Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Mantas Sakalas

4 A 1.8 GHz to 43 GHz Low Noise Amplifier with 4 dB Noise Figure in 0.1 µm Galium Arsenide Technology

Authors: Mantas Sakalas, Paulius Sakalas


This paper presents an analysis and design of a ultrawideband 1.8GHz to 43GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) in 0.1 μm Galium Arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (pHEMT) technology. The feedback based bandwidth extension techniques is analyzed and based on the outcome, a two stage LNA is designed. The impedance fine tuning is implemented by using Transmission Line (TL) structures. The measured performance shows a good agreement with simulation results and an outstanding wideband noise matching. The measured small signal gain was 12 dB, whereas a 3 dB gain flatness in range from 1.8 - 43 GHz was reached. The noise figure was below 4 dB almost all over the entire frequency band of 1.8GHz to 43GHz, the output power at 1 dB compression point was 6 dBm and the DC power consumption was 95 mW. To the best knowledge of the authors the designed LNA outperforms the State of the Art (SotA) reported LNA designs in terms of combined parameters of noise figure within the addressed ultra-wide 3 dB bandwidth, linearity and DC power consumption.

Keywords: feedback amplifiers, GaAs pHEMT, monolithic microwave integrated circuit, LNA, noise matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
3 Impact of Syngenetic Elements on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biochar

Authors: Edita Baltrėnaitė, Pranas Baltrėnas, Eglė MarčIulaitienė, Mantas PranskevičIus, Valeriia Chemerys


The growing demand for organic products in the market promotes their use in various fields. One of such products is biochar. Among the innovative environmental applications, biochar has the potential as an adsorbent for retaining contaminants in environmental engineering and agrotechnical systems. Artificial modification of biochar can improve its adsorption capacity. However, indirect/natural change of biochar composition (e.g., contaminated biomass) based on syngenetic elements provides prospects for new applications of biochar as well as decreases the modification costs. Natural lignocellulosic and biochar composition variations would lead to a new field of application of biochar and reduce resources for biochar modifications. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of syngenetic elements of biochar’s feedstock on the physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic biochar. Syngenetic elements (e.g., Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg) and other intrinsic properties (e.g., lignin, COHN, moisture, ash) of indifferent types of lignocellulosic feedstock on the physicochemical characteristics of biochar are discussed.

Keywords: adsorption, lignocellulosic biochar, instrinsic properties, syngenetic elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2 Doped TiO2 Thin Films Microstructural and Electrical Properties

Authors: Mantas Sriubas, Kristina Bockute, Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis


In this work, the doped TiO2 (dopants – Ca, Mg) was investigated. The comparison between the physical vapour deposition methods as electron beam vapour deposition and magnetron sputtering was performed and the structural and electrical properties of the formed thin films were investigated. Thin films were deposited on different type of substrates: SiO2, Alloy 600 (Fe-Ni-Cr) and Al2O3 substrates. The structural properties were investigated using Ambios XP-200 profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) Hitachi S-3400N, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDS) Quad 5040 (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) D8 Discover (Bruker AXS GmbH) with glancing angles focusing geometry in a 20 – 70° range using the Cu Kα1 λ = 0.1540562 nm radiation). The impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed using Probostat® (NorECs AS) measurement cell in the frequency range from 10-1-106 Hz under reducing and oxidizing conditions in temperature range of 200 °C to 1200 °C. The investigation of the e-beam deposited Ca and Mg doped-TiO2 thin films shows that the thin films are dense without any visible pores and cavities and the thin films grow in zone T according Barna-Adamik SZM. Substrate temperature was kept 600 °C during the deposition and Ts/Tm ≈ 0.32 (substrate temperature (Ts) and coating material melting temperature (Tm)). The surface diffusion is high however, the grain boundary migration is strongly limited at this temperature. This means that structure is inhomogeneous and the columnar structure is mostly visible in the upper part of the films. According to XRD, the increasing of the Ca dopants’ concentration increases the crystallinity of the formed thin films and the crystallites size increase linearly and Ca dopants act as prohibitors. Thin films are comprised of anatase TiO2 phase with an exception of 2 % Ca doped TiO2, where a small peak of Ca arise. In the case of Mg doped-TiO2 the intensities of the XRD peaks decreases with increasing Mg molar concentration. It means that there are less diffraction planes of the particular orientation in thin films with higher impurities concentration. Thus, the crystallinity decreases with increasing Mg concentration and Mg dopants act as inhibitors. The impedance measurements show that the dopants changed the conductivity of the formed thin films. The conductivity varies from 10-3 S/cm to 10-4 S/cm at 800 °C under wet reducing conditions. The microstructure of the magnetron sputtered thin TiO2 films is different comparing to the thin films deposited using e-beam deposition therefore influencing other structural and electrical properties.

Keywords: electrical properties, electron beam deposition, magnetron sputtering, microstructure, titanium dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1 The Digital Microscopy in Organ Transplantation: Ergonomics of the Tele-Pathological Evaluation of Renal, Liver, and Pancreatic Grafts

Authors: Constantinos S. Mammas, Andreas Lazaris, Adamantia S. Mamma-Graham, Georgia Kostopanagiotou, Chryssa Lemonidou, John Mantas, Eustratios Patsouris


The process to build a better safety culture, methods of error analysis, and preventive measures, starts with an understanding of the effects when human factors engineering refer to remote microscopic diagnosis in surgery and specially in organ transplantation for the evaluation of the grafts. Α high percentage of solid organs arrive at the recipient hospitals and are considered as injured or improper for transplantation in the UK. Digital microscopy adds information on a microscopic level about the grafts (G) in Organ Transplant (OT), and may lead to a change in their management. Such a method will reduce the possibility that a diseased G will arrive at the recipient hospital for implantation. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the ergonomics of digital microscopy (DM) based on virtual slides, on telemedicine systems (TS) for tele-pathological evaluation (TPE) of the grafts (G) in organ transplantation (OT). Material and Methods: By experimental simulation, the ergonomics of DM for microscopic TPE of renal graft (RG), liver graft (LG) and pancreatic graft (PG) tissues is analyzed. In fact, this corresponded to the ergonomics of digital microscopy for TPE in OT by applying virtual slide (VS) system for graft tissue image capture, for remote diagnoses of possible microscopic inflammatory and/or neoplastic lesions. Experimentation included the development of an OTE-TS similar experimental telemedicine system (Exp.-TS) for simulating the integrated VS based microscopic TPE of RG, LG and PG Simulation of DM on TS based TPE performed by 2 specialists on a total of 238 human renal graft (RG), 172 liver graft (LG) and 108 pancreatic graft (PG) tissues digital microscopic images for inflammatory and neoplastic lesions on four electronic spaces of the four used TS. Results: Statistical analysis of specialist‘s answers about the ability to accurately diagnose the diseased RG, LG and PG tissues on the electronic space among four TS (A,B,C,D) showed that DM on TS for TPE in OT is elaborated perfectly on the ES of a desktop, followed by the ES of the applied Exp.-TS. Tablet and mobile-phone ES seem significantly risky for the application of DM in OT (p<.001). Conclusion: To make the largest reduction in errors and adverse events referring to the quality of the grafts, it will take application of human factors engineering to procurement, design, audit, and awareness-raising activities. Consequently, it will take an investment in new training, people, and other changes to management activities for DM in OT. The simulating VS based TPE with DM of RG, LG and PG tissues after retrieval, seem feasible and reliable and dependable on the size of the electronic space of the applied TS, for remote prevention of diseased grafts from being retrieved and/or sent to the recipient hospital and for post-grafting and pre-transplant planning.

Keywords: digital microscopy, organ transplantation, tele-pathology, virtual slides

Procedia PDF Downloads 203