Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Ifeoluwa Ogunrinola

4 Educational Attainment of Owner-Managers and Performance of Micro- and Small Informal Businesses in Nigeria

Authors: Isaiah Oluranti Olurinola, Michael Kayode Bolarinwa, Ebenezer Bowale, Ifeoluwa Ogunrinola

Abstract:

Abstract - While much literature exists on microfinancing and its impact on the development of micro, small and medium-scale enterprises (MSME), yet little is known in respect of the impact of different types of education of owner-managers on the performances as well as innovative possibilities of such enterprises. This paper aims at contributing to the understanding of the impact of different types of education (academic, technical, apprenticeship, etc) that influence the performance of micro, small and medium-sized enterprise (MSME). This study utilises a recent and larger data-set collected in six states and FCT Abuja, Nigeria in the year 2014. Furthermore, the study carries out a comparative analysis of business performance among the different geo-political zones in Nigeria, given the educational attainment of the owner-managers. The data set were enterprise-based and were collected by the Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research (NISER) in the year 2014. Six hundred and eighty eight enterprises were covered in the survey. The method of data analysis for this study is the use of basic descriptive statistics in addition to the Logistic Regression model used in the prediction of the log of odds of business performance in relation to any of the identified educational attainment of the owner-managers in the sampled enterprises. An OLS econometric technique is also used to determine the effects of owner-managers' different educational types on the performance of the sampled MSME. Policy measures that will further enhance the contributions of education to MSME performance will be put forward.

Keywords: Business Performance, Education, Microfinancing, Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises

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3 Translation of the Bible into the Yoruba Language: A Functionalist Approach in Resolving Cultural Problems

Authors: Ifeoluwa Omotehinse Oloruntoba

Abstract:

Through comparative and causal models of translation, this paper examined the translation of ‘bread’ into the Yoruba language in three Yoruba versions of the Bible: Bibeli Yoruba Atoka (YBA), Bibeli Mimo ni Ede Yoruba Oni (BMY) and Bibeli Mimo (BM). In biblical times, bread was a very important delicacy that it was synonymous with food in general and in the Bible, bread sometimes refers to a type of food (a mixture of flour, water, and yeast that is baked) or food in general. However, this is not the case in the Yoruba culture. In fact, some decades ago, bread was not known in Nigeria and had no name in the Yoruba language until the 1900s when it was codified as burẹdi in Yoruba, a term borrowed from English and transliterated. Nevertheless, in Nigeria presently, bread is not a special food and it is not appreciated or consumed like in the West. This makes it difficult to translate bread in the Bible into Yoruba. From an investigation on the translation of this term, it was discovered that bread which has 330 occurrences in the English Bible translation (King James) has few occurrences in the three Yoruba Bible versions. In the first version (YBA) published in the 1880s, where bread is synonymous with food in general, it is mostly translated as oúnjẹ (food) or the verb jẹ (to eat), revealing that something is eaten but not indicating what it is. However, when the bread is a type of food, it is rendered as akara, a special delicacy of the Yoruba people made from beans flour. In the later version (BMY) published in the 1990s, bread as food, in general, is also mainly translated as oúnjẹ or the verb jẹ, but when it is a type of food, it is translated as akara with few occurrences of burẹdi. In the latest edition (BM), bread as food is either rendered as ounje or literally translated as burẹdi. Where it is a type of food in this version, it is mainly rendered as burẹdi with few occurrences of akara, indicating the assimilation of bread into the Yoruba culture. This result, although limited, shows that the Bible was translated into Yoruba to make it accessible to Yoruba speakers in their everyday language, hence the application of both domesticating and foreignising strategies. This research also emphasizes the role of the translator as an intermediary between two cultures.

Keywords: translation, Bible, Yoruba, cultural problems

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2 Experimental Research and Analyses of Yoruba Native Speakers’ Chinese Phonetic Errors

Authors: Obasa Joshua Ifeoluwa

Abstract:

Phonetics is the foundation and most important part of language learning. This article, through an acoustic experiment as well as using Praat software, uses Yoruba students’ Chinese consonants, vowels, and tones pronunciation to carry out a visual comparison with that of native Chinese speakers. This article is aimed at Yoruba native speakers learning Chinese phonetics; therefore, Yoruba students are selected. The students surveyed are required to be at an elementary level and have learned Chinese for less than six months. The students selected are all undergraduates majoring in Chinese Studies at the University of Lagos. These students have already learned Chinese Pinyin and are all familiar with the pinyin used in the provided questionnaire. The Chinese students selected are those that have passed the level two Mandarin proficiency examination, which serves as an assurance that their pronunciation is standard. It is discovered in this work that in terms of Mandarin’s consonants pronunciation, Yoruba students cannot distinguish between the voiced and voiceless as well as the aspirated and non-aspirated phonetics features. For instance, while pronouncing [ph] it is clearly shown in the spectrogram that the Voice Onset Time (VOT) of a Chinese speaker is higher than that of a Yoruba native speaker, which means that the Yoruba speaker is pronouncing the unaspirated counterpart [p]. Another difficulty is to pronounce some affricates like [tʂ]、[tʂʰ]、[ʂ]、[ʐ]、 [tɕ]、[tɕʰ]、[ɕ]. This is because these sounds are not in the phonetic system of the Yoruba language. In terms of vowels, some students find it difficult to pronounce some allophonic high vowels such as [ɿ] and [ʅ], therefore pronouncing them as their phoneme [i]; another pronunciation error is pronouncing [y] as [u], also as shown in the spectrogram, a student pronounced [y] as [iu]. In terms of tone, it is most difficult for students to differentiate between the second (rising) and third (falling and rising) tones because these tones’ emphasis is on the rising pitch. This work concludes that the major error made by Yoruba students while pronouncing Chinese sounds is caused by the interference of their first language (LI) and sometimes by their lingua franca.

Keywords: Chinese, Yoruba, error analysis, experimental phonetics, consonant, vowel, tone

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1 Involvement of Nrf2 in Kolaviron-Mediated Attenuation of Behavioural Incompetence and Neurodegeneration in a Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Yusuf E. Mustapha, Inioluwa A Akindoyeni, Oluwatoyin G. Ezekiel, Ifeoluwa O. Awogbindin, Ebenezer O. Farombi

Abstract:

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent motor disorder. Available therapies are palliative with no effect on disease progression. Kolaviron (KV), a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects in Parkinsonian flies and rats. Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective effect of KV, focusing on the DJ1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Methodology: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to inhibit Nrf2. Murine model of PD was established with four doses of MPTP (20 mg/kg i.p.) at 2 hours interval. MPTP mice were pre-treated with either KV (200 mg/kg/day p.o), ATRA, or both conditions for seven days before PD induction. Motor behaviour was evaluated, and markers of oxidative stress/damage and its regulators were assessed with immunofluorescence and ELISA techniques. Results: MPTP-treated mice covered less distance with reduced numbers of anticlockwise rotations, heightened freezing, and prolonged immobility when compared to control. However, KV significantly attenuated these deficits. Pretreatment of MPTP mice with KV upregulated Nrf2 expression beyond MPTP level with a remarkable reduction in Keap1 expression and marked elevation of DJ-1 level, whereas co-administration with ATRA abrogated these effects. KV treatment restored MPTP-mediated depletion of endogenous antioxidant, striatal oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. However, ATRA treatment potentiated acetylcholinesterase inhibition and attenuated the protective effect of KV on the level of nitric oxide and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusion: Kolaviron protects Parkinsonian mice by stabilizing and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Thus, kolaviron can be explored as a pharmacological lead in PD management.

Keywords: Garcinia kola, Kolaviron, Parkinson Disease, Nrf2, behavioral incompetence, neurodegeneration

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