Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Daan F. Oostveen

3 Towards a Critical Disentanglement of the ‘Religion’ Nexus in the Global East

Authors: Daan F. Oostveen

Abstract:

‘Religion’ as a term is not native to the Global East. The concept ‘religion’ is both understood in its meaning of ‘religious traditions’, commonly referring to the ‘World Religions’ and in its adjective meaning ‘the religious’ or ‘religiosity’ as a separate domain of human culture, commonly contrasted to the secular. Though neither of these understandings are native to the historical worldviews of East Asia, their development in modern Western scholarship has had an enormous impact on the self-understanding of cultural diversity in the Global East as well. One example is the identification and therefore elevation to the status of World Religion of ‘Buddhism’ which connected formerly dispersed religious practices throughout the Global East and subsumed them under this powerful label. On the other hand, we see how popular religiosity, shamanism and hybrid cultural expressions have become excluded from genuine religion; this had an immense impact on the sense of legitimacy of these practices, which became sometimes labeled as superstition are rejected as magic. Our theoretical frameworks on religion in the Global East do not always consider the complex power dynamics between religious actors, both elites and lay expressions of religion in everyday life, governments and religious studies scholars. In order to get a clear image of how religiosity functions in the context of the Global East, we have to take into account these power dynamics. What is important in particular is the issue of religious identity or absence of religious identity. The self-understanding of religious actors in the Global East is often very different from what scholars of religion observe. Religious practice, from an etic perspective, is often unrelated to religious identification from an emic perspective. But we also witness the rise of Christian churches in the Global East, in which religious identity and belonging does play a pivotal role. Finally, religion in the Global East has since the beginning of the 20th Century been conceptualized as the ‘other’ or republicanism or Marxist-Maoist ideology. It is important not to deny the key role of colonial thinking in the process of religion formation in the Global East. In this paper, it is argued that religious realities constituted emerging as a result from our theory of religion, and that these religious realities in turn inform our theory. Therefore, the relationship between phenomenology of religion and theory of religion can never be disentangled. In fact, we have to acknowledge that our conceptualizations of religious diversity are always already influenced by our valuation of those cultural expressions that we have come to call ‘religious’.

Keywords: global east, religion, religious belonging, secularity

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2 Coral Lifeform Structure in Selected Marine Protected Areas in Southern Cebu, Philippines

Authors: Gloria G. Delan, Alfonso S. Piquero, Rachel Luz V. Rica, Christine M. Corrales

Abstract:

The selected marine protected areas (MPAs) of southern Cebu, Philippines were assessed after these have been established between the years 2000 to 2007. These include Casay of Argao, Cawayan of Dalaguete, Guiwang-Daang Lungsod of Alcoy, North Granada of Boljoon and Sta. Cruz of Ronda. These MPAs were assessed to gather baseline information on its coral life-form structure. Point-intercept transect (PIT) method was used in the observation. Benthic life form and reef substrate at each 0.25 m point interval were identified and recorded along 50 meters transect line both inside and outside of these MPAs. It has been observed that massive, branching and digitate form of corals dominated among the five sanctuaries. Percentage of Live Hard Corals was much higher inside than outside in all sanctuaries. Common to all sanctuaries were noticeable presence of dead corals with algae and coral rubbles indicating an over-exploited habitat. Casay, Cawayan and Daan-Lungsod MPAs had some Crown of Thorn Starfish (COTS) which may pose threat to its coral community. It has been recommended that there should be strict law enforcement and a long term monitoring to continuously conserve and protect coral reef which is an important habitat for fishes for its sustainability as food for human.

Keywords: coral rubbles, coral reef, live hard coral, point-intercept transect

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1 Coral Reef Fishes in the Marine Protected Areas in Southern Cebu, Philippines

Authors: Christine M. Corrales, Gloria G. Delan, Rachel Luz V. Rica, Alfonso S. Piquero

Abstract:

Marine protected areas (MPAs) in the study sites were established 8-13 years ago and are presently operational. This study was conducted to gather baseline information on the diversity, density and biomass of coral reef fishes inside and outside the four marine protected areas (MPAs) of Cawayan, Dalaguete; Daan-Lungsod Guiwang, Alcoy; North Granada, Boljoon and Sta. Cruz, Ronda. Coral reef fishes in the MPAs were identified using Fish Visual Census Method. Results of the t-test showed that the mean diversity (fish species/250m2) of target and non-target reef fish species found inside and outside the MPAs were significantly different. Density (ind./1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed no significant difference. Similarly, density of non-target species inside and outside the MPAs also showed no significant difference. This is an indication that fish density inside and outside the MPAs were more or less of the same condition. The mean biomass (kg/1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed a significant difference in contrast with non-target species inside and outside the MPAs which showed a no significant difference. Higher biomass of target fish species belonging to family Caesonidae (fusiliers) and Scaridae (parrotfishes) were commonly observed inside the MPAs. Results showed that fish species were more diverse with higher density and biomass inside the MPAs than the outside area. However, fish diversity and density were mostly contributed by non-target species. Hence, long term protection and management of MPAs is needed to effectively increase fish diversity, density and biomass specifically on target fish species.

Keywords: biomass, density, diversity, marine protected area, target fish species

Procedia PDF Downloads 304