk management Characteristics in Indonesia involves ex ante, credit process, and ex post strategies to deal with risk in credit system. Ex-ante control consists of Shariah compliance, survey, group leader reference, and islamic forming orientation. Then, credit process involves saving, collateral, joint liability, loan repayment, and credit installment controlling. Finally, ex-post control includes shariah evaluation, credit evaluation, grace period and low installment provisions. In addition, internal control order sort three stages by its priority; Credit process as first rank, then ex-post control as second, and ex ante control as the last rank.

Keywords: internal control system, islamic micro finance, poverty, risk management

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30 Islamic Credit Risk Management in Murabahah Financing: The Study of Islamic Banking in Malaysia

Authors: Siti Nor Amira Bt. Mohamad, Mohamad Yazis B. Ali Basah, Muhammad Ridhwan B. Ab. Aziz, Khairil Faizal B. Khairi, Mazlynda Bt. Md. Yusuf, Hisham B. Sabri

Abstract:

The understanding of risk and the concept of it occurs associated in Islamic financing was well-known in the financial industry by the using of Profit-and-Loss Sharing (PLS). It was presently in any Islamic financial transactions in order to comply with shariah rules. However, the existence of risk in Murabahah contract of financing is an ability that the counterparty is unable to complete its obligations within the agreed terms. Therefore, it is called as credit or default risk. Credit risk occurs when the client fails to make timely payment after the bank makes complete delivery of assets. Thus, it affects the growth of the bank as the banking business is in no position to have appropriate measures to cover the risk. Therefore, the bank may impose penalty on the outstanding balance. This paper aims to highlight the credit risk determinant and issues surrounding in Islamic bank in Malaysia in terms of Murabahah financing and how to manage it by using the proper techniques. Finally, it explores the credit risk management concept that might solve the problems arise. The study found that the credit risk can be managed properly by improving the use of comprehensive reference checklist of business partners on their character and past performance as well as their comprehensive database. Besides that, prevention of credit risk can be done by using collateral as security against the risk and we also argue on the Shariah guidelines and procedures should be implement coherently by the banking business because so that the risk would be control by having an effective instrument for Islamic modes of financing.

Keywords: Islamic banking, credit risk, Murabahah financing, risk mitigation

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29 Alternative Islamic Finance Channels and Instruments: An Evaluation of the Potential and Considerations in Light of Sharia Principles

Authors: Tanvir A. Uddin, Blake Goud

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Emerging trends in FinTech-enabled alternative finance, which includes channels and instruments emerging outside the traditional financial system, heralds unprecedented opportunities to improve financial intermediation and increase access to finance. With widespread criticism of the mainstream Islamic banking and finance sector as either mimicking the conventional system, failing to achieve inclusive growth or both, industry stakeholders are turning to technology to show that finance can be done differently. This paper will outline the critical elements for successful deployment of technology to maximize benefit and minimize potential for harm from introduction of Islamic FinTech and propose recommendations for Islamic financial institutions, FinTech companies, regulators and other stakeholders who are integrating or who are considering introducing FinTech solutions. The paper will present an overview of literature, present relevant case studies and summarize the lessons from interviews conducted with Islamic FinTech founders from around the world. With growing central bank concerns about leveraged loans and ballooning private credit markets globally (estimated at $1.4 trillion), current and future Islamic FinTech operators are at risk of contributing to the problems they aim to solve by operating in a 'shadow banking' system. The paper will show that by systematising a robust theory of change linked to positive outcomes, utilising objective impact frameworks (e.g., the Impact Measurement Project) and instilling a risk management culture that is proactive about potential social harm (e.g., irresponsible lending), FinTech can enable the Islamic finance industry to support positive social impact and minimize harm in support of the maqasid. The adoption of FinTech within the Islamic finance context is still at a nascent stage and the recommendations we provide based on the limited experience to date will help address some of the major cross-cutting issues related to FinTech. Further research will be needed to elucidate in more detail issues relating to individual sectors and countries within the broader global Islamic finance industry.

Keywords: alternative finance, FinTech, Islamic finance, maqasid, theory of change

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