Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1280

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1280 Flow Duration Curves and Recession Curves: Connection and Temporal Dependence through a Mathematical Link

Authors: Mirzi Betasolo, Elena Carcano

Abstract:

This study helps Public Water Bureau in giving reliable answers to water concession requests. Rapidly increasing water requests can be supported provided that further uses of a river course are not totally compromised, and environmental features are protected as well. Strictly speaking, a water concession can be considered a continuous drawing from the source and causes a mean annual streamflow reduction. Therefore, deciding if a water concession is appropriate or inappropriate seems to be easily solved by comparing the generic demand to the mean annual streamflow value at disposal. Still, the immediate shortcoming for such a comparison is that streamflow data is information available only for few catchments and, most often, is limited at specific sites. Subsequently, comparing the generic water demand to mean daily discharge is indeed far from being completely satisfactory since the mean daily streamflow is greater than the water withdrawal for a long period of the year. Consequently, such a comparison appears to be of little significance in order to preserve the quality of the water and the quantity of the river. In order to overcome such a limit, this study aims to complete the information provided by flow duration curves introducing a link between Flow Duration Curves (FDCs) and recession curves and aims to show the chronological sequence of flows with a particular focus on low flow data. The analysis is carried out on 25 catchments located in North-Eastern Italy for which daily data are provided. The results identify groups of catchments as hydrologically homogeneous, having the lower part of the FDCs (corresponding streamflow interval is streamflow Q between 300 and 335, namely: Q(300) Q335) smoothly reproduced by a common recession curve. In conclusion, the results are useful to provide more reliable answers to water request, especially for those catchments which show similar hydrological response and can be used for a focused regionalization approach on low flow data. A mathematical link between streamflow duration curves and recession curves is herein provided, thus furnishing streamflow duration curves information upon a temporal sequence of data. In such a way, by introducing assumptions on recession curves, the chronological sequence upon low flow data can also be attributed to FDCs, which are known to lack this information by nature.

Keywords: chronological sequence of discharges, recession curves, streamflow duration curves, water concession

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1279 Optimal Design of Tuned Inerter Damper-based System for the Control of Wind-induced Vibration in Tall Buildings through Cultural Algorithm

Authors: Luis Lara-Valencia, Mateo Ramírez-Acevedo, Daniel Caicedo, José Brito, Yosef Farbiarz

Abstract:

Controlling wind-induced vibrations as well as aerodynamic forces, is an essential part of the structural design of tall buildings in order to guarantee the serviceability limit state of the structure. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the optimal design parameters of a Tuned Inerter Damper (TID) based system for the control of wind-induced vibration in tall buildings. The control system is based on the conventional TID, with the main difference that its location is changed from the ground level to the last two story-levels of the structural system. The TID tuning procedure is based on an evolutionary cultural algorithm in which the optimum design variables defined as the frequency and damping ratios were searched according to the optimization criteria of minimizing the root mean square (RMS) response of displacements at the nth story of the structure. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to represent the dynamic action of the wind in the time domain in which a time-series derived from the Davenport spectrum using eleven harmonic functions with randomly chosen phase angles was reproduced. The above-mentioned methodology was applied on a case-study derived from a 37-story prestressed concrete building with 144 m height, in which the wind action overcomes the seismic action. The results showed that the optimally tuned TID is effective in reducing the RMS response of displacements up to 25%, which demonstrates the feasibility of the system for the control of wind-induced vibrations in tall buildings.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, Evolutionary cultural algorithm, tuned inerter damper, wind-induced vibrations

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1278 Instruction Program for Human Factors in Maintenance, Addressed to the People Working in Colombian Air Force Aeronautical Maintenance Area to Strengthen Operational Safety

Authors: Rafael Andres Rincon Barrera

Abstract:

Safety in global aviation plays a preponderant role in organizations that seek to avoid accidents in an attempt to preserve their most precious assets (the people and the machines). Human factors-based programs have shown to be effective in managing human-generated risks. The importance of training on human factors in maintenance has not been indifferent to the Colombian Air Force (COLAF). This research, which has a mixed quantitative, qualitative and descriptive approach, deals with its absence of structuring an instruction program in Human Factors in Aeronautical Maintenance, which serves as a tool to improve Operational Safety in the military air units of the COLAF. Research shows the trends and evolution of human factors programs in aeronautical maintenance through the analysis of a data matrix with 33 sources taken from different databases that are about the incorporation of these types of programs in the aeronautical industry in the last 20 years; as well as the improvements in the operational safety process that are presented after the implementation of these ones. Likewise, it compiles different normative guides in force from world aeronautical authorities for training in these programs, establishing a matrix of methodologies that may be applicable to develop a training program in human factors in maintenance. Subsequently, it illustrates the design, validation, and development of a human factors knowledge measurement instrument for maintenance at the COLAF that includes topics on Human Factors (HF), Safety Management System (SMS), and aeronautical maintenance regulations at the COLAF. With the information obtained, it performs the statistical analysis showing the aspects of knowledge and strengthening the staff for the preparation of the instruction program. Performing data triangulation based on the applicable methods and the weakest aspects found in the maintenance people shows a variable crossing from color coding, thus indicating the contents according to a training program for human factors in aeronautical maintenance, which are adjusted according to the competencies that are expected to be developed with the staff in a curricular format established by the COLAF. Among the most important findings are the determination that different authors are dealing with human factors in maintenance agrees that there is no standard model for its instruction and implementation, but that it must be adapted to the needs of the organization, that the Safety Culture in the Companies which incorporated programs on human factors in maintenance increased, that from the data obtained with the instrument for knowledge measurement of human factors in maintenance, the level of knowledge is MEDIUM-LOW with a score of 61.79%. And finally that there is an opportunity to improve Operational Safety for the COLAF through the implementation of the training program of human factors in maintenance for the technicians working in this area.

Keywords: Human Factors, Safety Management System, safety culture, triangulation, Colombian air force

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1277 Three Dimensional Analysis of Cubesat Thermal Vacuum Test

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam

Abstract:

Thermal vacuum testing target is to qualify the space system and ensure its operability under harsh space environment. The functionality of the cubesat was checked at extreme orbit conditions. Test was performed for operational and nonoperational modes. Analysis is done to simulate the cubesat thermal cycling inside thermal vacuum chamber. Comsol Multiphysics finite element is used to solve three dimensional problem for the cubesat inside TVAC. Three dimensional CAD model is done using Autodesk Inventor program. The boundary conditions were applied from the actual shroud temperature. The input heat load variation with time is considered to solve the transient three dimensional problem. Results show that the simulated temperature profiles are within an acceptable range from the real testing data.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, thermal vacuum test, CubeSat, testing simulation

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1276 High Thrust Upper Stage Solar Hydrogen Rocket Design

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam

Abstract:

The conversion of solar thruster model to an upper stage hydrogen rocket is considered. Solar thruster categorization limits its capabilities to low and moderate thrust system with high specific impulse. The current study proposes a different concept for such systems by increasing the thrust which enables using as an upper stage rocket and for future launching purposes. A computational model for the thruster is discussed for solar thruster subsystems. The first module depends on ray tracing technique to determine the intercepted solar power by the hydrogen combustion chamber. The cavity receiver is modeled using finite volume technique. The final module imports the heated hydrogen properties to the nozzle using quasi one dimensional simulation. The probability of shock waves formulation inside the nozzle is almost diminished as the outlet pressure in space environment tends to zero. The computational model relates the high thrust hydrogen rocket conversion to the design parameters and operating conditions of the thruster. Three different designs for solar thruster systems are discussed. The first design is a low thrust high specific impulse design that produces about 10 Newton of thrust .The second one output thrust is about 250 Newton and the third design produces about 1000 Newton.

Keywords: Space Propulsion, specific impulse, thrust, hydrogen rocket

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1275 Using Lagrange Equations to Study the Relative Motion of a Mechanism

Authors: R. A. Petre, I. Stroe, A. Craifaleanu, S. E. Nichifor

Abstract:

The relative motion of a robotic arm formed by homogeneous bars of different lengths and masses, hinged to each other is investigated. The first bar of the mechanism is articulated on a platform, considered initially fixed on the surface of the Earth, while for the second case the platform is considered to be in rotation with respect to the Earth. For both analyzed cases the motion equations are determined using the Lagrangian formalism, applied in its traditional form, valid with respect to an inertial reference system, conventionally considered as fixed. However, in the second case, a generalized form of the formalism valid with respect to a non-inertial reference frame will also be applied. The numerical calculations were performed using a MATLAB program.

Keywords: Relative motion, Lagrange equations, inertial reference frame, non-inertial reference frame

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1274 Flexural Test of Diversing Foam Core Sandwich Composites

Authors: Santhana Krishnan R, Preetha C

Abstract:

Sandwich construction with strong and stiffness facing and light weight cores is increasingly cores being used in structures where the predominant loads are flexural. The objective of this study is to improve the flexural performances of foam core sandwich composite via structural core modifications considering the ease of application. The performances of single core perforated and divided core perforated sandwich composites are compared with each other. The future demands of sandwich composites in recent years on aeronautics and marine industries are being increasing in their research needs and these materials has their superior properties for upgrading engineering products.

Keywords: flexural test, sandwich composites, perforated cores, single and divided core perforated

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1273 Particle Migration in Shear Thinning Viscoelastic Fluid

Authors: Shamik Hazra, Sushanta Mitra, Ashis Sen

Abstract:

Despite growing interest of microparticle manipulation in non-Newtonian fluids, combined effect of viscoelasticity and shear thinning on particle lateral position is not well understood. We performed experiments with rigid microparticles of 15 µm diamater in popular Shear thinning viscoelastic (STVE) liquid poyethylene oxide (PEO) of different molecular weights (MW) and concentrations (c), for Reynolds number (Re) < 1. Microparticles in an STVE liquid revealed four different migration regimes: original streamline (OS), bimodal (BM), centre migration (CM) and defocusing (DF), depending upon the Re and c and interplay of different forces is also elucidated. Our investigation will be helpful to select proper polymer concentration to achieve desired particle focusing inside microchannel.

Keywords: Viscoelasticity, shear thinning, polyethylene oxide, microparticle, lateral migration

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1272 The Effects of Cross-Border Use of Drones in Nigerian National Security

Authors: Powei Happiness Kerry

Abstract:

In 2017, the G4S Intelligence bulletin released a report that drones have become a threat from above, backing up their claims with so many incidents that have occurred in many countries between 2006 and 2017. One incident that was cited is the case of the Hezbollah group that sent out three Ababil drones near Tyre, Lebanon, into Israel borders to attack strategic targets, including Israeli F-16 jets. While this technology could constitute a danger to national security on the one hand, on the other hand, it is used in developed and developing countries for border security, and in some cases, for protection of security agents and migrants. In the case of Nigeria, drones are used by the military to monitor and tighten security around the borders. However, it was reported that Boko Haram now use sophisticated drones to carry out their illegal activities. Therefore, the potential danger in the widespread proliferation of this technology has become a myriad of risks. The research on the effects of cross-border use of drones in Nigerian national security looks at the negative and positive consequences of using drone technology. The study employs the use of interviews and relevant documents to obtain data while the study applied the just war theory to justify the reason why countries use force; it further buttresses the points with what the realist theory thinks about the use of force. In conclusion, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government through the National Assembly should pass a bill for the establishment of a law that will guide the use of armed and unarmed drones in Nigeria enforced by Nigeria Civil Aviation Authority and the office of the National Security Adviser.

Keywords: National Security, Drones, cross-border, armed drones

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1271 Multilayer Thermal Screens for Greenhouse Insulation

Authors: Clara Shenderey, Helena Vitoshkin, Mordechai Barak, Avraham Arbel

Abstract:

Greenhouses cultivation is an energy-intensive process due to the high demands on cooling or heating according to external climatic conditions, which could be extreme in the summer or winter seasons. The thermal radiation rate inside a greenhouse depends mainly on the type of covering material and a greenhouse construction. Using additional thermal screens under a greenhouse covering in combination with a dehumidification system could be cost-effective. Greenhouse cover material usually contains protective ultraviolet (UV) radiation additives to prevent the film wear, insect harm, and crop diseases. This paper investigates overall heat transfer coefficient, or U-value, for greenhouse cover contains UV-additives with or without a thermal screen supplement. The hot-box method was employed for evaluation of overall heat transfer coefficients experimentally as function of type and number of the thermal screens. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing of the number of thermal screens as a hyperbolic function. The overall heat transfer coefficient highly depends on the ability of the material to reflect thermal radiation. Using a greenhouse cover in combination with high reflective thermal screens, i.e., containing about 98% of aluminum stripes, the U-value reduces from 66% to 94%, depending on the thermal screens number. Using thermal screens made from low reflective materials may reduce the U-value from 30% to 70%. The heat transfer coefficient is an indicator of the thermal insulation properties of the materials, which allows farmers to make decisions on the use appropriate thermal screens depending on the external and internal climate conditions in a greenhouse.

Keywords: heat transfer coefficient, energy-saving thermal screen, greenhouse cover material, hot box

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1270 LES Investigation of the Natural Vortex Length in a Small-Scale Gas Cyclone

Authors: Dzmitry Misiulia, Sergiy Antonyuk

Abstract:

Small-scale cyclone separators are widely used in aerosol sampling. The flow field in a cyclone sampler is very complex, especially the vortex behavior. Most of the existing models for calculating cyclone efficiency use the same stable vortex structure while the vortex demonstrates dynamic variations rather than the steady-state picture. It can spontaneously ‘end’ at some point within the body of the separator. Natural vortex length is one of the most critical issues when designing and operating gas cyclones and is crucial to proper cyclone performance. The particle transport along the wall to the grid pot is not effective beyond this point. The flow field and vortex behavior inside the aerosol sampler have been investigated for a wide range of Reynolds numbers using Large Eddy Simulations. Two characteristics types of vortex behavior have been found with simulations. At low flow rates the vortex created in the cyclone dissipates in free space (without attaching to a surface) while at higher flow rates it attaches to the cyclone wall. The effects of the Reynolds number on the natural vortex length and the rotation frequency of the end of the vortex have been revealed.

Keywords: Cyclone, flow field, pressure drop, natural vortex length

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1269 Deorbiting Performance of Electrodynamic Tethers to Mitigate Space Debris

Authors: G. Sarego, L. Olivieri, A. Valmorbida, C. Bettanini, G. Colombatti, M. Pertile, E. C. Lorenzini

Abstract:

International guidelines recommend the removal of any artificial body in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) within 25 years from its launch. Among disposal strategies, electrodynamic tethers appear to be a promising option for LEO, thanks to the limited storage mass and the minimum interface requirements to the host spacecraft. In particular, recent technological advances make it feasible to deorbit large objects with tether lengths of few kilometers or less. To further investigate such innovative passive system, the European Union is currently funding the project E.T.PACK – Electrodynamic Tether Technology for Passive Consumable-less Deorbit Kit in the framework of the H2020 Future Emerging Technologies (FET) Open program. The project focuses on the design of an end of life disposal kit for LEO satellites. This kit's aim is the deployment of a taped tether that can be activated at spacecraft end of life to perform autonomous deorbit within the international recommendation time. In this paper, the orbital performance of the E.T.PACK deorbiting kit is compared to other disposal methods. In addition, the orbital decay prediction is parametrized as a function of spacecraft mass and tether system performance. Different values of length, width, and thickness of the tether will be evaluated for various scenarios (i.e., different initial orbital parameters). The results will be compared to other end of life disposal methods with similar allocated resources. The analysis of the performance of the more innovative system with the tape coated with a thermionic material, which has a low work-function (LWT), for which no active component for the cathode is required, will also be briefly discussed. The results show that the electrodynamic tether option has the potential to be a competitive and performant solution for satellite disposal when compared to other deorbit technologies.

Keywords: deorbiting performance, H2020, spacecraft disposal, space electrodynamic tethers

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1268 Clean Sky 2 Project LiBAT: Light Battery Pack for High Power Applications in Aviation – Simulation Methods in Early Stage Design

Authors: Tobias Mayer, Jan Dahlhaus, Alejandro Cardenas Miranda, Frederik Scholer, Maximilian Leonhardt, Matthias Moullion, Frank Beutenmuller, Julia Eckhardt, Josef Wasner, Frank Nittel, Sebastian Stoll, Devin Atukalp, Daniel Folgmann, Obrad Dordevic, Paul Riley, Jean-Marc Le Peuvedic

Abstract:

Electrical and hybrid aerospace technologies pose very challenging demands on the battery pack – especially with respect to weight and power. In the Clean Sky 2 research project LiBAT (funded by the EU), the consortium is currently building an ambitious prototype with state-of-the art cells that shows the potential of an intelligent pack design with a high level of integration, especially with respect to thermal management and power electronics. For the latter, innovative multi-level-inverter technology is used to realize the required power converting functions with reduced equipment. In this talk the key approaches and methods of the LiBat project will be presented and central results shown. Special focus will be set on the simulative methods used to support the early design and development stages from an overall system perspective. The applied methods can efficiently handle multiple domains and deal with different time and length scales, thus allowing the analysis and optimization of overall- or sub-system behavior. It will be shown how these simulations provide valuable information and insights for the efficient evaluation of concepts. As a result, the construction and iteration of hardware prototypes has been reduced and development cycles shortened.

Keywords: Battery, Li-Ion, electric aircraft, Multi-Level-Inverter, Novec

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1267 Autonomous Landing of UAV on Moving Platform: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mortez Alijani, Anas Osman

Abstract:

Recently, the popularity of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has skyrocketed amidst the unprecedented events and the global pandemic, as they play a key role in both the security and health sectors, through surveillance, taking test samples, transportation of crucial goods and spreading awareness among civilians. However, the process of designing and producing such aerial robots is suppressed by the internal and external constraints that pose serious challenges. Landing is one of the key operations during flight, especially, the autonomous landing of UAVs on a moving platform is a scientifically complex engineering problem. Typically having a successful automatic landing of UAV on a moving platform requires accurate localization of landing, fast trajectory planning, and robust control planning. To achieve these goals, the information about the autonomous landing process such as the intersection point, the position of platform/UAV and inclination angle are more necessary. In this study, the mathematical approach to this problem in the X-Y axis based on the inclination angle and position of UAV in the landing process have been presented. The experimental results depict the accurate position of the UAV, intersection between UAV and moving platform and inclination angle in the landing process, allowing prediction of the intersection point.

Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, moving platform, autonomous landing, inclination angle, X-Y axis, intersection point

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1266 Simulation and Design of an Aerospace Mission Powered by “Candy” Type Fuel Engines

Authors: N. Hernandez Huertas, F. Rojas Mora

Abstract:

Sounding rockets are aerospace vehicles that were developed in the mid-20th century, and since then numerous investigations have been executed with the aim of innovate in this type of technology. However, the costs associated to the production of this type of technology are usually quite high, and therefore the challenge that exists today is to be able to reduce them. In this way, the main objective of this document is to present the design process of a Colombian aerospace mission capable to reach the thermosphere using low-cost “Candy” type solid fuel engines. This mission is the latest development of the Uniandes Aerospace Project (PUA for its Spanish acronym), which is an undergraduate and postgraduate research group at Universidad de los Andes (Bogotá, Colombia), dedicated to incurring in this type of technology. In this way, the investigations that have been carried out on Candy-type solid fuel, which is a compound of potassium nitrate and sorbitol, have allowed the production of engines powerful enough to reach space, and which represents a unique technological advance in Latin America and an important development in experimental rocketry. In this way, following the engineering iterative design methodology was possible to design a 2-stage sounding rocket with 1 solid fuel engine in each one, which was then simulated in RockSim V9.0 software and reached an apogee of approximately 150 km above sea level. Similarly, a speed equal to 5 Mach was obtained, which after performing a finite element analysis, it was shown that the rocket is strong enough to be able to withstand such speeds. Under these premises, it was demonstrated that it is possible to build a high-power aerospace mission at low cost, using Candy-type solid fuel engines. For this reason, the feasibility of carrying out similar missions clearly depends on the ability to replicate the engines in the best way, since as mentioned above, the design of the rocket is adequate to reach supersonic speeds and reach space. Consequently, with a team of at least 3 members, the mission can be obtained in less than 3 months. Therefore, when publishing this project, it is intended to be a reference for future research in this field and benefit the industry.

Keywords: aerospace missions, Candy type solid propellant engines, design of solid rockets, experimental rocketry, low costs missions

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1265 Physicochemical-Mechanical, Thermal and Rheological Properties Analysis of Pili Tree (Canarium Ovatum) Resin as Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Sealant

Authors: Mark Kennedy, E. Bantugon, Noruane A. Daileg

Abstract:

Leaks arising from aircraft fuel tanks is a protracted problem for the aircraft manufacturers, operators, and maintenance crews. It principally arises from stress, structural defects, or degraded sealants as the aircraft age. It can be ignited by different sources, which can result in catastrophic flight and consequences, exhibiting a major drain both on time and budget. In order to mitigate and eliminate this kind of problem, the researcher produced an experimental sealant having a base material of natural tree resin, the Pili Tree Resin. Aside from producing an experimental sealant, the main objective of this research is to analyze its physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties, which is beneficial and effective for specific aircraft parts, particularly the integral fuel tank. The experimental method of research was utilized in this study since it is a product invention. This study comprises two parts, specifically the Optimization Process and the Characterization Process. In the Optimization Process, the experimental sealant was subjected to the Flammability Test, an important test and consideration according to 14 Code of Federal Regulation Appendix N, Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis, to get the most suitable formulation. Followed by the Characterization Process, where the formulated experimental sealant has undergone thirty-eight (38) different standard testing including Organoleptic, Instrumental Color Measurement Test, Smoothness of Appearance Test, Miscibility Test, Boiling Point Test, Flash Point Test, Curing Time, Adhesive Test, Toxicity Test, Shore A Hardness Test, Compressive Strength, Shear Strength, Static Bending Strength, Tensile Strength, Peel Strength Test, Knife Test, Adhesion by Tape Test, Leakage Test), Drip Test, Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Calorific Value, Viscosity Test, Creep Test, and Anti-Sag Resistance Test to determine and analyze the five (5) material properties of the sealant. The numerical values of the mentioned tests are determined using product application, testing, and calculation. These values are then used to calculate the efficiency of the experimental sealant. Accordingly, this efficiency is the means of comparison between the experimental and commercial sealant. Based on the results of the different standard testing conducted, the experimental sealant exceeded all the data results of the commercial sealant. This result shows that the physicochemical-mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of the experimental sealant are far more effective as an aircraft integral fuel tank sealant alternative in comparison to the commercial sealant. Therefore, Pili Tree possesses a new role and function: a source of ingredients in sealant production.

Keywords: Thermal, Properties, rheological, Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank, Physicochemi-mechanical, Pili Tree Resin, Sealant

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1264 Seamless MATLAB® to Register-Transfer Level Design Methodology Using High-Level Synthesis

Authors: Petri Solanti, Russell Klein

Abstract:

Many designers are asking for an automated path from an abstract mathematical MATLAB model to a high-quality Register-Transfer Level (RTL) hardware description. Manual transformations of MATLAB or intermediate code are needed, when the design abstraction is changed. Design conversion is problematic as it is multidimensional and it requires many different design steps to translate the mathematical representation of the desired functionality to an efficient hardware description with the same behavior and configurability. Yet, a manual model conversion is not an insurmountable task. Using currently available design tools and an appropriate design methodology, converting a MATLAB model to efficient hardware is a reasonable effort. This paper describes a simple and flexible design methodology that was developed together with several design teams.

Keywords: Verification, Design methodology, MATLAB, High-Level Synthesis

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1263 Optical and Mechanical Characterization of Severe Plastically Deformed Copper Alloy Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing

Authors: Jaya Prasad Vanam, Vinay Anurag P, Vidya Sravya N S, Kishore Babu Nagamothu

Abstract:

Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) is one of the severe plastic deformation technique (SPD) by which we can process Ultra Fine Grained (UFG)/plane metallic materials. This paper discusses the effects of CGP on Cu-Zn alloy specimen at room temperature. A comprehensive study is made on the structural and mechanical properties of Brass specimen before and after Constrained grooves Pressing. Entire process is simulated in AFDEX CAE Software. It is found that most of the properties are superior with respect to brass samples such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, hardness, strain rate, etc., and they are found to be better for the CGP processed specimen. The results are discussed with respective graphs.

Keywords: constrained groove pressing, AFDEX, ultra fine grained materials, severe plastic deformation technique

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1262 Improvement of Electric Aircraft Endurance through an Optimal Propeller Design Using Combined BEM, Vortex and CFD Methods

Authors: Jose Daniel Hoyos Giraldo, Jesus Hernan Jimenez Giraldo, Juan Pablo Alvarado Perilla

Abstract:

Range and endurance are the main limitations of electric aircraft due to the nature of its source of power. The improvement of efficiency on this kind of systems is extremely meaningful to encourage the aircraft operation with less environmental impact. The propeller efficiency highly affects the overall efficiency of the propulsion system; hence its optimization can have an outstanding effect on the aircraft performance. An optimization method is applied to an aircraft propeller in order to maximize its range and endurance by estimating the best combination of geometrical parameters such as diameter and airfoil, chord and pitch distribution for a specific aircraft design at a certain cruise speed, then the rotational speed at which the propeller operates at minimum current consumption is estimated. The optimization is based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method, additionally corrected to account for tip and hub losses, Mach number and rotational effects; furthermore an airfoil lift and drag coefficients approximation is implemented from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations supported by preliminary studies of grid independence and suitability of different turbulence models, to feed the BEM method, with the aim of achieve more reliable results. Additionally, Vortex Theory is employed to find the optimum pitch and chord distribution to achieve a minimum induced loss propeller design. Moreover, the optimization takes into account the well-known brushless motor model, thrust constraints for take-off runway limitations, maximum allowable propeller diameter due to aircraft height and maximum motor power. The BEM-CFD method is validated by comparing its predictions for a known APC propeller with both available experimental tests and APC reported performance curves which are based on Vortex Theory fed with the NASA Transonic Airfoil code, showing a adequate fitting with experimental data even more than reported APC data. Optimal propeller predictions are validated by wind tunnel tests, CFD propeller simulations and a study of how the propeller will perform if it replaces the one of on known aircraft. Some tendency charts relating a wide range of parameters such as diameter, voltage, pitch, rotational speed, current, propeller and electric efficiencies are obtained and discussed. The implementation of CFD tools shows an improvement in the accuracy of BEM predictions. Results also showed how a propeller has higher efficiency peaks when it operates at high rotational speed due to the higher Reynolds at which airfoils present lower drag. On the other hand, the behavior of the current consumption related to the propulsive efficiency shows counterintuitive results, the best range and endurance is not necessary achieved in an efficiency peak.

Keywords: Optimization, Endurance, CFD, range, Blade Design, electric aircraft, BEM

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1261 Studies on Space-Based Laser Targeting System for the Removal of Orbital Space Debris

Authors: Krima M. Rohela, Raja Sabarinath Sundaralingam

Abstract:

Humans have been launching rockets since the beginning of the space age in the late 1950s. We have come a long way since then, and the success rate for the launch of rockets has increased considerably. With every successful launch, there is a large amount of junk or debris which is released into the upper layers of the atmosphere. Space debris has been a huge concern for a very long time now. This includes the rocket shells released from the launch and the parts of defunct satellites. Some of this junk will come to fall towards the Earth and burn in the atmosphere. But most of the junk goes into orbit around the Earth, and they remain in orbits for at least 100 years. This can cause a lot of problems to other functioning satellites and may affect the future manned missions to space. The main concern of the space-debris is the increase in space activities, which leads to risks of collisions if not taken care of soon. These collisions may result in what is known as Kessler Syndrome. This debris can be removed by a space-based laser targeting system. Hence, the matter is investigated and discussed. The first step in this involves launching a satellite with a high-power laser device into space, above the debris belt. Then the target material is ablated with a focussed laser beam. This step of the process is highly dependent on the attitude and orientation of the debris with respect to the Earth and the device. The laser beam will cause a jet of vapour and plasma to be expelled from the material. Hence, the force is applied in the opposite direction, and in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion, this will cause the material to move towards the Earth and get pulled down due to gravity, where it will get disintegrated in the upper layers of the atmosphere. The larger pieces of the debris can be directed towards the oceans. This method of removal of the orbital debris will enable safer passage for future human-crewed missions into space.

Keywords: Satellites, Space Debris, Laser Ablation, altitude, Kessler syndrome, Newton’s third law of motion

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1260 Inverse Mode Shape Problem of Hand-Arm Vibration (Humerus Bone) for Bio-Dynamic Response Using Varying Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ajay R, Rammohan B, Sridhar K S S, Gurusharan N

Abstract:

The objective of the work is to develop a numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem by determining the cross-sectional area of a structure for the desired mode shape via the vibration response study of the humerus bone, which is in the form of a cantilever beam with anisotropic material properties. The humerus bone is the long bone in the arm that connects the shoulder to the elbow. The mode shape is assumed to be a higher-order polynomial satisfying a prescribed set of boundary conditions to converge the numerical algorithm. The natural frequency and the mode shapes are calculated for different boundary conditions to find the cross-sectional area of humerus bone from Eigenmode shape with the aid of the inverse mode shape algorithm. The cross-sectional area of humerus bone validates the mode shapes of specific boundary conditions. The numerical method to solve the inverse mode shape problem is validated in the biomedical application by finding the cross-sectional area of a humerus bone in the human arm.

Keywords: cross-sectional area, mode shape, Humerus bone, Inverse mode shape problem

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1259 New Modification Negative Stiffness Device with Constant Force-Displacement Characteristic for Seismic Protection of Structures

Authors: Yang Yu, Huan Li, Jianchun Li, Yancheng Li

Abstract:

As a seismic protection method of civil and engineering structures, weakening and damping is effective during the elastic region, while it somehow leads to the early yielding of the entire structure accompanying with large excursions and permanent deformations. Adaptive negative stiffness device is attractive for realizing yielding property without changing the stiffness of the primary structure. In this paper, a new modification negative stiffness device (MNSD) with constant force-displacement characteristic is proposed by combining a magnetic negative stiffness spring, a piecewise linear positive spring and a passive damper with a certain adaptive stiffness device. The proposed passive control MNSD preserves no effect under small excitation. When the displacement amplitude increases beyond the pre-defined yielding point, the force-displacement characteristics of the system with MNSD will keep constant. The seismic protection effect of the MNSD is evaluated by employing it to a single-degree-of-freedom system under sinusoidal excitation, and real earthquake waves. By comparative analysis, the system with MNSD performs better on reducing acceleration and displacement response under different displacement amplitudes than the scenario without it and the scenario with unmodified certain adaptive stiffness device.

Keywords: adaptive stiffness, negative stiffness, weakening and yielding, constant force-displacement characteristic

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1258 An Optimization Algorithm for Reducing the Liquid Oscillation in the Moving Containers

Authors: Reza Babajanivalashedi, Stefania Lo Feudo, Jean-Luc Dion

Abstract:

Liquid sloshing is a crucial problem for the dynamic of moving containers in the packaging industries. Sloshing issues have been so far mainly modeled within the framework of fluid dynamics or by using equivalent mechanical models with different kinds of movements and shapes of containers. Nevertheless, these approaches do not allow to determinate the shape of the free surface of the liquid in case of the irregular shape of the moving containers, so that experimental measurements may be required. If there is too much slosh in the moving tank, the liquid can be splashed out on the packages. So, the free surface oscillation must be controlled/reduced to eliminate the splashing. The purpose of this research is to propose an optimization algorithm for finding an optimum command law to reduce surface elevation. In the first step, the free surface of the liquid is simulated based on the separation variable and weak formulation models. Then Genetic and Gradient algorithms are developed for finding the optimum command law. The optimum command law is compared with existing command laws, and the results show that there is a significant difference in surface oscillation between optimum and existing command laws. This algorithm is applicable for different varieties of bottles in case of using the camera for detecting the liquid elevation, and it can produce new command laws for different kinds of tanks to reduce the surface oscillation and remove the splashing phenomenon.

Keywords: optimization algorithm, sloshing phenomenon, separation variables, weak formulation, command law

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1257 Comparison between the Performances of Different Boring Bars in the Internal Turning of Long Overhangs

Authors: Wallyson Thomas, Zsombor Fulop, Attila Szilagyi

Abstract:

Impact dampers are mainly used in the metal-mechanical industry in operations that generate too much vibration in the machining system. Internal turning processes become unstable during the machining of deep holes, in which the tool holder is used with long overhangs (high length-to-diameter ratios). The devices coupled with active dampers, are expensive and require the use of advanced electronics. On the other hand, passive impact dampers (PID – Particle Impact Dampers) are cheaper alternatives that are easier to adapt to the machine’s fixation system, once that, in this last case, a cavity filled with particles is simply added to the structure of the tool holder. The cavity dimensions and the diameter of the spheres are pre-determined. Thus, when passive dampers are employed during the machining process, the vibration is transferred from the tip of the tool to the structure of the boring bar, where it is absorbed by the fixation system. This work proposes to compare the behaviors of a conventional solid boring bar and a boring bar with a passive impact damper in turning while using the highest possible L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) of the tool and an Easy Fix fixation system (also called: Split Bushing Holding System). It is also intended to optimize the impact absorption parameters, as the filling percentage of the cavity and the diameter of the spheres. The test specimens were made of hardened material and machined in a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) lathe. The laboratory tests showed that when the cavity of the boring bar is totally filled with minimally spaced spheres of the largest diameter, the gain in absorption allowed of obtaining, with an L/D equal to 6, the same surface roughness obtained when using the solid boring bar with an L/D equal to 3.4. The use of the passive particle impact damper resulted in, therefore, increased static stiffness and reduced deflexion of the tool.

Keywords: active damper, fixation system, hardened material, passive damper

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1256 Computational Fluid Dynamics Design and Analysis of Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Devices for a Mazda T3500 Truck

Authors: Basil Nkosilathi Dube, Wilson R. Nyemba, Panashe Mandevu

Abstract:

In highway driving, over 50 percent of the power produced by the engine is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, which is a force that opposes a body’s motion through the air. Aerodynamic drag and thus fuel consumption increase rapidly at speeds above 90kph. It is desirable to minimize fuel consumption. Aerodynamic drag reduction in highway driving is the best approach to minimize fuel consumption and to reduce the negative impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on the natural environment. Fuel economy is the ultimate concern of automotive development. This study aims to design and analyze drag-reducing devices for a Mazda T3500 truck, namely, the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings. The aerodynamic effects of adding these append devices were subsequently investigated. To accomplish this, two 3D CAD models of the Mazda truck were designed using the Design Modeler. One, with these, append devices and the other without. The models were exported to ANSYS Fluent for computational fluid dynamics analysis, no wind tunnel tests were performed. A fine mesh with more than 10 million cells was applied in the discretization of the models. The realizable k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment was used to solve the Reynold’s Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. In order to simulate the highway driving conditions, the tests were simulated with a speed of 100 km/h. The effects of these devices were also investigated for low-speed driving. The drag coefficients for both models were obtained from the numerical calculations. By adding the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings, the simulations show a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag at a higher speed. The results show that the greatest drag reduction is obtained when both devices are used. Visuals from post-processing show that the rear fairing minimized the low-pressure region at the rear of the trailer when moving at highway speed. The rear fairing achieved this by streamlining the turbulent airflow, thereby delaying airflow separation. For lower speeds, there were no significant differences in drag coefficients for both models (original and modified). The results show that these devices can be adopted for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the Mazda T3500 truck at highway speeds.

Keywords: Fuel Consumption, FLUENT, computation fluid dynamics, aerodynamic drag

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1255 Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Authors: Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Abstract:

The vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) rotor model having porosities and micro-voids is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The FG shaft is mounted with a steel disc located at the midspan. The shaft ends are supported on isotropic bearings. The FG material is composed of a metallic (stainless-steel) and ceramic phase (zirconium oxide) as its constituent phases. The layer wise material property variation is governed by power law. Material property equations are developed for the porosity modelling. Python code is developed to assign the material properties to each layer including the effect of porosities. ANSYS commercial software is used to extract the natural frequencies and whirl frequencies for the FG shaft system. The obtained results show the influence of porosity volume fraction and power-law index, on the vibration characteristics of the ceramic-based FG shaft system.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, functionally graded material, power law, Porosity volume fraction

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1254 Detection of Coupling Misalignment in a Rotor System Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Prabhakar Sathujoda

Abstract:

Vibration analysis of a misaligned rotor coupling bearing system has been carried out while decelerating through its critical speed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to model the rotor system and simulate flexural vibrations. A flexible coupling with a frictionless joint is considered in the present work. The continuous wavelet transform is used to extract the misalignment features from the simulated time response. Subcritical speeds at one-half, one-third, and one-fourth the critical speed have appeared in the wavelet transformed vibration response of a misaligned rotor coupling bearing system. These features are also verified through a parametric study.

Keywords: continuous wavelet transform, Rotor System, Flexible Coupling, Sub Critical Speed

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1253 Tip Clearance and Performance Impact Due to Casing Thermal Distortion from Active Clearance Control System

Authors: Taehong Kim, Marcia Johnson, Daniel Reisenauer

Abstract:

Gas turbine engine optimizes blades tip clearances to improve fuel efficiency and performance. In a large commercial engine, performance impact due to casing distortion predicts significant SFC impact. As one of major contributors, thermal distortion is caused by non-uniform temperature distribution due to hot stream or cooling flow over the casing through core and under cowl. The study demonstrates temperature data to identify thermal variation in different thermal conditions from outside of casing. Temperature was measured in embedded thermocouples at several locations of casing where cooling flow, directly and indirectly, hit in flight test engine. The test result observes local thermal variation for different jet impingement over the case and casing thermal distortion. As a result, the delta of temperature between center jet and last jet is 0.1-0.15 of η normalized by combustion temperatures and inlet temperature at steady state cruise point, and the thermal radial distortion is calculated in approximately 0.001-0.002 inch in large commercial engines. The study highlights the importance of uniform temperature condition to improve engine performance as blade tip clearance design includes this non-axisymmetric factor to avoid unexpected rub and tip loss during engine operation. The study discusses current mechanical and system design, and advanced technologies to minimize the stationary casing distortion and achieve performance improvement.

Keywords: Performance, cross-flow, distortion, impinging jet, active clearance control, tip clearance

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1252 Construction of a Desktop Arduino Controlled Propeller Test Stand

Authors: Brian Kozak, Ryan Ferguson, Evan Hockeridge

Abstract:

Aerospace engineering and aeronautical engineering students studying propulsion often learn about propellers and their importance in aviation propulsion. In order to reinforce concepts introduced in the classroom, laboratory projects are used. However, to test a full scale propeller, an engine mounted on a test stand must be used. This engine needs to be enclosed in a test cell for appropriated safety requirements, is expensive to operate, and requires a significant amount of time to change propellers. In order to decrease costs and time requirements, the authors designed and built an electric motor powered desktop Arduino controlled test stand. This test stand is used to enhance student understanding of propeller size and pitch on thrust. The test stand can accommodate propellers up to 25 centimeters in diameter. The code computer allowed for the motor speed to be increased or decreased by 1% per second. Outputs that are measured are thrust, motor rpm, amperes, voltage, and motor temperature. These data are exported as a .CVS file and can be imported into a graphing program for data analysis.

Keywords: Arduino, propeller, Laboratory Project, Test stand

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1251 Mechanical Properties of Enset Fibers Obtained from Different Breeds of Enset Plant

Authors: Diriba T. Balcha, Boris Kuling, Oliver Hensel, Eyassu Woldesenbet

Abstract:

Abstract— Enset fiber is agricultural waste and available in a surplus amount in Ethiopia. However, the hypothesized variation in properties of this fiber due to diversity of its plant source breed, fiber position within plant stem and chemical treatment duration had not proven that its application for the development of composite products is problematic. Currently, limited data is known on the functional properties of the fiber as a potential functional fiber. Thus, an effort is made in this study to narrow the knowledge gaps by characterizing it. The experimental design was conducted using Design-Expert software and the tensile test was conducted on Enset fiber from 10 breeds: Dego, Dirbo, Gishera, Itine, Siskela, Neciho, Yesherkinke, Tuzuma, Ankogena, and Kucharkia. The effects of 5% Na-OH surface treatment duration and fiber location along and across the plant pseudostem was also investigated. The test result shows that the rupture stress variation is not significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds. However, strain variation is significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds that breed Dego fiber have the highest strain before failure. Surface treated fibers showed improved rupture strength and elastic modulus per 24 hours of treatment duration. Also, the result showed that chemical treatment can deteriorate the load-bearing capacity of the fiber. The raw fiber has the highest load-bearing capacity than the treated fiber. And, it was noted that both the rupture stress and strain increases in the top to bottom gradient whereas there is no significant variation across the stem. Elastic modulus variation both along and across the stem was insignificant. The rupture stress, elastic modulus and strain result of Enset fiber are 360.11±181.86 Mpa, 12.80 ± 6.85 GPa and 0.04±0.02 mm/mm respectively. These results show that Enset fiber is comparable to other natural fibers such as abaca, banana and sisal fibers and can be used as alternatives natural fiber for composites application. Besides, the insignificant variation of properties among breeds and across stem is essential for all breeds and all leaf sheath of the Enset fiber plant for fiber extraction. The use of short natural fiber over the long is preferable to reduce the significant variation of properties along the stem or fiber direction. In conclusion, Enset fiber application for composite product design and development is mechanically feasible.

Keywords: Natural Fiber, Agricultural waste, Chemical Treatment, Fiber characteristics

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