Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6901

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

6901 Performance of Non-toxic, Corrosion Resistant, and Lubricious Metalworking Fluids under Machining

Authors: Ajay Pratap Singh Lodhi, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

Vegetable oil-based environmentally friendly metalworking fluids (MWFs) are formulated. The tribological performance, cytotoxicity, and corrosion resistance of the formulated fluids (FFs) are evaluated and benchmarked with commercial mineral oil-based MWFs (CF). Results show that FFs exhibited better machining characteristics (roughness, cutting forces, and surface morphology) during machining than CF. MTT assay and Live dead cell assay confirm the cytocompatibility nature of the FFs relative to the toxic CF. Electrochemical analysis shows that FFs and CF exhibited comparable corrosion current density.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, cytotoxicity, machining, MTT assay, Taguchi method, vegetable oil

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6900 Experimental Investigation of Natural Frequency and Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam under Displacement of Concentrated Mass and Load

Authors: Aref Aasi, Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Balaji Panchapakesan

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the free and forced vibration of a beam with two end joints subjected to a concentrated moving mass and a load using the Euler-Bernoulli method. The natural frequency is calculated for different locations of the concentrated mass and load on the beam. The analytical results are verified by the experimental data. The variations of natural frequency as a function of the location of the mass, the effect of the forced frequency on the vibrational amplitude, and the displacement amplitude versus time are investigated. It is discovered that as the concentrated mass moves toward the center of the beam, the natural frequency of the beam and the relative error between experimental and analytical data decreases. There is a close resemblance between analytical data and experimental observations.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, natural frequency, forced vibration, experimental setup

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6899 Design and Manufacture of Removable Nosecone Tips with Integrated Pitot Tubes for High Power Sounding Rocketry

Authors: Bjorn Kierulf, Arun Chundru

Abstract:

Over the past decade, collegiate rocketry teams have emerged across the country with various goals: space, liquid-fueled flight, etc. A critical piece of the development of knowledge within a club is the use of so-called "sounding rockets," whose goal is to take in-flight measurements that inform future rocket design. Common measurements include acceleration from inertial measurement units (IMU's), and altitude from barometers. With a properly tuned filter, these measurements can be used to find velocity, but are susceptible to noise, offset, and filter settings. Instead, velocity can be measured more directly and more instantaneously using a pitot tube, which operates by measuring the stagnation pressure. At supersonic speeds, an additional thermodynamic property is necessary to constrain the upstream state. One possibility is the stagnation temperature, measured by a thermocouple in the pitot tube. The routing of the pitot tube from the nosecone tip down to a pressure transducer is complicated by the nosecone's structure. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) nosecones come with a removable metal tip (without a pitot tube). This provides the opportunity to make custom tips with integrated measurement systems without making the nosecone from scratch. The main design constraint is how the nosecone tip is held down onto the nosecone, using the tension in a threaded rod anchored to a bulkhead below. Because the threaded rod connects into a threaded hole in the center of the nosecone tip, the pitot tube follows a winding path, and the pressure fitting is off-center. Two designs will be presented in the paper, one with a curved pitot tube and a coaxial design that eliminates the need for the winding path by routing pressure through a structural tube. Additionally, three manufacturing methods will be presented for these designs: bound powder filament metal 3D printing, stereo-lithography (SLA) 3D printing, and traditional machining. These will employ three different materials, copper, steel, and proprietary resin. These manufacturing methods and materials are relatively low cost, thus accessible to student researchers. These designs and materials cover multiple use cases, based on how fast the sounding rocket is expected to travel and how important heating effects are - to measure and to avoid melting. This paper will include drawings showing key features and an overview of the design changes necessitated by the manufacture. It will also include a look at the successful use of these nosecone tips and the data they have gathered to date.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, machining, pitot tube, sounding rocketry

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6898 Adaptive Control Approach for an Unmanned Aerial Manipulator

Authors: Samah Riache, Madjid Kidouche

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a nonlinear controller for Aerial Manipulator (AM) consists of a Quadrotor equipped with two degrees of freedom robotic arm. The kinematic and dynamic models were developed by considering the aerial manipulator as a coupled system. The proposed controller was designed using Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control. The objective of our approach is to improve performances and attenuate the chattering drawback using an adaptive algorithm in the discontinuous control part. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy compared with Sliding Mode Controller.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, quadrotor, robotic arm, sliding mode control

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6897 Aerodynamic Design of Axisymmetric Supersonic Nozzle Used by an Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

In this paper, it has been studied the method of optimal design of the supersonic nozzle. It could make viscous axisymmetric nozzles that the quality of their outlet flow is quite desired. In this method, it is optimized the divergent nozzle, at first. The initial divergent nozzle contour is designed through the method of characteristics and adding a suitable boundary layer to the inviscid contour. After that, it is made a proper grid and then simulated flow by the numerical solution and AUSM+ method by using the operation boundary condition. At the end, solution outputs are investigated and optimized. The numerical method has been validated with experimental results. Also, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the present method, the nozzles compared with the previous studies. The comparisons show that the nozzles obtained through this method are sufficiently better in some conditions, such as the flow uniformity, size of the boundary layer, and obtained an axial length of the nozzle. Designing the convergent nozzle part affects by flow uniformity through changing its axial length and input diameter. The results show that increasing the length of the convergent part improves the output flow uniformity.

Keywords: nozzle, supersonic, optimization, characteristic method, CFD

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6896 Constructing a Physics Guided Machine Learning Neural Network to Predict Tonal Noise Emitted by a Propeller

Authors: Arthur D. Wiedemann, Christopher Fuller, Kyle A. Pascioni

Abstract:

With the introduction of electric motors, small unmanned aerial vehicle designers have to consider trade-offs between acoustic noise and thrust generated. Currently, there are few low-computational tools available for predicting acoustic noise emitted by a propeller into the far-field. Artificial neural networks offer a highly non-linear and adaptive model for predicting isolated and interactive tonal noise. But neural networks require large data sets, exceeding practical considerations in modeling experimental results. A methodology known as physics guided machine learning has been applied in this study to reduce the required data set to train the network. After building and evaluating several neural networks, the best model is investigated to determine how the network successfully predicts the acoustic waveform. Lastly, a post-network transfer function is developed to remove discontinuity from the predicted waveform. Overall, methodologies from physics guided machine learning show a notable improvement in prediction performance, but additional loss functions are necessary for constructing predictive networks on small datasets.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, machine learning, propeller, rotor, neural network, physics guided machine learning

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6895 Vibration Propagation in Body-in-White Structures Through Structural Intensity Analysis

Authors: Jamal Takhchi

Abstract:

The understanding of vibration propagation in complex structures such as automotive body in white remains a challenging issue in car design regarding NVH performances. The current analysis is limited to the low frequency range where modal concepts are dominant. Higher frequencies, between 200 and 1000 Hz, will become critical With the rise of electrification. EVs annoying sounds are mostly whines created by either Gears or e-motors between 300 Hz and 2 kHz. Structural intensity analysis was Experienced a few years ago on finite element models. The application was promising but limited by the fact that the propagating 3D intensity vector field is masked by a rotational Intensity field. This rotational field should be filtered using a differential operator. The expression of this operator in the framework of finite element modeling is not yet known. The aim of the proposed work is to implement this operator in the current dynamic solver (NASTRAN) of Stellantis and develop the Expected methodology for the mid-frequency structural analysis of electrified vehicles.

Keywords: structural intensity, NVH, body in white, irrotatational intensity

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6894 A Study of a Plaque Inhibition Through Stenosed Bifurcation Artery considering a Biomagnetic Blood Flow and Elastic Walls

Authors: M. A. Anwar, K. Iqbal, M. Razzaq

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: This numerical study reflects the magnetic field's effect on the reduction of plaque formation due to stenosis in a stenosed bifurcated artery. The entire arterythe wall is assumed as linearly elastic, and blood flow is modeled as a Newtonian, viscous, steady, incompressible, laminar, biomagnetic fluid. Methods: An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique is employed to formulate the hemodynamic flow in a bifurcated artery under the effect of the asymmetric magnetic field by two-way Fluid-structure interaction coupling. A stable P2P1 finite element pair is used to discretize thenonlinear system of partial differential equations. The resulting nonlinear system of algebraic equations is solved by the Newton Raphson method. Results: The numerical results for displacement, velocity magnitude, pressure, and wall shear stresses for Reynolds numbers, Re = 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, in the presence of magnetic fields are presented graphically. Conclusions: The numerical results show that the presence of the magnetic field influences the displacement and flows velocity magnitude considerably. The magnetic field reduces the flow separation, recirculation area adjacent to stenosis and gives rise to wall shear stress.

Keywords: bifurcation, elastic walls, finite element, wall shear stress,

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6893 Comparison of Numerical Results of Lambda Wing under Different Turbulence Models and Wall Y+

Authors: Hsien Hao Teng

Abstract:

This study uses numerical simulation to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of the 53-degree Lambda wing with a sweep angle and mainly discusses the numerical simulation results and physical characteristics of the wall y+. Use the commercial software Fluent to execute Mach number 0.15; when the angle of attack attitude is between 0 degrees and 27 degrees, the physical characteristics of the overall aerodynamic force are analyzed, especially when the fluid separation and vortex structure changes are discussed under the condition of high angle of attack, it will affect The instability of pitching moment. In the numerical calculation, the use of wall y+ and turbulence model will affect the prediction of vortex generation and the difference in structure. The analysis results are compared with experimental data to discuss the trend of the aerodynamic characteristics of the Lambda wing.

Keywords: lambda wing, wall function, turbulence model, computational fluid dynamics

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6892 High Strain Rate Behavior of Harmonic Structure Designed Pure Nickel: Mechanical Characterization Microstructure Analysis and 3D Modelisation

Authors: D. Varadaradjou, H. Kebir, J. Mespoulet, D. Tingaud, S. Bouvier, P. Deconick, K. Ameyama, G. Dirras

Abstract:

The development of new architecture metallic alloys with controlled microstructures is one of the strategic ways for designing materials with high innovation potential and, particularly, with improved mechanical properties as required for structural materials. Indeed, unlike conventional counterparts, metallic materials having so-called harmonic structure displays strength and ductility synergy. The latter occurs due to a unique microstructure design: a coarse grain structure surrounded by a 3D continuous network of ultra-fine grain known as “core” and “shell,” respectively. In the present study, pure harmonic-structured (HS) Nickel samples were processed via controlled mechanical milling and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The present work aims at characterizing the mechanical properties of HS pure Nickel under room temperature dynamic loading through a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test and the underlying microstructure evolution. A stopper ring was used to maintain the strain at a fixed value of about 20%. Five samples (named B1 to B5) were impacted using different striker bar velocities from 14 m/s to 28 m/s, yielding strain rate in the range 4000-7000 s-1. Results were considered until a 10% deformation value, which is the deformation threshold for the constant strain rate assumption. The non-deformed (INIT – post-SPS process) and post-SHPB microstructure (B1 to B5) were investigated by EBSD. It was observed that while the strain rate is increased, the average grain size within the core decreases. An in-depth analysis of grains and grain boundaries was made to highlight the thermal (such as dynamic recrystallization) or mechanical (such as grains fragmentation by dislocation) contribution within the “core” and “shell.” One of the most widely used methods for determining the dynamic behavior of materials is the SHPB technique developed by Kolsky. A 3D simulation of the SHPB test was created through ABAQUS in dynamic explicit. This 3D simulation allows taking into account all modes of vibration. An inverse approach was used to identify the material parameters from the equation of Johnson-Cook (JC) by minimizing the difference between the numerical and experimental data. The JC’s parameters were identified using B1 and B5 samples configurations. Predictively, identified parameters of JC’s equation shows good result for the other sample configuration. Furthermore, mean rise of temperature within the harmonic Nickel sample can be obtained through ABAQUS and show an elevation of about 35°C for all fives samples. At this temperature, a thermal mechanism cannot be activated. Therefore, grains fragmentation within the core is mainly due to mechanical phenomena for a fixed final strain of 20%.

Keywords: 3D simulation, fragmentation, harmonic structure, high strain rate, Johnson-cook model, microstructure

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6891 Microstructure and Mechanical Evaluation of PMMA/Al₂O₃ Nanocomposite Fabricated via Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Reham K. El Sawah, N. S. M. El-Tayeb

Abstract:

This study aims to produce a polymer matrix composite reinforced with Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in order to enhance the mechanical properties of PMMA. The composite was fabricated via Friction stir processing to ensure homogenous dispersion of Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in the polymer, and the processing was submerged to prevent the sputtering of nanoparticles. The surface quality, microstructure, impact energy and hardness of the prepared samples were investigated. Good surface quality and dispersion of nanoparticles were attained through employing sufficient processing conditions. The experimental results indicated that as the percentage of nanoparticles increased, the impact energy and hardness increased, reaching 2 kJ/m2 and 14.7 HV at a nanoparticle concentration of 25%, which means that the toughness and the hardness of the polymer-ceramic produced composite is higher than unprocessed PMMA by 66% and 33% respectively.

Keywords: friction stir processing, polymer matrix nanocomposite, mechanical properties, microstructure

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6890 Determination of the Toxicity of a Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in vitro

Authors: Agatha Bebbington, Terry Tetley, Kathryn Hadler

Abstract:

Background: Astronauts will set foot on the Moon later this decade, and are at high risk of lunar dust inhalation. Freshly-fractured lunar dust produces reactive oxygen species in solution, which are known to cause cellular damage and inflammation. Cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release was measured in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (cells that line the gas-exchange zone of the lung) exposed to a lunar dust simulant, LMS-1. It was hypothesised that freshly-fractured LMS-1 would result in increased cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release, owing to the angular morphology and high reactivity of fractured particles. Methods: A human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cell line (TT1) and a human macrophage-like cell line (THP-1) were exposed to 0-200μg/ml of unground, aged-ground, and freshly-ground LMS-1 (screened at <22μm). Cell viability, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, IL-8) were assessed using MMT, LDH, and ELISA assays, respectively. LMS-1 particles were characterised for their size, surface area, and morphology before and after grinding. Results: Exposure to LMS-1 particles did not result in overt cytotoxicity in either TT1 epithelial cells or THP-1 macrophage-like cells. A dose-dependent increase in IL-8 release was observed in TT1 cells, whereas THP-1 cell exposure, even at low particle concentrations, resulted in increased IL-8 release. Both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory responses were most marked and significantly greater in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to freshly-fractured LMS-1. Discussion: LMS-1 is a novel lunar dust simulant; this is the first study to determine its toxicological effects on respiratory cells in vitro. An increased inflammatory response in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to ground LMS-1 suggests that low particle size, increased surface area, and angularity likely contribute to toxicity. Conclusions: Evenlow levels of exposure to LMS-1 could result in alveolar inflammation. This may have pathological consequences for astronauts exposed to lunar dust on future long-duration missions. Future research should test the effect of low-dose, intermittent lunar dust exposure on the respiratory system.

Keywords: lunar dust, LMS-1, lunar dust simulant, long-duration space travel, lunar dust toxicity

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6889 Comparison of Wake Oscillator Models to Predict Vortex-Induced Vibration of Tall Chimneys

Authors: Saba Rahman, Arvind K. Jain, S. D. Bharti, T. K. Datta

Abstract:

The present study compares the semi-empirical wake-oscillator models that are used to predict vortex-induced vibration of structures. These models include those proposed by Facchinetti, Farshidian, and Dolatabadi, and Skop and Griffin. These models combine a wake oscillator model resembling the Van der Pol oscillator model and a single degree of freedom oscillation model. In order to use these models for estimating the top displacement of chimneys, the first mode vibration of the chimneys is only considered. The modal equation of the chimney constitutes the single degree of freedom model (SDOF). The equations of the wake oscillator model and the SDOF are simultaneously solved using an iterative procedure. The empirical parameters used in the wake-oscillator models are estimated using a newly developed approach, and response is compared with experimental data, which appeared comparable. For carrying out the iterative solution, the ode solver of MATLAB is used. To carry out the comparative study, a tall concrete chimney of height 210m has been chosen with the base diameter as 28m, top diameter as 20m, and thickness as 0.3m. The responses of the chimney are also determined using the linear model proposed by E. Simiu and the deterministic model given in Eurocode. It is observed from the comparative study that the responses predicted by the Facchinetti model and the model proposed by Skop and Griffin are nearly the same, while the model proposed by Fashidian and Dolatabadi predicts a higher response. The linear model without considering the aero-elastic phenomenon provides a less response as compared to the non-linear models. Further, for large damping, the prediction of the response by the Euro code is relatively well compared to those of non-linear models.

Keywords: chimney, deterministic model, van der pol, vortex-induced vibration

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6888 Determination of Foaming Behavior in thermoplastic Composite Nonwoven Structures for Automotive Applications

Authors: Zulfiye Ahan, Mustafa Dogu, Elcin Yilmaz

Abstract:

The use of nonwoven textile materials in many application areas is rapidly increasing thanks to their versatile performance properties. The automotive industry is one of the largest sectors in the world, with a potential market of more than 2 billion euros for nonwoven textile materials applications. Lightweight materials having higher mechanical performance, better sound and heat insulation properties are of interest in many applications. Since the usage of nonwoven surfaces provides many of these advantages, the demand for this kind of material is gradually growing, especially in the automotive industry. Nonwoven materials used in lightweight vehicles can contain economical and high strength thermoplastics as well as durable components such as glass fiber. By bringing these composite materials into foam structure containing micro or nanopores, products with high absorption ability, light and mechanically stronger can be fabricated. In this respect, our goal is to produce thermoplastic composite nonwoven by using nonwoven glass fiber fabric reinforced polypropylene (PP). Azodicarbonamide (ADC) was selected as a foaming agent, and a thermal process was applied to obtain a porous structure. Various foaming temperature ranges and residence times were studied to examine the foaming behaviour of the thermoplastic composite nonwoven. Physicochemical and mechanical tests were applied in order to analyze the characteristics of composite foams.

Keywords: composite nonwoven, thermoplastic foams, foaming agent, foaming behavior

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6887 Enhancement of Interface Properties of Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: Reyhan Ozbask, Emek Moroydor Derin, Mustafa Dogu

Abstract:

There are a limited number of global companies in the world that manufacture and commercially offer thermoplastic composite prepregs in accordance with aerospace requirements. High-performance thermoplastic materials supplied for aerospace structural applications are PEEK (polyetheretherketone), PPS (polyphenylsulfite), PEI (polyetherimide), and PEKK (polyetherketoneketone). Among these, PEEK is the raw material used in the first applications and has started to become widespread. However, the use of these thermoplastic raw materials in composite production is very difficult due to their high processing temperatures and impregnation difficulties. This study, it is aimed to develop carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic PEEK composites that comply with the requirements of the aviation industry that are superior mechanical properties as well as being lightweight. Therefore, it is aimed to obtain high-performance thermoplastic composite materials with improved interface properties by using the sizing method (suspension development through chemical synthesis and functionalization), to optimize the production process. The use of boron nitride nanotube as a bonding agent by modifying its surface constitutes the original aspect of the study as it has not been used in composite production with high-performance thermoplastic materials yet. For this purpose, laboratory-scale studies on the application of thermoplastic compatible sizing will be carried out in order to increase the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion. The method respectively consists of the selection of appropriate sizing type, laboratory-scale carbon fiber (CF) / poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) polymer interface enhancement studies, manufacturing of laboratory-scale BNNT coated CF/PEEK woven prepreg composites and their tests.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced composite, interface enhancement, boron nitride nanotube, thermoplastic composite

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6886 Determination of Foaming Behavior in Thermoplastic Composite Nonwoven Structures for Automotive Applications

Authors: Zulfiye Ahan, Mustafa Dogu, Elcin Yilmaz

Abstract:

The use of nonwoven textile materials in many application areas is rapidly increasing thanks to their versatile performance properties. The automotive industry is one of the largest sectors in the world with a potential market of more than 2 billion euros for nonwoven textile materials applications. Lightweight materials having higher mechanical performance, better sound and heat insulation properties are of interest in many applications. Since the usage of nonwoven surfaces provides many of these advantages, the demand for this kind of materials is gradually growing especially in the automotive industry. Nonwoven materials used in lightweight vehicles can contain economical and high strength thermoplastics as well as durable components such as glass fiber. By bringing these composite materials into foam structure containing micro or nanopores, products with high absorption ability, light and mechanically stronger can be fabricated. In this respect, our goal is to produce thermoplastic composite nonwoven by using nonwoven glass fiber fabric reinforced polypropylene (PP). Azodicarbonamide (ADC) was selected as a foaming agent and a thermal process was applied to obtain porous structure. Various foaming temperature ranges and residence times were studied to examine the foaming behaviour of the thermoplastic composite nonwoven. Physicochemical and mechanical tests were applied in order to analyze the characteristics of composite foams.

Keywords: composite nonwoven, thermoplastic foams, foaming agent, foaming behavior

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6885 The Reliability Analysis of Concrete Chimneys Due to Random Vortex Shedding

Authors: Saba Rahman, Arvind K. Jain, S. D. Bharti, T. K. Datta

Abstract:

Chimneys are generally tall and slender structures with circular cross-sections, due to which they are highly prone to wind forces. Wind exerts pressure on the wall of the chimneys, which produces unwanted forces. Vortex-induced oscillation is one of such excitations which can lead to the failure of the chimneys. Therefore, vortex-induced oscillation of chimneys is of great concern to researchers and practitioners since many failures of chimneys due to vortex shedding have occurred in the past. As a consequence, extensive research has taken place on the subject over decades. Many laboratory experiments have been performed to verify the theoretical models proposed to predict vortex-induced forces, including aero-elastic effects. Comparatively, very few proto-type measurement data have been recorded to verify the proposed theoretical models. Because of this reason, the theoretical models developed with the help of experimental laboratory data are utilized for analyzing the chimneys for vortex-induced forces. This calls for reliability analysis of the predictions of the responses of the chimneys produced due to vortex shedding phenomena. Although several works of literature exist on the vortex-induced oscillation of chimneys, including code provisions, the reliability analysis of chimneys against failure caused due to vortex shedding is scanty. In the present study, the reliability analysis of chimneys against vortex shedding failure is presented, assuming the uncertainty in vortex shedding phenomena to be significantly more than other uncertainties, and hence, the latter is ignored. The vortex shedding is modeled as a stationary random process and is represented by a power spectral density function (PSDF). It is assumed that the vortex shedding forces are perfectly correlated and act over the top one-third height of the chimney. The PSDF of the tip displacement of the chimney is obtained by performing a frequency domain spectral analysis using a matrix approach. For this purpose, both chimney and random wind forces are discretized over a number of points along with the height of the chimney. The method of analysis duly accounts for the aero-elastic effects. The double barrier threshold crossing level, as proposed by Vanmarcke, is used for determining the probability of crossing different threshold levels of the tip displacement of the chimney. Assuming the annual distribution of the mean wind velocity to be a Gumbel type-I distribution, the fragility curve denoting the variation of the annual probability of threshold crossing against different threshold levels of the tip displacement of the chimney is determined. The reliability estimate is derived from the fragility curve. A 210m tall concrete chimney with a base diameter of 35m, top diameter as 21m, and thickness as 0.3m has been taken as an illustrative example. The terrain condition is assumed to be that corresponding to the city center. The expression for the PSDF of the vortex shedding force is taken to be used by Vickery and Basu. The results of the study show that the threshold crossing reliability of the tip displacement of the chimney is significantly influenced by the assumed structural damping and the Gumbel distribution parameters. Further, the aero-elastic effect influences the reliability estimate to a great extent for small structural damping.

Keywords: chimney, fragility curve, reliability analysis, vortex-induced vibration

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6884 Aerodynamic Analysis and Design of Banners for Remote-Controlled Aircraft

Authors: Peyman Honarmandi, Mazen Alhirsh

Abstract:

Banner towing is a major form of advertisement. It consists of a banner showing a logo or a selection of words or letters being towed by an aircraft. Traditionally bush planes have been used to tow banners given their high thrust capabilities; however, with the development of remote-controlled (RC) aircraft, they could be a good replacement as RC planes mitigate the risk of human life and can be easier to operate. This paper studies the best banner design to be towed by an RC aircraft. This is done by conducting wind tunnel testing on an array of banners with different materials and designs. A pull gauge is used to record the drag force during testing, which is then used to calculate the coefficient of drag, Cd. The testing results show that the best banner design would be a hybrid design with a solid and mesh material. The design with the lowest Cd of 0.082 was a half ripstop nylon half polyester mesh design. On the other hand, the design with the highest Cd of 0.305 involved incorporating a tail chute to decrease fluttering.

Keywords: aerodynamics of banner, banner design, banner towing, drag coefficients of banner, RC aircraft banner

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6883 Resolution and Experimental Validation of the Asymptotic Model of a Viscous Laminar Supersonic Flow around a Thin Airfoil

Authors: Eddegdag Nasser, Naamane Azzeddine, Radouani Mohammed, Ensam Meknes

Abstract:

In this study, we are interested in the asymptotic modeling of the two-dimensional stationary supersonic flow of a viscous compressible fluid around wing airfoil. The aim of this article is to solve the partial differential equations of the flow far from the leading edge and near the wall using the triple-deck technique is what brought again in precision according to the principle of least degeneration. In order to validate our theoretical model, these obtained results will be compared with the experimental results. The comparison of the results of our model with experimentation has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the obtained experimental results. The experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel and a NACA Reduced airfoil model with two pressure Taps on extrados. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream supersonic Mach number over a dissymmetric NACA airfoil wing. The validation and the accuracy of the results support our model.

Keywords: supersonic, viscous, triple deck technique, asymptotic methods, AF300 supersonic wind tunnel, reduced airfoil model

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6882 Exploring the History of Chinese Music Acoustic Technology through Data Fluctuations

Authors: Yang Yang, Lu Xin

Abstract:

The study of extant musical sites can provide a side-by-side picture of historical ethnomusicological information. In their data collection on Chinese opera houses, researchers found that one Ming Dynasty opera house reached a width of nearly 18 meters, while all opera houses of the same period and after it was far from such a width, being significantly smaller than 18 meters. The historical transient fluctuations in the data dimension of width that caused Chinese theatres to fluctuate in the absence of construction scale constraints have piqued the interest of researchers as to why there is data variation in width. What factors have contributed to the lack of further expansion in the width of theatres? To address this question, this study used a comparative approach to conduct a venue experiment between this theater stage and another theater stage for non-heritage opera performances, collecting the subjective perceptions of performers and audiences at different theater stages, as well as combining BK Connect platform software to measure data such as echo and delay. From the subjective and objective results, it is inferred that the Chinese ancients discovered and understood the acoustical phenomenon of the Haas effect by exploring the effect of stage width on musical performance and appreciation of listening states during the Ming Dynasty and utilized this discovery to serve music in subsequent stage construction. This discovery marked a node of evolution in Chinese architectural acoustics technology driven by musical demands. It is also instructive to note that, in contrast to many of the world's "unsuccessful civilizations," China can use a combination of heritage and intangible cultural research to chart a clear, demand-driven course for the evolution of human music technology, and that the findings of such research will complete the course of human exploration of music acoustics. The findings of such research will complete the journey of human exploration of music acoustics, and this practical experience can be applied to the exploration and understanding of other musical heritage base data.

Keywords: Haas effect, musical acoustics, history of acoustical technology, Chinese opera stage, structure

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6881 Modelling tyre rubber materials for high frequency FE analysis

Authors: Bharath Anantharamaiah, Tomas Bouda, Elke Deckers, Stijn Jonckheere, Wim Desmet, Juan J. Garcia

Abstract:

Automotive tyres are gaining importance recently in terms of their noise emission, not only with respect to reduction in noise, but also their perception and detection. Tyres exhibit a mechanical noise generation mechanism up to 1 kHz. However, owing to the fact that tyre is a composite of several materials, it has been difficult to model it using finite elements to predict noise at high frequencies. The currently available FE models have a reliability of about 500 Hz, the limit which, however, is not enough to perceive the roughness or sharpness of noise from tyre. These noise components are important in order to alert pedestrians on the street about passing by slow, especially electric vehicles. In order to model tyre noise behaviour up to 1 kHz, its dynamic behaviour must be accurately developed up to a 1 kHz limit using finite elements. Materials play a vital role in modelling the dynamic tyre behaviour precisely. Since tyre is a composition of several components, their precise definition in finite element simulations is necessary. However, during the tyre manufacturing process, these components are subjected to various pressures and temperatures, due to which these properties could change. Hence, material definitions are better described based on the tyre responses. In this work, the hyperelasticity of tyre component rubbers is calibrated, using the design of experiments technique from the tyre characteristic responses that are measured on a stiffness measurement machine. The viscoelasticity of rubbers are defined by the Prony series for rubbers, which are determined from the loss factor relationship between the loss and storage moduli, assuming that the rubbers are excited within the linear viscoelasticity ranges. These values of loss factor are measured and theoretically expressed as a function of rubber shore hardness or hyperelasticities. From the results of the work, there exists a good correlation between test and simulation vibrational transfer function up to 1 kHz. The model also allows flexibility, i.e., the frequency limit can also be extended, if required, by calibrating the Prony parameters of rubbers corresponding to the frequency of interest. As future work, these tyre models are used for noise generation at high frequencies and thus for tyre noise perception.

Keywords: tyre dynamics, rubber materials, prony series, hyperelasticity

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6880 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

Abstract:

This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

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6879 Design & Development of a Static-Thrust Test-Bench for Aviation/UAV Based Piston Engines

Authors: Syed Muhammad Basit Ali, Usama Saleem, Irtiza Ali

Abstract:

Internal combustion engines have been pioneers in the aviation industry, use of piston engines for aircraft propulsion, from propeller-driven bi-planes to turbo-prop, commercial, and cargo airliners. To provide an adequate amount of thrust piston engine rotates the propeller at a specific rpm, allowing enough mass airflow. Thrust is the only forward-acting force of an aircraft that helps heavier than air bodies to fly, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Test-benches have been a bench-mark in the aerospace industry to analyse the results before a flight, having paramount significance in reliability and safety engineering, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Calculation of thrust from a piston engine also depends on environmental changes, the diameter of the propeller, and the density of air. The project would be centered on piston engines used in the aviation industry for light aircraft and UAVs. A static thrust test bench involves various units, each performing a designed purpose to monitor and display. Static thrust tests are performed on the ground, and safety concerns hold paramount importance. The execution of this study involves research, design, manufacturing, and results based on reverse engineering initiating from virtual design, analytical analysis, and simulations. The final evaluation of results gathered from various methods such as co-relation between conventional mass-spring and digital loadcell. On average, we received 17.5kg of thrust (25+ engine run-ups – around 40 hours of engine run), only 10% deviation from analytically calculated thrust –providing 90% accuracy.

Keywords: aviation, aeronautics, static thrust, test bench, aircraft maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
6878 Real Time Data Communication with FlightGear Using Simulink Over a UDP Protocol

Authors: Adil Loya, Ali Haider, Arslan A. Ghaffor, Abubaker Siddique

Abstract:

Simulation and modelling of Unmanned Aero Vehicle (UAV) has gained wide popularity in front of aerospace community. The demand of designing and modelling optimized control system for UAV has increased ten folds since last decade. The reason is next generation warfare is dependent on unmanned technologies. Therefore, this research focuses on the simulation of nonlinear UAV dynamics on Simulink and its integration with Flightgear. There has been lots of research on implementation of optimizing control using Simulink, however, there are fewer known techniques to simulate these dynamics over Flightgear and a tedious technique of acquiring data has been tackled in this research horizon. Sending data to Flightgear is easy but receiving it from Simulink is not that straight forward, i.e. we can only receive control data on the output. However, in this research we have managed to get the data out from the Flightgear by implementation of level 2 s-function block within Simulink. Moreover, the results captured from Flightgear over a Universal Datagram Protocol (UDP) communication are then compared with the attitude signal that were sent previously. This provide useful information regarding the difference in outputs attained from Simulink to Flightgear. It was found that values received on Simulink were in high agreement with that of the Flightgear output. And complete study has been conducted in a discrete way.

Keywords: aerospace, flight control, flightgear, communication, Simulink

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6877 Complex Cooling Approach in Microchannel Heat Exchangers Using Solid and Hollow Fins

Authors: Nahum Yustus Godi

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical optimisation of combined microchannels with constructal solid, half hollow, and hollow circular fins is documented in this paper. The technique seeks to minimize peak temperature in the entire volume of the microchannel heat sink. The volume and axial length were all fixed, while the width of the microchannel could morph. High-density heat flux was applied at the bottom wall of the microchannel. The coolant employed to remove the heat deposited at the bottom surface of the microchannel was a single-phase fluid (water) in a forced convection laminar condition, and heat transfer was a conjugate problem. The unit cell symmetrical computation domain was discretised, and governing equations were solved using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The results reveal that the combined microchannel with hollow circular fins and solid fins performed better at different Reynolds numbers. The numerical study was validated for the single microchannel without fins and found to be in good agreement with previous studies.

Keywords: constructal fins, complex heat exchangers, cooling technique, numerical optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
6876 Lifting Body Concepts for Unmanned Fixed-Wing Transport Aircrafts

Authors: Anand R. Nair, Markus Trenker

Abstract:

Lifting body concepts were conceived as early as 1917 and patented by Roy Scroggs. It was an idea of using the fuselage as a lift producing body with no or small wings. Many of these designs were developed and even flight tested between 1920’s to 1970’s, but it was not pursued further for commercial flight as at lower airspeeds, such a configuration was incapable to produce sufficient lift for the entire aircraft. The concept presented in this contribution is combining the lifting body design along with a fixed wing to maximise the lift produced by the aircraft. Conventional aircraft fuselages are designed to be aerodynamically efficient, which is to minimise the drag; however, these fuselages produce very minimal or negligible lift. For the design of an unmanned fixed wing transport aircraft, many of the restrictions which are present for commercial aircraft in terms of fuselage design can be excluded, such as windows for the passengers/pilots, cabin-environment systems, emergency exits, and pressurization systems. This gives new flexibility to design fuselages which are unconventionally shaped to contribute to the lift of the aircraft. The two lifting body concepts presented in this contribution are targeting different applications: For a fast cargo delivery drone, the fuselage is based on a scaled airfoil shape with a cargo capacity of 500 kg for euro pallets. The aircraft has a span of 14 m and reaches 1500 km at a cruising speed of 90 m/s. The aircraft could also easily be adapted to accommodate pilot and passengers with modifications to the internal structures, but pressurization is not included as the service ceiling envisioned for this type of aircraft is limited to 10,000 ft. The next concept to be investigated is called a multi-purpose drone, which incorporates a different type of lifting body and is a much more versatile aircraft as it will have a VTOL capability. The aircraft will have a wingspan of approximately 6 m and flight speeds of 60 m/s within the same service ceiling as the fast cargo delivery drone. The multi-purpose drone can be easily adapted for various applications such as firefighting, agricultural purposes, surveillance, and even passenger transport. Lifting body designs are not a new concept, but their effectiveness in terms of cargo transportation has not been widely investigated. Due to their enhanced lift producing capability, lifting body designs enable the reduction of the wing area and the overall weight of the aircraft. This will, in turn, reduce the thrust requirement and ultimately the fuel consumption. The various designs proposed in this contribution will be based on the general aviation category of aircrafts and will be focussed on unmanned methods of operation. These unmanned fixed-wing transport drones will feature appropriate cargo loading/unloading concepts which can accommodate large size cargo for efficient time management and ease of operation. The various designs will be compared in performance to their conventional counterpart to understand their benefits/shortcomings in terms of design, performance, complexity, and ease of operation. The majority of the performance analysis will be carried out using industry relevant standards in computational fluid dynamics software packages.

Keywords: lifting body concept, computational fluid dynamics, unmanned fixed-wing aircraft, cargo drone

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6875 Study of Effect of Steering Column Orientation and Operator Platform Position on the Hand Vibration in Compactors

Authors: Sunil Bandaru, Suresh Yv, Srinivas Vanapalli

Abstract:

Heavy machinery especially compactors has more vibrations induced from the compactor mechanism than the engines. Since the operator’s comfort is most important in any of the machines, this paper shows interest in studying the vibrations on the steering wheel for a double drum compactor. As there are no standard procedures available for testing vibrations on the steering wheel of double drum compactors, this paper tries to evaluate the vibrations on the steering wheel by considering most of the possibilities. In addition to the feasibility for the operator to adjust the steering wheel tilt as in the case of automotive, there is an option for the operator to change the orientation of the operator platform for the complete view of the road’s edge on both the ends of the front and rear drums. When the orientation is either +/-180°, the operator will be closer to the compactor mechanism; also there is a possibility for the shuffle in the modes with respect to the operator. Hence it is mandatory to evaluate the vibrations levels in both cases. This paper attempts to evaluate the vibrations on the steering wheel by considering the two operator platform positions and three steering wheel tilting angles.

Keywords: FEA, CAE, steering column, steering column orientation position

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
6874 Analysis of Rock Cutting Progress with a New Axe-Shaped PDC Cutter to Improve PDC Bit Performance in Elastoplastic Formation

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have occupied a large market of unconventional oil and gas drilling. The application of PDC bits benefits from the efficient rock breaking of PDC cutters. In response to increasingly complex formations, many shaped cutters have been invited, but many of them have not been solved by the mechanism of rock breaking. In this paper, two kinds of PDC cutters: a new axe-shaped (NAS) cutter and cylindrical cutter (benchmark) were studied by laboratory experiments. NAS cutter is obtained by optimizing two sides of axe-shaped cutter with curved surfaces. All the cutters were put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests. According to the cutting distance, the VTL tests can be divided into two modes: single-turn rotary cutting and continuous cutting. The cutting depth of cutting (DOC) was set at 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm in the former mode. The later mode includes a dry VTL test for thermal stability and a wet VTL test for wear resistance. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively. Based on the findings of the single-turn rotary cutting VTL tests, the performance of A NAS cutter was better than the benchmark cutter on elastoplastic material cutting. The cutting forces (normal forces, tangential force, and radial force) and special mechanical energy (MSE) of a NAS cutter were lower than that of the benchmark cutter under the same condition. It meant that a NAS cutter was more efficient on elastoplastic material breaking. However, the wear resistance of a new axe-shaped cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The results of the dry VTL test showed that the thermal stability of a NAS cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The cutting efficiency can be improved by optimizing the geometric structure of the PDC cutter. The change of thermal stability may be caused by the decrease of the contact area between cutter and rock at given DOC. The conclusions of this paper can be used as an important reference for PDC cutters designers.

Keywords: axe-shaped cutter, PDC cutter, rotary cutting test, vertical turret lathe

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
6873 Effect of Gas Boundary Layer on the Stability of a Radially Expanding Liquid Sheet

Authors: Soumya Kedia, Puja Agarwala, Mahesh Tirumkudulu

Abstract:

Linear stability analysis is performed for a radially expanding liquid sheet in the presence of a gas medium. A liquid sheet can break up because of the aerodynamic effect as well as its thinning. However, the study of the aforementioned effects is usually done separately as the formulation becomes complicated and is difficult to solve. Present work combines both, aerodynamic effect and thinning effect, ignoring the non-linearity in the system. This is done by taking into account the formation of the gas boundary layer whilst neglecting viscosity in the liquid phase. Axisymmetric flow is assumed for simplicity. Base state analysis results in a Blasius-type system which can be solved numerically. Perturbation theory is then applied to study the stability of the liquid sheet, where the gas-liquid interface is subjected to small deformations. The linear model derived here can be applied to investigate the instability for sinuous as well as varicose modes, where the former represents displacement in the centerline of the sheet and the latter represents modulation in sheet thickness. Temporal instability analysis is performed for sinuous modes, which are significantly more unstable than varicose modes, for a fixed radial distance implying local stability analysis. The growth rates, measured for fixed wavenumbers, predicated by the present model are significantly lower than those obtained by the inviscid Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and compare better with experimental results. Thus, the present theory gives better insight into understanding the stability of a thin liquid sheet.

Keywords: boundary layer, gas-liquid interface, linear stability, thin liquid sheet

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6872 Towards Human-Interpretable, Automated Learning of Feedback Control for the Mixing Layer

Authors: Hao Li, Guy Y. Cornejo Maceda, Yiqing Li, Jianguo Tan, Marek Morzynski, Bernd R. Noack

Abstract:

We propose an automated analysis of the flow control behaviour from an ensemble of control laws and associated time-resolved flow snapshots. The input may be the rich database of machine learning control (MLC) optimizing a feedback law for a cost function in the plant. The proposed methodology provides (1) insights into the control landscape, which maps control laws to performance, including extrema and ridge-lines, (2) a catalogue of representative flow states and their contribution to cost function for investigated control laws and (3) visualization of the dynamics. Key enablers are classification and feature extraction methods of machine learning. The analysis is successfully applied to the stabilization of a mixing layer with sensor-based feedback driving an upstream actuator. The fluctuation energy is reduced by 26%. The control replaces unforced Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices with subsequent vortex pairing by higher-frequency Kelvin-Helmholtz structures of lower energy. These efforts target a human interpretable, fully automated analysis of MLC identifying qualitatively different actuation regimes, distilling corresponding coherent structures, and developing a digital twin of the plant.

Keywords: machine learning control, mixing layer, feedback control, model-free control

Procedia PDF Downloads 70