Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7069

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

7069 Finite Element Model to Investigate the Dynamic Behavior of Ring-Stiffened Conical Shell Fully and Partially Filled with Fluid

Authors: Mohammadamin Esmaeilzadehazimi, Morteza Shayan Arani, Mohammad Toorani, Aouni Lakis


This study uses a hybrid finite element method to predict the dynamic behavior of both fully and partially-filled truncated conical shells stiffened with ring stiffeners. The method combines classical shell theory and the finite element method, and employs displacement functions derived from exact solutions of Sanders' shell equilibrium equations for conical shells. The shell-fluid interface is analyzed by utilizing the velocity potential, Bernoulli's equation, and impermeability conditions to determine an explicit expression for fluid pressure. The equations of motion presented in this study apply to both conical and cylindrical shells. This study presents the first comparison of the method applied to ring-stiffened shells with other numerical and experimental findings. Vibration frequencies for conical shells with various boundary conditions and geometries in a vacuum and filled with water are compared with experimental and numerical investigations, achieving good agreement. The study thoroughly investigates the influence of geometric parameters, stiffener quantity, semi-vertex cone angle, level of water filled in the cone, and applied boundary conditions on the natural frequency of fluid-loaded ring-stiffened conical shells, and draws some useful conclusions. The primary advantage of the current method is its use of a minimal number of finite elements while achieving highly accurate results.

Keywords: finite element method, fluid–structure interaction, conical shell, natural frequency, ring-stiffener

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7068 Electrohydrodynamic Instability and Enhanced Mixing with Thermal Field and Polymer Addition Modulation

Authors: Dilin Chen, Kang Luo, Jian Wu, Chun Yang, Hongliang Yi


Electrically driven flows (EDF) systems play an important role in fuel cells, electrochemistry, bioseparation technology, fluid pumping, and microswimmers. The core scientific problem is multifield coupling, the further development of which depends on the exploration of nonlinear instabilities, force competing mechanisms, and energy budgets. In our study, two categories of electrostatic force-dominated phenomena, induced charge electrosmosis (ICEO) and ion conduction pumping are investigated while considering polymer rheological characteristics and heat gradients. With finite volume methods, the thermal modulation strategy of ICEO under the thermal buoyancy force is numerically analyzed, and the electroelastic instability turn associated with polymer addition is extended. The results reveal that the thermal buoyancy forces are sufficient to create typical thermogravitational convection in competition with electroconvective modes. Electroelastic instability tends to be promoted by weak electrical forces, and polymers effectively alter the unstable transition routes. Our letter paves the way for improved mixing and heat transmission in microdevices, as well as insights into the non-Newtonian nature of electrohydrodynamic dynamics.

Keywords: non-Newtonian fluid, electroosmotic flow, electrohydrodynamic, viscoelastic liquids, heat transfer

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7067 Intensification of Heat Transfer Using AL₂O₃-Cu/Water Hybrid Nanofluid in a Circular Duct Using Inserts

Authors: Muluken Biadgelegn Wollele, Mebratu Assaye Mengistu


Nanotechnology has created new opportunities for improving industrial efficiency and performance. One of the proposed approaches to improving the effectiveness of temperature exchangers is the use of nanofluids to improve heat transfer performance. The thermal conductivity of nanoparticles, as well as their size, diameter, and volume concentration, all played a role in influencing the rate of heat transfer. Nanofluids are commonly used in automobiles, energy storage, electronic component cooling, solar absorbers, and nuclear reactors. Convective heat transfer must be improved when designing thermal systems in order to reduce heat exchanger size, weight, and cost. Using roughened surfaces to promote heat transfer has been tried several times. Thus, both active and passive heat transfer methods show potential in terms of heat transfer improvement. There will be an added advantage of enhanced heat transfer due to the two methods adopted; however, pressure drop must be considered during flow. Thus, the current research aims to increase heat transfer by adding a twisted tap insert in a plain tube using a working fluid hybrid nanofluid (Al₂O₃-Cu) with a base fluid of water. A circular duct with inserts, a tube length of 3 meters, a hydraulic diameter of 0.01 meters, and tube walls with a constant heat flux of 20 kW/m² and a twist ratio of 125 was used to investigate Al₂O₃-Cu/H₂O hybrid nanofluid with inserts. The temperature distribution is better than with conventional tube designs due to stronger tangential contact and swirls in the twisted tape. The Nusselt number values of plain twisted tape tubes are 1.5–2.0 percent higher than those of plain tubes. When twisted tape is used instead of plain tube, performance evaluation criteria improve by 1.01 times. A heat exchanger that is useful for a number of heat exchanger applications can be built utilizing a mixed flow of analysis that incorporates passive and active methodologies.

Keywords: nanofluids, active method, passive method, Nusselt number, performance evaluation criteria

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7066 Thermal Analysis Of Vertical Kiln Dryer For Drying Sunflower Seeds In The Oil Mill "Banat" Ad, Nova Crnja

Authors: Duško Salemović, Aleksandar Dedić, Matilda Lazić, Dragan Halas


The aim of the paper was the thermal balance control of vertical kiln dryer indirect type (VSU-36) for drying sunflower seed, produced by "Cer" - Čačak, capacity 39 [t/h]. The balance control was executed because the dryer damaged by NATO bombing in 1999, and it was planned its reconstruction. The structural and geometric characteristics of the dryer were known, and it was necessary to determine the parameters of: wet air as a drying agent and the sunflower seeds. The thermal balance control was the basis for replacement of damaged parts of dryer during its reconstruction. After that, it was necessary to perform the subsequent calculation of strength. Therefore, since its accuracy was largely dependent on cost-effectiveness and safety of a single drying chamber. Also, the work provides guidelines for the regimes of drying of grain crops with the explanation of specificity of drying sunflowers.

Keywords: sunflower seeds, regimes of drying, vertical kiln dryer, thermal analysis

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7065 Validation of a Reloading Vehicle Design by Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Tuğrul Aksoy, Hüseyin Karabıyık


Reloading vehicles are the vehicles which are generally equipped with a crane and used to carry a stowage from a point and locate onto the vehicle or vice versa. In this study, structural analysis of a reloading vehicle was performed under the loads which are predicted to be exposed under operating conditions via the finite element method. Among the finite element analysis results, the stress and displacement distributions of the vehicle and the contact pressure distributions of the guide rings within the stabilization legs were examined. Vehicle design was improved by strengthening certain parts according to the analysis results. The analyses performed for the final design were verified by the experiments involving strain gauge measurements.

Keywords: structural analysis, reloading vehicle, crane, strain gauge

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7064 Thermal and Geometric Effects on Nonlinear Response of Incompressible Hyperelastic Cylindrical Shells

Authors: Morteza Shayan Arani, Mohammadamin Esmailzadehazimi, Mohammadreza Moeini, Mohammad Toorani, Aouni A. Lakis


This paper investigates the nonlinear response of thin, incompressible, hyperelastic cylindrical shells in the presence of a time-varying temperature field while considering initial geometric imperfections. The governing equations of motion are derived using an improved Donnell's shallow shell theory. The hyperelastic material is modeled using the Mooney-Rivlin model with two parameters, incorporating temperature-dependent terms. The Lagrangian method is applied to obtain the equation of motion. The resulting governing equation is addressed through the Lindstedt-Poincaré and Multiple Scale methods. The linear and nonlinear models presented in this study are verified against existing open literature, demonstrating the accuracy and reliability of the presented model. The study focuses on understanding the influence of temperature variations and geometrical imperfections on the natural frequency and amplitude-frequency response of the systems. Notably, the investigation reveals the coexistence of hardening and softening peaks in the amplitude-frequency response, which vary in magnitude depending on these parameters. Additionally, resonance peaks exhibit changes as a result of temperature and geometric imperfections.

Keywords: hyperelastic material, cylindrical shell, geometrical nonlinearity, material naolinearity, initial geometric imperfection, temperature gradient, hardening and softening

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7063 Knowledge Based Software Model for the Management and Treatment of Malaria Patients: A Case of Kalisizo General Hospital

Authors: Mbonigaba Swale


Malaria is an infection or disease caused by parasites (Plasmodium Falciparum — causes severe Malaria, plasmodium Vivax, Plasmodium Ovale, and Plasmodium Malariae), transmitted by bites of infected anopheles (female) mosquitoes to humans. These vectors comprise of two types in Africa, particularly in Uganda, i.e. anopheles fenestus and Anopheles gambaie (‘example Anopheles arabiensis,,); feeds on man inside the house mainly at dusk, mid-night and dawn and rests indoors and makes them effective transmitters (vectors) of the disease. People in both urban and rural areas have consistently become prone to repetitive attacks of malaria, causing a lot of deaths and significantly increasing the poverty levels of the rural poor. Malaria is a national problem; it causes a lot of maternal pre-natal and antenatal disorders, anemia in pregnant mothers, low birth weights for the newly born, convulsions and epilepsy among the infants. Cumulatively, it kills about one million children every year in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been estimated to account for 25-35% of all outpatient visits, 20-45% of acute hospital admissions and 15-35% of hospital deaths. Uganda is the leading victim country, for which Rakai and Masaka districts are the most affected. So, it is not clear whether these abhorrent situations and episodes of recurrences and failure to cure from the disease are a result of poor diagnosis, prescription and dosing, treatment habits and compliance of the patients to the drugs or the ethical domain of the stake holders in relation to the main stream methodology of malaria management. The research is aimed at offering an alternative approach to manage and deal absolutely with problem by using a knowledge based software model of Artificial Intelligence (Al) that is capable of performing common-sense and cognitive reasoning so as to take decisions like the human brain would do to provide instantaneous expert solutions so as to avoid speculative simulation of the problem during differential diagnosis in the most accurate and literal inferential aspect. This system will assist physicians in many kinds of medical diagnosis, prescribing treatments and doses, and in monitoring patient responses, basing on the body weight and age group of the patient, it will be able to provide instantaneous and timely information options, alternative ways and approaches to influence decision making during case analysis. The computerized system approach, a new model in Uganda termed as “Software Aided Treatment” (SAT) will try to change the moral and ethical approach and influence conduct so as to improve the skills, experience and values (social and ethical) in the administration and management of the disease and drugs (combination therapy and generics) by both the patient and the health worker.

Keywords: knowledge based software, management, treatment, diagnosis

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7062 Developing a Framework for Open Source Software Adoption in a Higher Education Institution in Uganda. A case of Kyambogo University

Authors: Kafeero Frank


This study aimed at developing a frame work for open source software adoption in an institution of higher learning in Uganda, with the case of KIU as a study area. There were mainly four research questions based on; individual staff interaction with open source software forum, perceived FOSS characteristics, organizational characteristics and external characteristics as factors that affect open source software adoption. The researcher used causal-correlation research design to study effects of these variables on open source software adoption. A quantitative approach was used in this study with self-administered questionnaire on a purposively and randomly sampled sample of university ICT staff. Resultant data was analyzed using means, correlation coefficients and multivariate multiple regression analysis as statistical tools. The study reveals that individual staff interaction with open source software forum and perceived FOSS characteristics were the primary factors that significantly affect FOSS adoption while organizational and external factors were secondary with no significant effect but significant correlation to open source software adoption. It was concluded that for effective open source software adoption to occur there must be more effort on primary factors with subsequent reinforcement of secondary factors to fulfill the primary factors and adoption of open source software. Lastly recommendations were made in line with conclusions for coming up with Kyambogo University frame work for open source software adoption in institutions of higher learning. Areas of further research recommended include; Stakeholders’ analysis of open source software adoption in Uganda; Challenges and way forward. Evaluation of Kyambogo University frame work for open source software adoption in institutions of higher learning. Framework development for cloud computing adoption in Ugandan universities. Framework for FOSS development in Uganda IT industry

Keywords: open source software., organisational characteristics, external characteristics, cloud computing adoption

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7061 Scale Up-Mechanochemical Synthesis of High Surface Area Alpha-Alumina

Authors: Sarah Triller, Ferdi Schüth


The challenges encountered in upscaling the mechanochemical synthesis of high surface area α-alumina are investigated in this study. After lab-scale experiments in shaker mills and planetary ball mills, the optimization of reaction parameters of the conversion in the smallest vessel of a scalable mill, named Simoloyer, was developed. Furthermore, the future perspectives by scaling up the conversion in several steps are described. Since abrasion from the steel equipment can be problematic, the process was transferred to a ceramically lined mill, which solved the contamination problem. The recovered alpha-alumina shows a high specific surface area in all investigated scales.

Keywords: mechanochemistry, scale-up, ball milling, ceramic lining

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7060 Investigation of the Brake Force Distribution in Passenger Cars

Authors: Boukhris Lahouari, Bouchetara Mostefa


The active safety of a vehicle is mainly influenced by the properties of the installed braking system. With the increase in road traffic density and travel speeds, increasingly stringent requirements are placed on the vehicle's behaviour during braking. The achievable decelerations are limited by the physical aspect characterized by the coefficient of friction between the tires and the ground. As a result, it follows that an optimized distribution of braking forces becomes necessary for a better use of friction coefficients. This objective could only be achieved if sufficient knowledge is available on the theory of vehicle dynamics during braking and on current standards for the approval of braking systems. This will facilitate the development of a braking force calculation algorithm that will enable an optimized distribution of braking forces to be achieved. Operating safety is conditioned by the requirements of efficiency, progressiveness, regularity or fidelity of a braking system without obviously neglecting the recommendations imposed by the legislator.

Keywords: brake force distribution, distribution diagram, friction coefficient, brake by wire

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7059 Proposals of Exposure Limits for Infrasound From Wind Turbines

Authors: M. Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, T. Wszołek, A. Dudarewicz, P. Małecki, M. Kłaczyński, A. Bortkiewicz


Human tolerance to infrasound is defined by the hearing threshold. Infrasound that cannot be heard (or felt) is not annoying and is not thought to have any other adverse or health effects. Recent research has largely confirmed earlier findings. ISO 7196:1995 recommends the use of G-weighted characteristics for the assessment of infrasound. There is a strong correlation between G-weighted SPL and annoyance perception. The aim of this study was to propose exposure limits for infrasound from wind turbines. However, only a few countries have set limits for infrasound. These limits are usually no higher than 85-92 dBG, and none of them are specific to wind turbines. Over the years, a number of studies have been carried out to determine hearing thresholds below 20 Hz. It has been recognized that 10% of young people would be able to perceive 10 Hz at around 90 dB, and it has also been found that the difference in median hearing thresholds between young adults aged around 20 years and older adults aged over 60 years is around 10 dB, irrespective of frequency. This shows that older people (up to about 60 years of age) retain good hearing in the low frequency range, while their sensitivity to higher frequencies is often significantly reduced. In terms of exposure limits for infrasound, the average hearing threshold corresponds to a tone with a G-weighted SPL of about 96 dBG. In contrast, infrasound at Lp,G levels below 85-90 dBG is usually inaudible. The individual hearing threshold can, therefore be 10-15 dB lower than the average threshold, so the recommended limits for environmental infrasound could be 75 dBG or 80 dBG. It is worth noting that the G86 curve has been taken as the threshold of auditory perception of infrasound reached by 90-95% of the population, so the G75 and G80 curves can be taken as the criterion curve for wind turbine infrasound. Finally, two assessment methods and corresponding exposure limit values have been proposed for wind turbine infrasound, i.e. method I - based on G-weighted sound pressure level measurements and method II - based on frequency analysis in 1/3-octave bands in the frequency range 4-20 Hz. Separate limit values have been set for outdoor living areas in the open countryside (Area A) and for noise sensitive areas (Area B). In the case of Method I, infrasound limit values of 80 dBG (for areas A) and 75 dBG (for areas B) have been proposed, while in the case of Method II - criterion curves G80 and G75 have been chosen (for areas A and B, respectively).

Keywords: infrasound, exposure limit, hearing thresholds, wind turbines

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7058 Effect of Noise at Different Frequencies on Heart Rate Variability - Experimental Study Protocol

Authors: A. Bortkiewcz, A. Dudarewicz, P. Małecki, M. Kłaczyński, T. Wszołek, Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska


Low-frequency noise (LFN) has been recognized as a special environmental pollutant. It is usually considered a broadband noise with the dominant content of low frequencies from 10 Hz to 250 Hz. A growing body of data shows that LFN differs in nature from other environmental noises, which are at comparable levels but not dominated by low-frequency components. The primary and most frequent adverse effect of LFN exposure is annoyance. Moreover, some recent investigations showed that LFN at relatively low A-weighted sound pressure levels (40−45 dB) occurring in office-like areas could adversely affect the mental performance, especially of high-sensitive subjects. It is well documented that high-frequency noise disturbs various types of human functions; however, there is very little data on the impact of LFN on well-being and health, including the cardiovascular system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a sensitive marker of autonomic regulation of the circulatory system. Walker and co-workers found that LFN has a significantly more negative impact on cardiovascular response than exposure to high-frequency noise and that changes in HRV parameters resulting from LFN exposure tend to persist over time. The negative reactions of the cardiovascular system in response to LFN generated by wind turbines (20-200 Hz) were confirmed by Chiu. The scientific aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the spectral-temporal characteristics of LFN and the activity of the autonomic nervous system, considering the subjective assessment of annoyance, sensitivity to this type of noise, and cognitive and general health status. The study will be conducted in 20 male students in a special, acoustically prepared, constantly supervised room. Each person will be tested 4 times (4 sessions), under conditions of non-exposure (sham) and exposure to noise of wind turbines recorded at a distance of 250 meters from the turbine with different frequencies and frequency ranges: acoustic band 20 Hz-20 kHz, infrasound band 5-20 Hz, acoustic band + infrasound band. The order of sessions of the experiment will be randomly selected. Each session will last 1 h. There will be a 2-3 days break between sessions to exclude the possibility of the earlier session influencing the results of the next one. Before the first exposure, a questionnaire will be conducted on noise sensitivity, general health status using the GHQ questionnaire, hearing organ status and sociodemographic data. Before each of the 4 exposures, subjects will complete a brief questionnaire on their mood and sleep quality the night before the test. After the test, the subjects will be asked about any discomfort and subjective symptoms during the exposure. Before the test begins, Holter ECG monitoring equipment will be installed. HRV will be analyzed from the ECG recordings, including time and frequency domain parameters. The tests will always be performed in the morning (9-12) to avoid the influence of diurnal rhythm on HRV results. Students will perform psychological tests 15 minutes before the end of the test (Vienna Test System).

Keywords: neurovegetative control, heart rate variability (HRV), cognitive processes, low frequency noise

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7057 Effects of Repeated Hi̇gh Loadi̇ngs on the Performance of Adhesi̇vely-bonded Si̇ngle Lap Joi̇nts

Authors: Orkun Yavuz, Ferhat Kadioğlu, Mehmet Emin Ercan


This study aims to investigate the effects of repeated high loadings on the performance of adhesively-bonded single lap joints, employing both experimental and numerical approaches. A projectile with mass of 1.25 gr and density of 11.3 gr/cm³ was fired at the joints with a velocity of 279.97 m/s using a specially designed experimental set-up, and the entire experiment was recorded with a high-speed camera. The SLJs were manufactured from 6061 aluminum adherend (AA6061) material and an adhesive film (AF163-2K), a knit film made of thermosetting modified epoxy produced by 3M Scotch-Weld™. The joints, which have a thickness of 4 mm and overlap length of 15 mm, were subjected to 2 shots and 3 shots for the ballistic test, followed by quasi-static tensile testing. When the 2 shots and 3 shots subjected joints were compared to the non-impacted and 1 shot impacted ones, it was fond that while the joints subjected to 2 shots with the 15 mm overlap length mechanically deteriorated, joints subjected to 3 shots experienced rupture at the end of the experiment. Theoretical information has been confirmed by experimental data. The inputs were analyzed in the ABAQUS program using the Johnson-Cook deformation parameters, and experimental results were numerically validated within the program.

Keywords: ballistic performance, adhesive joints, joining techniques, impact analysis

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7056 Design and Stability Analysis of Fixed Wing – VTOL UAV

Authors: Omar Eldenali, Ahmed M. Bufares


There are primarily two types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVs), namely, multirotor and fixed wing. Each type has its own advantages. This study introduces a design of a fixed wing vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAV. The design is classified as ready-to-fly (RTF) fixed wing UAV. This means that the UAV is capable of not only taking off, landing, or hovering like a multirotor aircraft but also cruising like a fixed wing UAV. In this study, the conceptual design of 15 kg takeoff weight twin-tail boom configuration FW-VTOL plane is carried out, the initial sizing of the plane is conducted, and both the horizontal and vertical tail configurations are estimated. Moreover, the power required for each stage of flight is determined. Finally, the stability analysis of the plane based on this design is performed, the results shows that this design based on the suggested flight mission is stable and can be utilized.

Keywords: FW-VTOL, initial sizing, constrain analysis, stability

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7055 On the Equalization of Nonminimum Phase Electroacoustic Systems Using Digital Inverse Filters

Authors: Avelino Marques, Diamantino Freitas


Some important electroacoustic systems, like loudspeaker systems, exhibit a nonminimum phase behavior that poses considerable effort when applying advanced digital signal processing techniques, such as linear equalization. In this paper, the position and the number of zeros and poles of the inverse filter, FIR type or IIR type, designed using time domain techniques, are studied, compared and related to the nonminimum phase zeros of system to be equalized. Conclusions about the impact of the position of the system non-minimum phase zeros, on the length/order of the inverse filter and on the delay of the equalized system are outlined as a guide to previously decide which type of filter will be more adequate.

Keywords: loudspeaker systems, nonminimum phase system, FIR and IIR filter, delay

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7054 An Assumption to Philippine Air Transportation Sustainability in Global Pandemic: Way Forward

Authors: Marwin M. Dela Cruz


Aviation as a transport sector is supportive of the seventeen (17) Sustainable Goals espoused by the United Nations. Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) states that over 18.1 million indirect jobs globally were sustained through the purchase of goods and services by companies in the aviation industry. This supply chain activity contributed approximately $816.4 billion to global GDP. This was achieved through numerous actions to lessen economic uncertainty and challenges. Its impact is not just a by-product of economic activity but of the facilities it generates. As the aviation industry is unifying its efforts, education and training should also come with it. The need for aviation education and training and a well-crafted regulatory policy initiated by lawmakers can provide a better aviation education. The Philippine State College of Aeronautics (PhilSCA), being the only government Higher Education Institution (HEI) in the Philippines, is given a very distinct congressional mandate to offer aviation-related courses to afford those in the aviation industry the opportunity to pursue studies. Having this, the industry has become the precursor and venue of present-day communities. In addition, it becomes an essential measure of a better life.

Keywords: Philippine state college of aeronautics, aviation industry, sustainable goals, aviation education

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7053 Deflection Effect on Mirror for Space Applications

Authors: Maamar Fatouma


Mirror optical performance can experience varying levels of stress and tolerances, which can have a notable impact on optical parametric systems. to ensure proper optical figure and position of mirror mounting within design tolerances, it is crucial to have a robust support structure in place for optical systems. The optical figure tolerance determines the allowable deviation from the ideal form of the mirror and the position tolerance determines the location and orientations of the optical axis of the optical systems. A variety of factors influence the optical figure of the mirror. Included are self-weight (Deflection), excitation from temperature change, temperature gradients and dimensional instability. This study employs an analytical approach and finite element method to examine the effects of stress resulting from mirror mounting on the wavefront passing through the mirror. The combined effect of tolerance and deflection on mirror performance is represented by an error budget. Numerical mirror mounting is presented to illustrate the space application of performance techniques.

Keywords: opto-mechanical, bonded optic, tolerance, self-weight distortion, Rayleigh criteria

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7052 Experimental Investigation of the Aeroacoustics Field for a Rectangular Jet Impinging on a Slotted Plate: Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement before and after the Plate

Authors: Nour Eldin Afyouni, Hassan Assoum, Kamel Abed-Meraim, Anas Sakout


The acoustic of an impinging jet holds significant importance in the engineering field. In HVAC systems, the jet impingement, in some cases, generates noise that destroys acoustic comfort. This paper presents an experimental study of a rectangular air jet impinging on a slotted plate to investigate the correlation between sound emission and turbulence dynamics. The experiment was conducted with an impact ratio L/H = 4 and a Reynolds number Re = 4700. The survey shows that coherent structures within the impinging jet are responsible for self-sustaining tone production. To achieve this, a specific experimental setup consisting of two simultaneous Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (S-PIV) measurements was developed to track vortical structures both before and after the plate, in addition to acoustic measurements. The results reveal a significant correlation between acoustic waves and the passage of coherent structures. Variations in the arrangement of vortical structures between the upstream and downstream sides of the plate were observed. This analysis of flow dynamics can enhance our understanding of slot noise.

Keywords: impinging jet, coherent structures, SPIV, aeroacoustics

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7051 Enhancing Civil Aviation Safety and Security: A Comprehensive Approach

Authors: J.Waldon


The civil aviation industry plays a crucial role in global transportation, connecting people and goods across the world. Ensuring the safety and security of passengers, crew, and aircraft is of paramount importance. This paper aims to address the aspect of training and human factors, amongst others, necessary for enhancing civil aviation safety and security. In this context, we are focusing on the level of attention exhibited in the checking of luggage and travel credentials, with the aim to identify areas of improvement and avoid compromising security and safety at the Nsimalen Airport Yaoundé, Cameroon. We found that there is a lack of proper awareness among both travelers and some staff on the safety and security of goods and passengers. We suggest that improved training and handling, and sensitization in the form of legible billboards are important. Thus, we recommend refresher courses like this one for staff to keep abreast with the fast-changing security landscape in air transport as well as proper sensitization, including health-related issues. In conclusion, we established that the human factors, as well as the frequency of training and refresher courses, have a positive outlook on safety and security in air transport.

Keywords: safety, security, passengers, cargo

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7050 ORR Electrocatalyst For Batteries And Fuel Cells Development With Sio2/carbon Black Based Composite Nanomaterials

Authors: Maryam Kiani


This study focuses on the development of composite nanomaterials based on SiO2 and carbon black for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts in batteries and fuel cells. The aim was to explore the potential of these composite materials as efficient catalysts for ORR, which is a critical process in energy conversion devices. The SiO2/carbon black composite nanomaterials were synthesized using a facile and scalable method. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical properties of the materials were characterized using various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of SiO2 into the carbon black matrix enhanced the ORR performance of the composite material. The composite nanomaterials exhibited improved electrocatalytic activity, enhanced stability, and increased durability compared to pure carbon black. The presence of SiO2 facilitated the formation of active sites, improved electron transfer, and increased the surface area available for ORR. This study contributes to the advancement of battery and fuel cell technology by offering a promising approach for the development of high-performance ORR electrocatalysts. The SiO2/carbon black composite nanomaterials show great potential for improving the efficiency and durability of energy conversion devices, leading to more sustainable and efficient energy solutions.

Keywords: oxygen reduction reaction, batteries, fuel cells, electrrocatalyst

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7049 Brake Force Distribution in Passenger Cars

Authors: Boukhris Lahouari, Bouchetara Mostefa


The active safety of a vehicle is mainly influenced by the properties of the installed braking system. With the increase in road traffic density and travel speeds, increasingly stringent requirements are placed on the vehicle's behaviour during braking. The achievable decelerations are limited by the physical aspect characterized by the coefficient of friction between the tires and the ground. As a result, it follows that an optimized distribution of braking forces becomes necessary for a better use of friction coefficients. This objective could only be achieved if sufficient knowledge is available on the theory of vehicle dynamics during braking and on current standards for the approval of braking systems. These will facilitate the development of a braking force calculation algorithm that will enable an optimized distribution of braking forces to be achieved. Operating safety is conditioned by the requirements of efficiency, progressiveness, regularity or fidelity of a braking system without obviously neglecting the recommendations imposed by the legislator.

Keywords: brake force distribution, distribution diagram, friction coefficient, brake by wire

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7048 Time-Stepping Strategies for Non-Linear Multi-Scale Fluid-Structure Dynamics with Partitioned Coupling

Authors: Vincent Faucher


The present contribution is dedicated to providing some review, insights, and recent advances in the field of time algorithms for fluid-structure dynamics with strongly non-linear structural behaviour solved with a partitioned coupling between specific software. The structural non-linearities are mainly related to contact/impact and/or rupture and fragmentation, implying the resort to explicit time integration for the sake of the robustness of the structure solver. Such a choice naturally introduces time-multiscale problematics in the coupled problem since fast waves setting the critical time step in the structure are likely to generate a significantly more restrictive stability constraint than for the fluid, which, on the other hand, is likely to concentrate most of the computational effort. Several configurations shall be considered to provide significant results for the community. First, the most classical situation of compressible transients with explicit time integration for both fluid and structure will set the basis of the multi-scale time stepping with various sound velocities for fluid and structure. Second, the compressible fluid solver will be replaced by an incompressible CFD solver for a different range of transients in the vibratory dynamics and flow-induced vibrations regime. Here, the question of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian approaches for the fluid shall be particularly considered, with a specific time scale possibly introduced by the management of the arbitrary fluid grid motion itself. Finally, the last configuration will add contact and impacts to the fluid-structure problem, introducing the complementary need for adaptive subcycling strategies following the thorough monitoring of impact history to provide both computational efficiency and accuracy in terms of fluid response to severe discontinuities in the structural forces. Examples will be provided in the field of safety and performance for nuclear-pressurized water reactors. Some past references are provided for illustrative purposes.

Keywords: partitioned coupling, non-linear transients, multi-scale time stepping strategies, adaptive algorithms

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7047 Immersed Boundary Method for Fluid-Structure Interaction in Compressible Flows with the Lattice-Boltzmann Method

Authors: Hippolyte Lerogeron, Vincent Faucher, Pierre Boivin, Julien Favier


The present study explores innovative methods for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) in compressible flows that involve solid rupture and fragmentation. The objective of this work is to associate performant computing methods and to evaluate the capabilities of a partitioned approach involving LBM for the fluid and non-linear explicit dynamics of the structure. Among the latest innovations in fluid mechanics, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has emerged as a powerful tool, showing favorable characteristics for high-performance computational fluid dynamics. Notably, LBM operations are inherently local and explicit, making them well-suited for highly parallelized computations. Moreover, LBM is low dissipative by nature and is easy to implement even for cases involving complex geometries thanks to the automated generation of cartesian meshes. These characteristics make it a robust choice for addressing FSI scenarios with rapid transient phenomena, like rupture and fragmentation. To model the coupling interactions between fluid and structure, the most recent works in the LBM framework have been focused on direct-forcing Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). This approach is well suited to cartesian mesh frameworks; thereby, it preserves the performance of LBM computation, and it also ensures a high level of fluid-structure coupling. However, in the context of compressible flows, it raises a challenge because density variations and energy equation needs to be considered. This implies introducing thermal boundary conditions on the structure, i.e., imposing temperature or heat flux at the walls. The numerical method is presented and validated on different demonstrative cases, including bow shock simulation of a fixed circular cylinder at Mach 2.0, moving sphere in a subsonic flow, and dynamic response of blast-loaded steel plates in a sod shock tube.

Keywords: fluid structure interaction, lattice Boltzmann method, immersed boundary, compressible flows, rupture, fragmentation

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7046 A Power Management System for Indoor Micro-Drones in GPS-Denied Environments

Authors: Yendo Hu, Xu-Yu Wu, Dylan Oh


GPS-Denied drones open the possibility of indoor applications, including dynamic arial surveillance, inspection, safety enforcement, and discovery. Indoor swarming further enhances these applications in accuracy, robustness, operational time, and coverage. For micro-drones, power management becomes a critical issue, given the battery payload restriction. This paper proposes an application enabling battery replacement solution that extends the micro-drone active phase without human intervention. First, a framework to quantify the effectiveness of a power management solution for a drone fleet is proposed. The operation-to-non-operation ratio, ONR, gives one a quantitative benchmark to measure the effectiveness of a power management solution. Second, a survey was carried out to evaluate the ONR performance for the various solutions. Third, through analysis, this paper proposes a solution tailored to the indoor micro-drone, suitable for swarming applications. The proposed automated battery replacement solution, along with a modified micro-drone architecture, was implemented along with the associated micro-drone. Fourth, the system was tested and compared with the various solutions within the industry. Results show that the proposed solution achieves an ONR value of 31, which is a 1-fold improvement of the best alternative option. The cost analysis shows a manufacturing cost of $25, which makes this approach viable for cost-sensitive markets (e.g., consumer). Further challenges remain in the area of drone design for automated battery replacement, landing pad/drone production, high-precision landing control, and ONR improvements.

Keywords: micro-drone, battery swap, battery replacement, battery recharge, landing pad, power management

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7045 A Novel Approach to 3D Thrust Vectoring CFD via Mesh Morphing

Authors: Umut Yıldız, Berkin Kurtuluş, Yunus Emre Muslubaş


Thrust vectoring, especially in military aviation, is a concept that sees much use to improve maneuverability in already agile aircraft. As this concept is fairly new and cost intensive to design and test, computational methods are useful in easing the preliminary design process. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be utilized in many forms to simulate nozzle flow, and there exist various CFD studies in both 2D mechanical and 3D injection based thrust vectoring, and yet, 3D mechanical thrust vectoring analyses, at this point in time, are lacking variety. Additionally, the freely available test data is constrained to limited pitch angles and geometries. In this study, based on a test case provided by NASA, both steady and unsteady 3D CFD simulations are conducted to examine the aerodynamic performance of a mechanical thrust vectoring nozzle model and to validate the utilized numerical model. Steady analyses are performed to verify the flow characteristics of the nozzle at pitch angles of 0, 10 and 20 degrees, and the results are compared with experimental data. It is observed that the pressure data obtained on the inner surface of the nozzle at each specified pitch angle and under different flow conditions with pressure ratios of 1.5, 2 and 4, as well as at azimuthal angle of 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 degrees exhibited a high level of agreement with the corresponding experimental results. To validate the CFD model, the insights from the steady analyses are utilized, followed by unsteady analyses covering a wide range of pitch angles from 0 to 20 degrees. Throughout the simulations, a mesh morphing method using a carefully calculated mathematical shape deformation model that simulates the vectored nozzle shape exactly at each point of its travel is employed to dynamically alter the divergent part of the nozzle over time within this pitch angle range. The mesh morphing based vectored nozzle shapes were compared with the drawings provided by NASA, ensuring a complete match was achieved. This computational approach allowed for the creation of a comprehensive database of results without the need to generate separate solution domains. The database contains results at every 0.01° increment of nozzle pitch angle. The unsteady analyses, generated using the morphing method, are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data, further confirming the accuracy of the CFD model.

Keywords: thrust vectoring, computational fluid dynamics, 3d mesh morphing, mathematical shape deformation model

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7044 Rapid Design Approach for Electric Long-Range Drones

Authors: Adrian Sauer, Lorenz Einberger, Florian Hilpert


The advancements and technical innovations in the field of electric unmanned aviation over the past years opened the third dimension in areas like surveillance, logistics, and mobility for a wide range of private and commercial users. Researchers and companies are faced with the task of integrating their technology into airborne platforms. Especially start-ups and researchers require unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which can be quickly developed for specific use cases without spending significant time and money. This paper shows a design approach for the rapid development of a lightweight automatic separate-lift-thrust (SLT) electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) UAV prototype, which is able to fulfill basic transportation as well as surveillance missions. The design approach does not require expensive or time-consuming design loop software. Thereby developers can easily understand, adapt, and adjust the presented method for their own project. The approach is mainly focused on crucial design aspects such as aerofoil, tuning, and powertrain.

Keywords: aerofoil, drones, rapid prototyping, powertrain

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7043 Using Virtual Reality for Professional Pilot Training

Authors: Jamie I. Cross, Christine C. Boag-Hodgson


Virtual reality (VR) is becoming the norm in the gaming industry and is being increasingly used for training in industries such as healthcare, tourism, and education. For decades, aviation has used various levels of simulation to enable pilots to acquire and maintain skills, yet the process is costly, time consuming and inflexible. These factors, and that of providing a standardized pilot training syllabus, has led to predictable simulator scenarios which trainees rehearse, promoting rote learning. This leads to an inability to recognize and react appropriately to variations encountered in real life, thus compromising safety. Recent advances in immersive technologies have piqued interest in VR for pilot training since it may offer a more effective solution than traditional simulators. However, the aviation industry is yet to embrace immersive technologies since there is very little empirical evidence of their suitability and a lack of human factors design. The primary limitation of current virtual reality flight simulators (VRFSs) is insufficient ‘presence’, which is essential for a successful virtual experience. Presence, comprising of immersion and involvement factors, can be defined as the feeling of ‘being there’, that is, being present in the virtual environment (VE). An enhanced sense of presence is central to the usefulness and profitability of VR, and presence is considered to be the most important aspect for indicating an enjoyable and successful VR experience. Therefore, sufficient presence is required in a VRFS to enable positive transfer of training to an operational environment. This paper describes a mixed-methods exploratory study that was used to evaluate, test and benchmark different combinations of desktop and VR flight simulators, evaluate different scenarios, assess different immersive technologies, and test various hardware and software configurations. The study also introduced the novel concept of collaboration in a VE using a complex jet aircraft (a Boeing 737-800), since the overall objective of this research is aimed at training professional airline pilots utilising multi-crew operations. The exploratory study also employed industry-proven pilot competency measures, and captured workload and situational awareness (SA) measures. A participant reflective debrief was also used to better understand, from the participant’s perspective, how user-friendly and effective the VRFS was. The outcome was that collaboration in a VE was successfully demonstrated in a complex jet, and the study provided valuable insights in terms of creating a reliable and stable environment that generated sufficient ‘presence’ to proceed with the research. The results also revealed that by incorporating fundamental design principles in a VRFS, participants felt a high degree of presence, and felt immersed and involved. The study found a strong relationship between collaborative communication, workload and SA. The study also found that a VE, where collaborators cannot see one another due to the VR head-mounted displays (HMDs), promotes precise communication, which in turn reduces the collaborator’s workload by utilising less cognitive processing compared to a desktop simulator. In addition, heightened SA was observed in a VE due to increased spatial memory.

Keywords: aerospace, flight simulation, immersive technologies, pilot training, virtual reality

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7042 Suppressing Vibration in a Three-axis Flexible Satellite: An Approach with Composite Control

Authors: Jalal Eddine Benmansour, Khouane Boulanoir, Nacera Bekhadda, Elhassen Benfriha


This paper introduces a novel composite control approach that addresses the challenge of stabilizing the three-axis attitude of a flexible satellite in the presence of vibrations caused by flexible appendages. The key contribution of this research lies in the development of a disturbance observer, which effectively observes and estimates the unwanted torques induced by the vibrations. By utilizing the estimated disturbance, the proposed approach enables efficient compensation for the detrimental effects of vibrations on the satellite system. To govern the attitude angles of the spacecraft, a proportional derivative controller (PD) is specifically designed and proposed. The PD controller ensures precise control over all attitude angles, facilitating stable and accurate spacecraft maneuvering. In order to demonstrate the global stability of the system, the Lyapunov method, a well-established technique in control theory, is employed. Through rigorous analysis, the Lyapunov method verifies the convergence of system dynamics, providing strong evidence of system stability. To evaluate the performance and efficacy of the proposed control algorithm, extensive simulations are conducted. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the combined approach, showcasing significant improvements in the stabilization and control of the satellite's attitude, even in the presence of disruptive vibrations from flexible appendages. This novel composite control approach presented in this paper contributes to the advancement of satellite attitude control techniques, offering a promising solution for achieving enhanced stability and precision in challenging operational environments.

Keywords: attitude control, flexible satellite, vibration control, disturbance observer

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7041 Numerical Calculation and Analysis of Fine Echo Characteristics of Underwater Hemispherical Cylindrical Shell

Authors: Hongjian Jia


A finite-length cylindrical shell with a spherical cap is a typical engineering approximation model of actual underwater targets. The research on the omni-directional acoustic scattering characteristics of this target model can provide a favorable basis for the detection and identification of actual underwater targets. The elastic resonance characteristics of the target are the results of the comprehensive effect of the target length, shell-thickness ratio and materials. Under the conditions of different materials and geometric dimensions, the coincidence resonance characteristics of the target have obvious differences. Aiming at this problem, this paper obtains the omni-directional acoustic scattering field of the underwater hemispherical cylindrical shell by numerical calculation and studies the influence of target geometric parameters (length, shell-thickness ratio) and material parameters on the coincidence resonance characteristics of the target in turn. The study found that the formant interval is not a stable value and changes with the incident angle. Among them, the formant interval is less affected by the target length and shell-thickness ratio and is significantly affected by the material properties, which is an effective feature for classifying and identifying targets of different materials. The quadratic polynomial is utilized to fully fit the change relationship between the formant interval and the angle. The results show that the three fitting coefficients of the stainless steel and aluminum targets are significantly different, which can be used as an effective feature parameter to characterize the target materials.

Keywords: hemispherical cylindrical shell;, fine echo characteristics;, geometric and material parameters;, formant interval

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7040 Analysis Of Non-uniform Characteristics Of Small Underwater Targets Based On Clustering

Authors: Tianyang Xu


Small underwater targets generally have a non-centrosymmetric geometry, and the acoustic scattering field of the target has spatial inhomogeneity under active sonar detection conditions. In view of the above problems, this paper takes the hemispherical cylindrical shell as the research object, and considers the angle continuity implied in the echo characteristics, and proposes a cluster-driven research method for the non-uniform characteristics of target echo angle. First, the target echo features are extracted, and feature vectors are constructed. Secondly, the t-SNE algorithm is used to improve the internal connection of the feature vector in the low-dimensional feature space and to construct the visual feature space. Finally, the implicit angular relationship between echo features is extracted under unsupervised condition by cluster analysis. The reconstruction results of the local geometric structure of the target corresponding to different categories show that the method can effectively divide the angle interval of the local structure of the target according to the natural acoustic scattering characteristics of the target.

Keywords: underwater target;, non-uniform characteristics;, cluster-driven method;, acoustic scattering characteristics

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