Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1207

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1207 Vibration Control of a Tracked Vehicle Driver Seat via Magnetorheological Damper

Authors: Wael Ata

Abstract:

Tracked vehicles are exposed to severe operating conditions during their battlefield. The suspension system of such vehicles plays a crucial role in the mitigation of vibration transmitted from unevenness to vehicle hull and consequently to the crew. When the vehicles are crossing the road with high speeds, the driver is subjected to a high magnitude of vibration dose. This is because of the passive suspension system of the tracked vehicle lack the effectiveness to withstand induced vibration from irregular terrains. This paper presents vibration control of a semi-active seat suspension incorporating Magnetorheological (MR) damper fitted to a driver seat of an amphibious tracked vehicle (BMP-1). A half vehicle model featuring the proposed semi-active seat suspension is developed and its governing equations are derived. Two controllers namely; skyhook and fuzzy logic skyhook based to suppress the vibration dose at driver’s seat are formulated. The results show that the controlled MR suspension seat along with the vehicle model has substantially suppressed vibration levels at the driver’s seat under bump and sinusoidal excitations

Keywords: Tracked Vehicles, MR dampers, Skyhook controller, fuzzy logic controller

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1206 Vibration Control of Hermetic Compressors Using Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics Theory

Authors: Armin Amindari

Abstract:

Hermetic compressors are used widely for refrigeration, heat pump, and air conditioning applications. With the improvement of energy conservation and environmental protection requirements, inverter compressors that operates at different speeds have become increasingly attractive in the industry. Although speed change capability is more efficient, passing through resonant frequencies may lead to excessive vibrations. In this work, an integrated vibration control approach based on flexible multi-body dynamics theory is used for optimizing the vibration amplitudes of the compressor at different operating speeds. To examine the compressor vibrations, all the forces and moments exerted on the cylinder block were clarified and minimized using balancers attached to the upper and lower ends of the motor rotor and crankshaft. The vibration response of the system was simulated using Motionview™ software. In addition, mass-spring optimization was adopted to shift the resonant frequencies out of the operating speeds. The modal shapes of the system were studied using Optistruct™ solver. Using this approach, the vibrations were reduced up to 56% through dynamic simulations. The results were in high agreement with various experimental test data. In addition, the vibration resonance problem observed at low speeds was solved by shifting the resonant frequencies through optimization studies.

Keywords: vibration, MBD, compressor, hermetic

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1205 Surface Pressure Distributions for a Forebody Using Pressure Sensitive Paint

Authors: Yi-Xuan Huang, Kung-Ming Chung, Ping-Han Chung

Abstract:

Pressure sensitive paint (PSP), which relies on the oxygen quenching of a luminescent molecule, is an optical technique used in wind-tunnel models. A full-field pressure pattern with low aerodynamic interference can be obtained, and it is becoming an alternative to pressure measurements using pressure taps. In this study, a polymer-ceramic PSP was used, using toluene as a solvent. The porous particle and polymer were silica gel (SiO₂) and RTV-118 (3g:7g), respectively. The compound was sprayed onto the model surface using a spray gun. The absorption and emission spectra for Ru(dpp) as a luminophore were respectively 441-467 nm and 597 nm. A Revox SLG-55 light source with a short-pass filter (550 nm) and a 14-bit CCD camera with a long-pass (600 nm) filter were used to illuminate PSP and to capture images. This study determines surface pressure patterns for a forebody of an AGARD B model in a compressible flow. Since there is no experimental data for surface pressure distributions available, numerical simulation is conducted using ANSYS Fluent. The lift and drag coefficients are calculated and in comparison with the data in the open literature. The experiments were conducted using a transonic wind tunnel at the Aerospace Science and Research Center, National Cheng Kung University. The freestream Mach numbers were 0.83, and the angle of attack ranged from -4 to 8 degree. Deviation between PSP and numerical simulation is within 5%. However, the effect of the setup of the light source should be taken into account to address the relative error.

Keywords: pressure sensitive paint, forebody, surface pressure, compressible flow

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1204 Effects of Aircraft Wing Configuration on Aerodynamic Efficiency

Authors: Aderet Pantierer, Shmuel Pantierer, Atif Saeed, Amir Elzawawy

Abstract:

In recent years, air travel has seen volatile growth. Due to this growth, the maximization of efficiency and space utilization has been a major issue for aircraft manufacturers. Elongation of the wingspan of aircraft has resulted in increased lift; and, thereby, efficiency. However, increasing the wingspan of aircraft has been detrimental to the manufacturing process and has led to airport congestion and required airport reconfiguration to accommodate the extended wingspans of aircraft. This project outlines differing wing configurations of a commercial aircraft and the effects on the aerodynamic loads produced. Multiple wing configurations are analyzed using Finite Element Models. These models are then validated by testing one wing configuration in a wind tunnel under laminar flow and turbulent flow conditions. The wing configurations to be tested include high and low wing aircraft, as well as various combinations of the two, including a unique model hereon referred to as an infinity wing. The infinity wing configuration consists of both a high and low wing, with the two wings connected by a vertical airfoil. This project seeks to determine if a wing configuration consisting of multiple airfoils produces more lift than the standard wing configurations and is able to provide a solution to manufacturing limitations as well as airport congestion. If the analysis confirms the hypothesis, a trade study will be performed to determine if and when an arrangement of multiple wings would be cost-effective.

Keywords: aerodynamics, aircraft design, aircraft efficiency, wing configuration, wing design

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1203 Optimal-Based Structural Vibration Attenuation Using Nonlinear Tuned Vibration Absorbers

Authors: Pawel Martynowicz

Abstract:

Vibrations are a crucial problem for slender structures such as towers, masts, chimneys, wind turbines, bridges, high buildings, etc., that is why most of them are equipped with vibration attenuation or fatigue reduction solutions. In this work, a slender structure (i.e., wind turbine tower-nacelle model) equipped with nonlinear, semiactive tuned vibration absorber(s) is analyzed. For this study purposes, magnetorheological (MR) dampers are used as semiactive actuators. Several optimal-based approaches to structural vibration attenuation are investigated against the standard ‘ground-hook’ law and passive tuned vibration absorber(s) implementations. The common approach to optimal control of nonlinear systems is offline computation of the optimal solution, however, so determined open loop control suffers from lack of robustness to uncertainties (e.g., unmodelled dynamics, perturbations of external forces or initial conditions), and thus perturbation control techniques are often used. However, proper linearization may be an issue for highly nonlinear systems with implicit relations between state, co-state, and control. The main contribution of the author is the development as well as numerical and experimental verification of the Pontriagin maximum-principle-based vibration control concepts that produce directly actuator control input (not the demanded force), thus force tracking algorithm that results in control inaccuracy is entirely omitted. These concepts, including one-step optimal control, quasi-optimal control, and optimal-based modified ‘ground-hook’ law, can be directly implemented in online and real-time feedback control for periodic (or semi-periodic) disturbances with invariant or time-varying parameters, as well as for non-periodic, transient or random disturbances, what is a limitation for some other known solutions. No offline calculation, excitations/disturbances assumption or vibration frequency determination is necessary, moreover, all of the nonlinear actuator (MR damper) force constraints, i.e., no active forces, lower and upper saturation limits, hysteresis-type dynamics, etc., are embedded in the control technique, thus the solution is optimal or suboptimal for the assumed actuator, respecting its limitations. Depending on the selected method variant, a moderate or decisive reduction in the computational load is possible compared to other methods of nonlinear optimal control, while assuring the quality and robustness of the vibration reduction system, as well as considering multi-pronged operational aspects, such as possible minimization of the amplitude of the deflection and acceleration of the vibrating structure, its potential and/or kinetic energy, required actuator force, control input (e.g. electric current in the MR damper coil) and/or stroke amplitude. The developed solutions are characterized by high vibration reduction efficiency – the obtained maximum values of the dynamic amplification factor are close to 2.0, while for the best of the passive systems, these values exceed 3.5.

Keywords: magnetorheological damper, nonlinear tuned vibration absorber, optimal control, real-time structural vibration attenuation, wind turbines

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1202 Extension-Torsion-Inflation Coupling in Compressible Magnetoelastomeric Tubes with Helical Magnetic Anisotropy

Authors: Darius Diogo Barreto, Ajeet Kumar, Sushma Santapuri

Abstract:

We present an axisymmetric variational formulation for coupled extension-torsion-inflation deformation in magnetoelastomeric thin tubes when both azimuthal and axial magnetic fields are applied. The tube's material is assumed to have a preferred magnetization direction which imparts helical magnetic anisotropy to the tube. We have also derived the expressions of the first derivative of free energy per unit tube's undeformed length with respect to various imposed strain parameters. On applying the thin tube limit, the two nonlinear ordinary differential equations to obtain the in-plane radial displacement and radial component of the Lagrangian magnetic field get converted into a set of three simple algebraic equations. This allows us to obtain simple analytical expressions in terms of the applied magnetic field, magnetization direction, and magnetoelastic constants, which tell us how these parameters can be tuned to generate positive/negative Poisson's effect in such tubes. We consider both torsionally constrained and torsionally relaxed stretching of the tube. The study can be useful in designing magnetoelastic tubular actuators.

Keywords: nonlinear magnetoelasticity, extension-torsion coupling, negative Poisson's effect, helical anisotropy, thin tube

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1201 Flutter Control Analysis of an Aircraft Wing Using Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Timothee Gidenne, Xia Pinqi

Abstract:

In this paper, an investigation of the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced polymer as an actuator for an active flutter suppression to counter the flutter phenomena is conducted. The goal of this analysis is to establish a link between the behavior of the control surface and the actuators to demonstrate the veracity of using such a suppression system for the aeronautical field. A preliminary binary flutter model using simplified unsteady aerodynamics is developed to study the behavior of the wing while reaching the flutter speed and when the control system suppresses the flutter phenomena. The Timoshenko beam theory for bilayer materials is used to match the response of the control surface with the CNTs reinforced polymer (CNRP) actuators. According to Timoshenko theory, results show a good and realistic response for such a purpose. Even if the results are still preliminary, they show evidence of the potential use of CNRP for control surface actuation for the small-scale and lightweight system.

Keywords: actuators, aeroelastic, aeroservoelasticity, carbon nanotubes, flutter, flutter suppression

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1200 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

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1199 Effect of Wavy Leading-Edges on Wings in Different Planetary Atmospheres

Authors: Vaibhav Sharma, Vatasta Koul, Ayush Gupta

Abstract:

Today we are unmarking the secrets of the universe by exploring different stars and planets, and most of the space exploration is done by unmanned space robots. In addition to our planet Earth, there is evidence that shows other astronomical objects in our solar system such as Venus, Mars, Saturn’s moon Titan, and Uranus support the flight of fixed-wing air vehicles. In this paper, we take forward the concept of the presence of large rounded tubercles along the leading edge of a wing and use it as a passive flow control device that will help in improving its aerodynamic performance and maneuverability. Furthermore, in this research, aerodynamic measurements and performance analysis of wavy leading tubercles on the fixed wings are carried out after the determination of the flow conditions on the selected planetary bodies. Different combinations of wavelength and amplitude for the sinusoidal modifications on the leading edge are analyzed, and simulations are carried out for three-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil at different angles of attack (AOA) maintaining unity aspect ratio (AR). Tubercles have consistently demonstrated the ability to delay and decrease the severity of stall as per the studies done in the Earth’s atmosphere. Implementing the same design on the leading edges of MAVs and UAVs could make these aircrafts more stable over a greater range of angles of attack in different planetary environments of our solar system.

Keywords: amplitude, NACA0012, tubercles, unmanned space robots

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1198 An Equivalent Circuit Model Approach for Battery Pack Simulation in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Powertrain

Authors: Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka

Abstract:

The progressing need for powertrain electrification calls for more accurate and reliable simulation models. A battery pack serves as the most vital component for energy storage in an electrified powertrain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) do not behave the same way as they age, and there are several environmental factors that account for the degradation of the battery on a system level. Therefore, in this work, a battery model was proposed to study the state of charge (SOC) variation and the internal dynamic changes that contribute to aging and performance degradation in HEV batteries. An equivalent circuit battery model (ECM) is built using MATLAB Simulink to investigate the output characteristics of the lithium-ion battery. The ECM comprises of circuit elements like a voltage source, a series resistor and a parallel RC network connected in series. A parameter estimation study is conducted on the ECM to study the dependencies of the circuit elements with the state of charge (SOC) and the terminal voltage of the battery. The battery model is extended to simulate the temperature dependence of the individual battery cell and the battery pack with the environment. The temperature dependence model accounts for the heat loss due to internal resistance build up in the battery pack during charging, discharging, and due to atmospheric temperature. The model was validated for a lithium-ion battery pack with an independent drive cycle showing a voltage accuracy of 4% and SOC accuracy of about 2%.

Keywords: battery model, hybrid electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, thermal model

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1197 Construction of Large Scale UAVs Using Homebuilt Composite Techniques

Authors: Brian J. Kozak, Joshua D. Shipman, Peng Hao Wang, Blake Shipp

Abstract:

The unmanned aerial system (UAS) industry is growing at a rapid pace. This growth has increased the demand for low cost, custom made and high strength unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The area of most growth is in the area of 25 kg to 200 kg vehicles. Vehicles this size are beyond the size and scope of simple wood and fabric designs commonly found in hobbyist aircraft. These high end vehicles require stronger materials to complete their mission. Traditional aircraft construction materials such as aluminum are difficult to use without machining or advanced computer controlled tooling. However, by using general aviation composite aircraft homebuilding techniques and materials, a large scale UAV can be constructed cheaply and easily. Furthermore, these techniques could be used to easily manufacture cost made composite shapes and airfoils that would be cost prohibitive when using metals. These homebuilt aircraft techniques are being demonstrated by the researchers in the construction of a 75 kg aircraft.

Keywords: composite aircraft, homebuilding, unmanned aerial system industry, UAS, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV

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1196 Dynamic Network Approach to Air Traffic Management

Authors: Catia S. A. Sima, K. Bousson

Abstract:

Congestion in the Terminal Maneuvering Areas (TMAs) of larger airports impacts all aspects of air traffic flow, not only at national level but may also induce arrival delays at international level. Hence, there is a need to monitor appropriately the air traffic flow in TMAs so that efficient decisions may be taken to manage their occupancy rates. It would be desirable to physically increase the existing airspace to accommodate all existing demands, but this question is entirely utopian and, given this possibility, several studies and analyses have been developed over the past decades to meet the challenges that have arisen due to the dizzying expansion of the aeronautical industry. The main objective of the present paper is to propose concepts to manage and reduce the degree of uncertainty in the air traffic operations, maximizing the interest of all involved, ensuring a balance between demand and supply, and developing and/or adapting resources that enable a rapid and effective adaptation of measures to the current context and the consequent changes perceived in the aeronautical industry. A central task is to emphasize the increase in air traffic flow management capacity to the present day, taking into account not only a wide range of methodologies but also equipment and/or tools already available in the aeronautical industry. The efficient use of these resources is crucial as the human capacity for work is limited and the actors involved in all processes related to air traffic flow management are increasingly overloaded and, as a result, operational safety could be compromised. The methodology used to answer and/or develop the issues listed above is based on the advantages promoted by the application of Markov Chain principles that enable the construction of a simplified model of a dynamic network that describes the air traffic flow behavior anticipating their changes and eventual measures that could better address the impact of increased demand. Through this model, the proposed concepts are shown to have potentials to optimize the air traffic flow management combined with the operation of the existing resources at each moment and the circumstances found in each TMA, using historical data from the air traffic operations and specificities found in the aeronautical industry, namely in the Portuguese context.

Keywords: air traffic flow, terminal maneuvering area, TMA, air traffic management, ATM, Markov chains

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1195 Study on the Stability of Large Space Expandable Parabolic Cylindrical Antenna

Authors: Chuanzhi Chen, Wenjing Yu

Abstract:

Parabolic cylindrical deployable antenna has the characteristics of wide cutting width, strong directivity, high gain, and easy automatic beam scanning. While, due to its large size, high flexibility, and strong coupling, the deployment process of parabolic cylindrical deployable antenna presents such problems as unsynchronized deployment speed, large local deformation and discontinuous switching of deployment state. A large deployable parabolic cylindrical antenna is taken as the research object, and the problem of unfolding process instability of cylindrical antenna is studied in the paper, which is caused by multiple factors such as multiple closed loops, elastic deformation, motion friction, and gap collision. Firstly, the multi-flexible system dynamics model of large-scale parabolic cylindrical antenna is established to study the influence of friction and elastic deformation on the stability of large multi-closed loop antenna. Secondly, the evaluation method of antenna expansion stability is studied, and the quantitative index of antenna configuration design is proposed to provide a theoretical basis for improving the overall performance of the antenna. Finally, through simulation analysis and experiment, the development dynamics and stability of large-scale parabolic cylindrical antennas are verified by in-depth analysis, and the principles for improving the stability of antenna deployment are summarized.

Keywords: multibody dynamics, expandable parabolic cylindrical antenna, stability, flexible deformation

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1194 Influence of Geometrical Parameters of a Wind Turbine on the Optimal Tip-Speed Ratio

Authors: Zdzislaw Piotr Kaminski, Miroslaw Wendeker, Zbigniew Czyz

Abstract:

The paper describes the geometric model, calculation algorithm and results of the CFD simulation of the airflow around a rotor in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with the ANSYS Fluent computational solver. The CFD method enables creating aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and determining parameters such as torque or power generated by the rotor assembly. The object of the research was a rotor whose construction is based on patent no.PL219985. The conducted tests enabled a mathematical model with a description of the generation of aerodynamic forces acting on each rotor blade. Additionally, this model was compared to the results of the wind tunnel tests. The analysis also focused on the influence of the blade angle on turbine power and the TSR. The research has shown that the turbine blade angle has a significant impact on the optimal value of the TSR.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

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1193 Study of Laser Induced Damage Threshold in HfO₂/SiO₂ Multilayer Films after β-Ray Irradiation

Authors: Meihua Fang, Tao Fei

Abstract:

Post-processing can effectively improve the resistance to laser damage in multilayer films used in a high power laser system. In this work, HfO₂/SiO₂ multilayer films are prepared by e-beam evaporation and then β-ray irradiation is employed as the post-processing method. The particle irradiation affects the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT), which includes defects, surface roughness, packing density, and residual stress. The residual stress that is relaxed during irradiation changes from compressive stress into tensile stress. Our results indicate that appropriate tensile stress can improve LIDT remarkably. In view of the fact that LIDT rises from 8 J/cm² to 12 J/cm², i.e., 50% increase, after the film has been irradiated by 2.2×10¹³/cm² β-ray, the particle irradiation can be used as a controllable and desirable post-processing method to improve the resistance to laser induced damage.

Keywords: β-ray irradiation, multilayer film, residual stress, laser-induced damage threshold

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1192 Investigating the Effectiveness of a 3D Printed Composite Mold

Authors: Peng Hao Wang, Garam Kim, Ronald Sterkenburg

Abstract:

In composite manufacturing, the fabrication of tooling and tooling maintenance contributes to a large portion of the total cost. However, as the applications of composite materials continue to increase, there is also a growing demand for more tooling. The demand for more tooling places heavy emphasis on the industry’s ability to fabricate high quality tools while maintaining the tool’s cost effectiveness. One of the popular techniques of tool fabrication currently being developed utilizes additive manufacturing technology known as 3D printing. The popularity of 3D printing is due to 3D printing’s ability to maintain low material waste, low cost, and quick fabrication time. In this study, a team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students investigated the effectiveness of a 3D printed composite mold. A steel valve cover from an aircraft reciprocating engine was modeled utilizing 3D scanning and computer-aided design (CAD) to create a 3D printed composite mold. The mold was used to fabricate carbon fiber versions of the aircraft reciprocating engine valve cover. The carbon fiber valve covers were evaluated for dimensional accuracy and quality while the 3D printed composite mold was evaluated for durability and dimensional stability. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the understanding of 3D printed composite molds, potential improvements for the molds, and considerations for future tooling design.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, carbon fiber, composite tooling, molds

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1191 Characterization of Nanostructured and Conventional TiAlN and AlCrN Coated ASTM-SA213-T-11 Boiler Steel

Authors: Vikas Chawla, Buta Singh Sidhu, Amita Rani, Amit Handa

Abstract:

The main objective of the present work is microstructural and mechanical characterization of the conventional and nanostructured TiAlN and AlCrN coatings deposited on T-11 boiler steel. In case of conventional coatings, Al-Cr and Ti-Al metallic powders were deposited using plasma spray process followed by gas nitriding of the surface which was done in the lab with optimized parameters after conducting several trials on plasma-sprayed coated specimens. The physical vapor deposition process (PAPVD) was employed for depositing nanostructured TiAlN and AlCrN coatings. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) attachment, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and the X-Ray mapping analysis techniques have been used to study surface and cross-sectional morphology of the coatings. The surface roughness and micro-hardness were also measured. A good adhesion of the conventional thick TiAlN and AlCrN coatings was found. The coatings under study are recommended for the applications to super-heater and re-heater tubes of the boilers based upon the outcomes of the research work.

Keywords: nanostructure, physical vapour deposition, oxides, thin films, electron microscopy

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1190 Landing Performance Improvement Using Genetic Algorithm for Electric Vertical Take Off and Landing Aircrafts

Authors: Willian C. De Brito, Hernan D. C. Munoz, Erlan V. C. Carvalho, Helder L. C. De Oliveira

Abstract:

In order to improve commute time for small distance trips and relieve large cities traffic, a new transport category has been the subject of research and new designs worldwide. The air taxi travel market promises to change the way people live and commute by using the concept of vehicles with the ability to take-off and land vertically and to provide passenger’s transport equivalent to a car, with mobility within large cities and between cities. Today’s civil air transport remains costly and accounts for 2% of the man-made CO₂ emissions. Taking advantage of this scenario, many companies have developed their own Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL) design, seeking to meet comfort, safety, low cost and flight time requirements in a sustainable way. Thus, the use of green power supplies, especially batteries, and fully electric power plants is the most common choice for these arising aircrafts. However, it is still a challenge finding a feasible way to handle with the use of batteries rather than conventional petroleum-based fuels. The batteries are heavy and have an energy density still below from those of gasoline, diesel or kerosene. Therefore, despite all the clear advantages, all electric aircrafts (AEA) still have low flight autonomy and high operational cost, since the batteries must be recharged or replaced. In this sense, this paper addresses a way to optimize the energy consumption in a typical mission of an aerial taxi aircraft. The approach and landing procedure was chosen to be the subject of an optimization genetic algorithm, while final programming can be adapted for take-off and flight level changes as well. A real tilt rotor aircraft with fully electric power plant data was used to fit the derived dynamic equations of motion. Although a tilt rotor design is used as a proof of concept, it is possible to change the optimization to be applied for other design concepts, even those with independent motors for hover and cruise flight phases. For a given trajectory, the best set of control variables are calculated to provide the time history response for aircraft´s attitude, rotors RPM and thrust direction (or vertical and horizontal thrust, for independent motors designs) that, if followed, results in the minimum electric power consumption through that landing path. Safety, comfort and design constraints are assumed to give representativeness to the solution. Results are highly dependent on these constraints. For the tested cases, performance improvement ranged from 5 to 10% changing initial airspeed, altitude, flight path angle, and attitude.

Keywords: air taxi travel, all electric aircraft, batteries, energy consumption, genetic algorithm, landing performance, optimization, performance improvement, tilt rotor, VTOL design

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1189 Effect of Gravity on the Controlled Cooling of a Steel Block by Impinging Water Jets

Authors: E.K.K. Agyeman, P. Mousseau, A. Sarda, D. Edelin

Abstract:

The uniform and controlled cooling of hot metals by the circulation of water in canals remains a challenge due to the phase change of the water and the high heat fluxes associated with the phase change. This is because, during the cooling process, the phases are not uniformly distributed along the canals with the liquid phase dominating at the entrances of the canals and the gaseous phase dominating towards the exits. The difference in thermal properties between both phases leads to a heterogeneous temperature distribution in the part being cooled. Slowing down the cooling process is also a challenge due to the high heat fluxes associated with the phase change of water. This study investigates the use of multiple water jets for the controlled and homogenous cooling of hot metal parts and the effect of gravity on the effectiveness of the cooling process with a potential application in the cooling of composite forming moulds. A hole is bored at the centre of a steel block along its length. The jets are generated from the holes of a perforated steel pipe which is placed along the centre of the hole bored in the steel block. The evolution of the temperature with respect to time on the external surface of the steel block is measured simultaneously by thermocouples and an infrared camera. Different jet positions are tested in order to identify the jet placement configuration that ensures the most homogenous cooling of the block while the cooling speed is controlled by an intermittent impingement of the jets. In order to study the effect of gravity on the cooling process, a scenario where the jets are oriented in the opposite direction to that of gravity is compared to one where the jets are aligned in the same direction as gravity. It’s observed that orienting the jets in the direction of gravity reduces the effectiveness of the cooling process on the face of the block facing the impinging jets. This is due to the formation of a deeper pool of water due to the effect gravity and of the curved surface of the canal. This deeper pool of water influences the boiling regime characterized by a slower bubble evacuation when compared to the scenario where the jets are opposed to gravity.

Keywords: cooling speed, gravity, homogenous cooling, jet impingement

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1188 Development of Surface Modification Technology for Control Element Drive Mechanism Nozzle and Fatigue Enhancement of Ni-Based Alloys

Authors: Auezhan Amanov, Inho Cho, Young-Sik Pyun

Abstract:

Control element drive mechanism (CEDM) nozzle is manufactured as welded on the reactor vessel and currently uses Alloy 690 material. The top of the reactor is equipped with about 100 CEDM nozzles with an internal diameter of about 70 mm. Relatively large Inlet/Outlet nozzles are equipped with two outlet nozzles and four inlet nozzles on the reactor wall. The inner diameter of the nozzle is vulnerable to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and in order to solve this problem, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) treatment is performed on the inner diameter of the nozzle and the weld surface. The ultimate goal is to improve the service life of parts by applying compressive residual stress and suppressing primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The main purpose is to design and fabricate a UNSM treatment device for the internal diameter processing of CEDM nozzles and inlet/outlet nozzles. In order to develop the system, the basic technology such as the development of UNSM tooling is developed and the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of before and after UNSM treatment of reactor nozzle material made of Ni-based alloys using the specimen are compared and evaluated. The inner diameter of the nozzle was treated by a newly developed UNSM treatment under the optimized treatment parameters. It was found that the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of nozzle were improved in comparison with the untreated nozzle, which may be attributed to the increase in hardness, induced compressive residual stress.

Keywords: control element drive mechanism nozzle, fatigue, Ni-based alloy, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification, UNSM

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1187 Study on the Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Pineapple Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan

Abstract:

Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, PALF composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-50% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the PALF/PP composites, untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact and bending properties were observed precisely. It was found that 45wt% of fiber composites showed better mechanical properties than others. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) was observed, 65 MPa and 50 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 1.7 GPa and 0.85 GPa respectively. The PALF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (2.5 kGy to 10 kGy). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 5.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray ) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. The values of TS, BS, TM, and BM of the irradiated (5.0 kGy) composites were found to improve by 19%, 23%, 17% and 25 % over non-irradiated composites. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated PALF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated PALF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.

Keywords: PALF, polypropylene, compression molding technique, gamma radiation, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope

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1186 Hybrid Lateral-Directional Robust Flight Control with Propulsive Systems

Authors: Alexandra Monteiro, K. Bousson, Fernando J. O. Moreira, Ricardo Reis

Abstract:

Fixed-wing flying vehicles are usually controlled by means of control surfaces such as elevators, ailerons, and rudders. The failure of these systems may lead to severe or even fatal crashes. These failures resulted in increased popularity for research activities on propulsion control in the last decades. The present work deals with a hybrid control architecture in which the propulsion-controlled vehicle maintains its traditional control surfaces, addressing the issue of robust lateral-directional dynamics control. The challenges stem from the parameter uncertainties in the stability and control derivatives and some unknown terms in the flight dynamics model. Two approaches are implemented and tested: linear quadratic regulation with robustness characteristics and H∞ control. The problem is centered on roll-yaw controller design with full state-feedback, which is able to deal with a standalone propulsion control mode as well as a hybrid mode combining both propulsion control and conventional control surface concepts while maintaining the original flight maneuverability characteristics. The results for both controllers emphasized very good control performances; however, the H∞ controller showed higher stabilization rates and robustness albeit with a slightly higher control magnitude than using the linear quadratic regulator.

Keywords: robust propulsion control, h-infinity control, lateral-directional flight dynamics, parameter uncertainties

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1185 The conceptualisation of Smart Data Collection and Processing Techniques for Aircraft Wing Applications

Authors: Ramona Dogea, Jorn Mehnen, Dorothy Evans

Abstract:

The emergence of 4ᵗʰ industrial revolution has resulted in significant improvement in the effectiveness of technology uptake across various sectors. The aerospace industries are at the forefront of digital technology usage due to the complexity in their design and operation. Therefore, there is a need to continuously find different ways of exploring the implementation of digital manufacturing technologies in aerospace applications. The aircraft wing is a critical area of an aircraft structure; however, research directed at getting real-time data of their performance in service is not well documented. This project is directed at evaluating concepts based on industry 4.0 to examine techniques for collecting and analysing data in aircraft wings to optimise their operation during harsh environmental conditions. A technique based on large sensor array architecture for collecting data is developed with a complimentary Matlab algorithm capable of processing sensory data for the self-adaptation of aircraft wings in service. It is shown that the developed framework can be utilised in an industry 4 based system for enhancing aircraft wing performance. The results provide information on current cutting-edge technologies that can be utilised for aircraft wing performance optimisation.

Keywords: aircraft wing, industry 4.0, real-time data collection, MATLAB algorithm

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1184 Laser Shock Peening of Additively Manufactured Nickel-Based Superalloys

Authors: Michael Munther, Keivan Davami

Abstract:

One significant roadblock for additively manufactured (AM) parts is the buildup of residual tensile stresses during the fabrication process. These residual stresses are formed due to the intense localized thermal gradients and high cooling rates that cause non-uniform material expansion/contraction and mismatched strain profiles during powder-bed fusion techniques, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The residual stresses adversely affect the fatigue life of the AM parts. Moreover, if the residual stresses become higher than the material’s yield strength, they will lead to acute geometric distortion. These are limiting the applications and acceptance of AM components for safety-critical applications. Herein, we discuss laser shock peening method as an advanced technique for the manipulation of the residual stresses in AM parts. An X-ray diffraction technique is used for the measurements of the residual stresses before and after the laser shock peening process. Also, the hardness of the structures is measured using a nanoindentation technique. Maps of nanohardness and modulus are obtained from the nanoindentation, and a correlation is made between the residual stresses and the mechanical properties. The results indicate that laser shock peening is able to induce compressive residual stresses in the structure that mitigate the tensile residual stresses and increase the hardness of AM IN718, a superalloy, almost 20%. No significant changes were observed in the modulus after laser shock peening. The results strongly suggest that laser shock peening can be used as an advanced post-processing technique to optimize the service lives of critical components for various applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Inconel 718, laser shock peening, residual stresses

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1183 Peridynamic Modeling of an Isotropic Plate under Tensile and Flexural Loading

Authors: Eda Gök

Abstract:

Peridynamics is a new modeling concept of non-local interactions for solid structures. The formulations of Peridynamic (PD) theory are based on integral equations rather than differential equations. Through, undefined equations of associated problems are avoided. PD theory might be defined as continuum version of molecular dynamics. The medium is usually modeled with mass particles bonded together. Particles interact with each other directly across finite distances through central forces named as bonds. The main assumption of this theory is that the body is composed of material points which interact with other material points within a finite distance. Although, PD theory developed for discontinuities, it gives good results for structures which have no discontinuities. In this paper, displacement control of the isotropic plate under the effect of tensile and bending loading has been investigated by means of PD theory. A MATLAB code is generated to create PD bonds and corresponding surface correction factors. Using generated MATLAB code the geometry of the specimen is generated, and the code is implemented in Finite Element Software. The results obtained from non-local continuum theory are compared with the Finite Element Analysis results and analytical solution. The results show good agreement.

Keywords: non-local continuum mechanics, peridynamic theory, solid structures, tensile loading, flexural loading

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1182 Influence of Stacking Sequence on Properties of Sheep-Wool/Glass Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: G. B. Manjunatha

Abstract:

Natural fibers have been considerable demand in recent years due to their ecofriendly and renewable nature. The advantages of low density, acceptable specific properties, better thermal and insulate properties with low cost.In the present study, hybrid composite associating Sheep wool fiber and glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were developed and investigated the effect of stacking sequence on physical and chemical properties. The hybrid composite was designed for engineering applications as an alternative material to glass fiber composites. The hybrid composite laminates were fabricated by using hand lay-up technique at total fiber volume fraction of 60% (Sheep wool fiber 30% and Glass fiber 30%) and 40% reinforcement. The specimen preparation and testing were conducted as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Three different stacking are used. The result shows that tensile and bending tests of sequence of glass fiber between sheep wool fiber have high strength and maximum bending compared to other sequence of composites. At the same time better moisture and chemical absorption were observed.

Keywords: hybrid composites, mechanical properties, polymer composites, stacking sequence

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1181 Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Gradually Tapering Flood Plains

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is the main source of water. It is a form of natural open channel which gives rise to many complex phenomenon of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress and depth averaged velocity. The development of society more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, Conveyance Estimation System (CES) software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel and the results are compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth , velocity distribution

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1180 Effect of UV/Ozone Treatment on the Adhesion Strength of Polymeric Systems

Authors: Marouen Hamdi, Johannes A. Poulis

Abstract:

This study investigates the impact of UV/ozone treatment on the adhesion of ethylene propylene diene methylene (EPDM) rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) materials. The experimental tests consist of contact angle measurements, standardized adhesion tests, and spectroscopic and microscopic observations. Also, commonly-used surface free energy models were applied to characterize the wettability of the materials. Preliminary results show that the treatment enhances the wettability of the examined polymers. Also, it considerably improved the adhesion strength of PVC and ABS and shifted their failure modes from adhesive to cohesive, without a significant effect on EPDM. Spectroscopic characterization showed significant oxidation-induced changes in the chemical structures of treated PVC and ABS surfaces. Also, new morphological changes (microcracks, micro-holes, and wrinkles) were observed on these two materials using the SEM. These chemical and morphological changes on treated PVC and ABS promote more reactivity and mechanical interlocking with the adhesive, which explains the improvement in their adhesion strength. After characterizing the adhesion strength of the systems, accelerated ageing tests in controlled environment chambers will be conducted to determine the effect of temperature, moisture, and UV radiation on the performance of the polymeric bonded joints.

Keywords: accelerated tests, adhesion strength, ageing of polymers, UV/ozone treatment

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1179 Effect of Geometric Imperfections on the Vibration Response of Hexagonal Lattices

Authors: P. Caimmi, E. Bele, A. Abolfathi

Abstract:

Lattice materials are cellular structures composed of a periodic network of beams. They offer high weight-specific mechanical properties and lend themselves to numerous weight-sensitive applications. The periodic internal structure responds to external vibrations through characteristic frequency bandgaps, making these materials suitable for the reduction of noise and vibration. However, the deviation from architectural homogeneity, due to, e.g., manufacturing imperfections, has a strong influence on the mechanical properties and vibration response of these materials. In this work, we present results on the influence of geometric imperfections on the vibration response of hexagonal lattices. Three classes of geometrical variables are used: the characteristics of the architecture (relative density, ligament length/cell size ratio), imperfection type (degree of non-periodicity, cracks, hard inclusions) and defect morphology (size, distribution). Test specimens with controlled size and distribution of imperfections are manufactured through selective laser sintering. The Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) in the form of accelerance are measured, and the modal shapes are captured through a high-speed camera. The finite element method is used to provide insights on the extension of these results to semi-infinite lattices. An updating procedure is conducted to increase the reliability of numerical simulation results compared to experimental measurements. This is achieved by updating the boundary conditions and material stiffness. Variations in FRFs of periodic structures due to changes in the relative density of the constituent unit cell are analysed. The effects of geometric imperfections on the dynamic response of periodic structures are investigated. The findings can be used to open up the opportunity for tailoring these lattice materials to achieve optimal amplitude attenuations at specific frequency ranges.

Keywords: lattice architectures, geometric imperfections, vibration attenuation, experimental modal analysis

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1178 Study of Ultrasonic Waves in Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Composite Plates for the Aerospace Applications

Authors: DucTho Le, Duy Kien Dao, Quoc Tinh Bui, Haidang Phan

Abstract:

The article is concerned with the motion of ultrasonic guided waves in a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate under acoustic sources. Such unidirectional composite material has orthotropic elastic properties as it is very stiff along the fibers and rather compliant across the fibers. The dispersion equations of free Lamb waves propagating in an orthotropic layer are derived that results in the dispersion curves. The connection of these equations to the Rayleigh-Lamb frequency relations of isotropic plates is discussed. By the use of reciprocity in elastodynamics, closed-form solutions of elastic wave motions subjected to time-harmonic loads in the layer are computed in a simple manner. We also consider the problem of Lamb waves generated by a set of time-harmonic sources. The obtained computations can be very useful for developing ultrasound-based methods for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures.

Keywords: lamb waves, fiber-reinforced composite plates, dispersion equations, nondestructive evaluation, reciprocity theorems

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