Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 72555
Acute Renal Failure Associated Tetanus Infection: A Case Report from Afghanistan

Authors: Shohra Qaderi

Abstract:

Introduction: Tetanus is a severe infection characterized by the spasm of skeletal muscles that often progresses toward respiratory failure. Acute Renal failure (ARF) is an important complication associated Tetanus infection, occurring in 15%-39% of cases. Presentation of cases: A previous healthy 14-year-old boy was admitted to the Tetanus ward of a hospital in Kabul, presenting with severe muscle spasms. On day four of admission, he started having cola-colored urine with decreased urine output. Due to lack of peritoneal dialysis, he went under hemodialysis in view of rapidly raising in blood urea (from baseline 32 mg/dl to 150 mg/dl) and creatinine from (baseline 0.9 mg/dl to 6.2g/dl). Despite all efforts, he had a sudden cardiac arrest and passed away on day 6 of admission. Discussion: ARF is a complication of tetanus, reported to be mild and non-oliguric. Suggested pathological mechanisms include autonomic dysfunction and rhabdomyolysis, owing to uncontrolled muscle spasms. Autonomic dysfunction, most evident in the first two weeks of infection. Conclusion: The prevalence and mortality of tetanus is high in Afghanistan. Physicians and pediatricians need to be aware of this complication of tetanus so as to take appropriate preventive measures and recognize and manage it early.

Keywords: afghanistan, acute renal failure, child, mortality

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